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Atmospheric BTEX compounds(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain(NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations(25.8–236.0 μg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer’s house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5–1552.9 μg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene(1.17 ± 0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers’ incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention.  相似文献
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Air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continually measured at a monitoring site in Shenyang from 20 August to 16 September 2017. The average concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and carbonyls were 28.54, 6.30, 5.59 and 9.78 ppbv, respectively. Seven sources were identified by the Positive Matrix Factorization model based on the measurement data of VOCs and CO. Vehicle exhaust contributed the most (36.15%) to the total propene-equivalent concentration of the measured VOCs, followed by combustion emission (16.92%), vegetation emission and secondary formation (14.33%), solvent usage (10.59%), petrochemical industry emission (9.89%), petrol evaporation (6.28%), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage (5.84%). Vehicle exhaust, solvent usage and combustion emission were found to be the top three VOC sources for O3 formation potential, accounting for 34.52%, 16.55% and 11.94%, respectively. The diurnal variation of the total VOCs from each source could be well explained by their emission characteristics, e.g., the two peaks of VOC concentrations from LPG usage were in line with the cooking times for breakfast and lunch. Wind rose plots of the VOCs from each source could reveal the possible distribution of the sources around the monitoring site. The O3 pollution episodes during the measurement period were found to be coincident with the elevation of VOCs, which was mainly due to the air parcel from the southeast direction where petrochemical industry emission was found to be dominant, suggesting that the petrochemical industry emission from the southeast was probably a significant cause of O3 pollution in Shenyang.  相似文献
3.
Nitrogen dioxide(NO_2)is an important substance in atmospheric photochemical processes and can also be absorbed by plants.N02 fluxes between the atmosphere and P.nigrc seedlings were investigated by a double dynamic chambers method in Beijing from June 15to September 3,2017.The range of N02 exchange fluxes between P.nigra seedlings and the atmosphere was from-14.6 to 0.8 nmol/(m~2.sec)(the positive data represent N02 emissior from trees,while the negative values indicate absorption).Under ambient concentrations the mean NO_2 flux during the fast-growing stage(Jun.15-Aug.4)was-3.0 nmol/(m2·sec)greater than the flux of-1.5 nmol/(m2-sec)during the later growth stage(Aug.8-Sept.3)The daily exchange fluxes of NO_2 obviously fluctuated.The fluxes were largest in the morning and decreased gradually over time.Additionally,the N02 fluxes were larger undei high light intensities than under low light intensities during the whole growth period.The effects of temperature on N02 fluxes were different under two growth periods.The NO_2exchange fluxes were larger in a range of temperatures close to 44℃in the fast-growing stage,whereas there were no evident differences in N02 exchange fluxes under widel differing temperatures in the later growth stage.Under polluted conditions,the uptake ability of N02 was weakened.Additionally,the compensation point of N02 was 5.6 ppb ir the fast-growing stage,whereas it was 1.4 ppb in the later growth stage.The depositior velocities of NO_2 were between 0.3 and 2.4 mm/sec.  相似文献
4.
The efficient maintenance of the activity of excised branches is the powerful guarantee to accurately determine gas exchange flux between the detached branches of tall trees and the atmosphere. In this study, the net photosynthetic rate (NPR) of the excised branches and branches in situ were measured simultaneously by using two photosynthetic instruments to characterize the activity of the excised branches of Phyllostachys nigra. The ratio of normalized NPR of excised branches to NPR in situ was used to assess the photosynthetic activity of detached branches. Based on photosynthetic activity, an optimal hydroponics protocol for maintaining activity of excised P. nigra branches was presented: 1/8 times the concentration of Gamborg B5 vitamin mixture with pH = 6. Under the best cultivation protocol, photosynthetic activity of excised P. nigra branches could be maintained more than 90% within 6 hr in the light intensity range of 200–2000 μmol/(m2·sec) and temperature range of 13.4–28.7°C. The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) flux differences between in situ and in vitro branches and the atmosphere were compared using double dynamic chambers. Based on the maintenance method of excised branches, the NO2 exchange flux between the excised P. nigra branches and the atmosphere (from −1.01 to −2.72 nmol/(m2·sec) was basically consistent with between the branches in situ and the atmosphere (from −1.12 to −3.16 nmol/(m2 sec)) within 6 hr. Therefore, this study provided a feasible protocol for in vitro measurement of gas exchange between tall trees and the atmosphere for a period of time.  相似文献
5.
Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was intensively studied in the water from the Aohai Lake of Beijing city. The lake water was found to be highly supersaturated with COS, CS2 and DMS, with their initial concentrations of 0.91 ± 0.073 nmol/L, 0.55 ± 0.071 nmol/L and 0.37 ± 0.062 nmol/L, respectively. The evident photochemical production of COS and CS2 in the lake water under irradiation of 365 nm and 302 nm indicated that photochemical production of them might be the reason for their supersaturation. The similar dependence of wavelength and oxygen for photochemical production of COS, CS2 and DMS implied that they might be from the same precursors. The water cage effect was found to favor COS production but inhibit CS2 and DMS formation, indicating that COS photochemical production was mainly from direct degradation of the precursors and the formation of CS2 and DMS needed intermediates via combination of carbon-centered radicals and sulfur-centered radicals. The above assumptions were further confirmed by simulation experiments with addition of carbonyls and amino acids (cysteine and methionine), and the photochemical formation mechanisms for COS, CS2 and DMS in water were derived from the investigations.  相似文献
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