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Lake eutrophication (LE) has become an increasingly severe environmental problem recently. However, there has been no nutrient standard established for LE control in many developing countries such as China. This study proposes a structural equation model to assist in the establishment of a lake nutrient standard for drinking water sources in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Ecoregion (Yungui Ecoregion), China. The modeling results indicate that the most predictive indicator for designated use-attainment is total phosphorus (TP) (total effect =-0.43), and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) is recommended as the second important indicator (total effect =-0.41). The model is further used for estimating the probability of use-attainment associated with lake water as a drinking water source and various levels of candidate criteria (based on the reference conditions and the current environmental quality standards for surface water). It is found that these candidate criteria cannot satisfy the designated 100% use-attainment. To achieve the short-term target (85% attainment of the designated use), TP and Chl-a values ought to be less than 0.02 mg/L and 1.4 μg/L, respectively. When used as a long-term target (90% or greater attainment of the designated use), the TP and Chl-a values are suggested to be less than 0.018 mg/L and 1 μg/L, respectively.  相似文献
2.
Characterization, treatment and releases of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater were evaluated along the treatment processes of a typical secondary treatment municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) (in Hefei City) situated the beside Nanfei River, East China. The findings showed that the average concentrations of the total PBDEs in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 188.578 and 36.884 ng/L respectively. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 209 congener, the predominant PBDE in the STP and Nanfei River, could be related to the discharge of car-industry-derived wastes. For PAHs, the average concentrations in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 5758.8 and 2240.4 ng/L respectively, with naphthalene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene being detected at the highest concentrations. PAHs mainly originate from the combustion of biomass/coal and petroleum. The STP reduced about 80% of the PBDEs and 61% of the PAHs, which were eliminated mainly by sedimentation processes. The removal rates of PBDEs/PAHs increased with the increase of their solid-water partitioning coefficients. Accordingly, the STP's effluent, containing some PBDE congeners (e.g., BDE 47, 99 and 209, etc.) and low-molecular-weight PAHs, could be an important contributor of these contaminants' input to Nanfei River. It resulted in a significant increase of PBDE/PAH concentrations and PAH toxicological risk in the river water downstream. About 4.040 kg/yr of PBDEs and 245.324 kg/yr of PAHs could be released into the Nanfei River. The current conventional wastewater treatment processes should be improved to remove the relatively low-molecular-weight PBDEs/PAHs more effectively.  相似文献
3.
In order to identify the effect of geographic characteristics on the variations of nutrient concentrations and the utilization efficiency of nutrients by phytoplankton, data from 143 lakes, from 2008 to 2010, including three very different types of topography, i.e., the first topography ladder (FTL), second topography ladder (STL), and third topography ladder (TTL), were statistically analyzed. Lakes in the FTL and STL, located at high elevation (above 1000 m) and low longitudes (lower than 105° E), were sporadically oligotrophic, whereas lakes in the TTL were almost all mesotrophic and eutrophic. The trophic level index (TLI) became higher with the rise of longitude. Two turning points (5 and 15℃) on the curve of TLI as function of the average annual temperature (AAT) corresponded with theAAT in different lake regions in the STL and TTL. Because the responses of TLI toAAT differ significantly, there were variations of nutrient and algal biomass concentrations in different lake regions in the same type of topography ladder. According to the differences in utilization efficiency of total nitrogen or total phosphorus by phytoplankton, China could be partitioned into six lake regions. Scientific nutrient criteria for each lake region shall be established considering these differences in China.  相似文献
4.
The great spatial and temporal variability in hydrological conditions and nitrogen (N) processing introduces large uncertainties to the identification of N sources and quantifying N cycles in plain river network regions. By combining isotopic data with chemical and hydrologic measurements, we determined the relative importance of N sources and biogeochemical N processes in the Taige River in the East Plain Region of China. The river was polluted more seriously by anthropogenic inputs in winter than in summer. Manure and urban sewage effluent were the main nitrate (NO3-) sources, with the nitrification of N-containing organic materials serving as another important source of NO3-. In the downstream, with minor variations in hydrological conditions, nitrification played a more important role than assimilation for the decreasing ammonium (NH4+-N) concentrations. The N isotopic enrichment factors (ε) during NH4 + utilization ranged from -13.88‰in March to -29.00‰in July. The ratio of the increase in δ18O and δ15N of river NO3- in the downstream was 1.04 in January and 0.92 in March. This ratio indicated that NO3- assimilation by phytoplankton was responsible for the increasing δ15N and δ18O values of NO3- in winter. The relationships between δ15N of particulate organic nitrogen and isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen indicated that the phytoplankton in the Taige River probably utilized NH4+ preferentially and mainly in summer, while in winter, NO3- assimilation by phytoplankton was dominant.  相似文献
5.
Phosphorus is an important limiting nutrient in many ecosystems. Consequently, there is increasing interest on phosphate uptake and algal growth due to the increasing frequency and magnitude of algal blooms induced by eutrophication. The co-existence of surface adsorbed and intracellular phosphorus pools indicate that phosphate uptake by phytoplankton is, to some extent, a two-stage kinetic process. However, almost all previous uptake models considered the internal uptake stage only and ignored the possible impact of surface adsoption. In this article, a two-stage kinetic uptake model considering both surface adsorption and P-stress on phosphate uptake by algae was constructed and compared to conventional one-stage models, based on experimental data on short-term uptake kinetics of a green algae S. quadricauda. Results indicated that with suitable parameters, the two-stage uptake model not only fit the experimental data better, but also gave more reasonable and realistic explanations to the phosphate uptake process. The results are meaningful as surface-adsorption of phosphate may a ect the uptake process of phosphate and assist in understanding realistic phosphate uptake kinetics in phytoplankton.  相似文献
6.
Few people have so far explored into the research of the dynamics of various nitrogenous compounds (including water-soluble nitrogen) in composting of food wastes. This study aimed to investigate the solid-phase nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen, nitrogen loss together with ammonia volatilization in the process of food wastes composting. A laboratory scale static aerobic reactor in the experiment was employed in the composting process of a synthetic food waste, in which sawdust was used as the litter amendment. In the experiment, oxygen was supplied by continuous forced ventilation for 15 days. The results have shown that the concentrations of total nitrogen and organic nitrogen decrease significantly in the composting process, whereas NH4 +-N concentration increases together with little fluctuation in NO3 -N. After composting, the total content of the water-soluble nitrogen compounds in the compost greatly increased, the total nitrogen loss amounted to 50% of the initial nitrogen, mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization. 56.7% of the total ammonia volatilization occurred in the middle and late composting of the thermophilic stage. This suggested that the control at the middle and late composting of thermophilic stage is the key to nitrogen loss in the food waste compost. __________ Translated from Environmental Science and Technology, 2006, 29(12): 54–56, IV–V [译自: 环境科学与技术]  相似文献
7.
Nutrient criteria provide a scientific foundation for the comprehensive evaluation, prevention,control and management of water eutrophication. In this review, the literature was examined to systematically evaluate the benefits, drawbacks, and applications of statistical analysis,paleolimnological reconstruction, stressor-response model, and model inference approaches for nutrient criteria determination. The developments and challenges in the determination of nutrient criteria in lakes and reservoirs are presented. Reference lakes can reflect the original states of lakes, but reference sites are often unavailable. Using the paleolimnological reconstruction method, it is often difficult to reconstruct the historical nutrient conditions of shallow lakes in which the sediments are easily disturbed. The model inference approach requires sufficient data to identify the appropriate equations and characterize a waterbody or group of waterbodies, thereby increasing the difficulty of establishing nutrient criteria. The stressor-response model is a potential development direction for nutrient criteria determination, and the mechanisms of stressor-response models should be studied further. Based on studies of the relationships among water ecological criteria, eutrophication, nutrient criteria and plankton, methods for determining nutrient criteria should be closely integrated with water management requirements.  相似文献
8.
In this study, a novel nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite material was successfully synthesized using a low-cost natural clay, “Hangjin 2# clay” (HJ clay) as the support and tested for the decolorization of the azo dye Methyl Orange (MO) in aqueous solution by nZVI particles. According to the characterization and MO decolorization experiments, the sample with 5:1 HJ clay-supported nZVI (HJ/nZVI) mass ratio (HJ-nZVI5) showed the best dispersion and reactivity and the highest MO decolorization efficiency. With the same equivalent Fe0 dosage, the HJ-nZVI1 and HJ-nZVI5 samples demonstrated a synergetic effect for the decolorization of MO: their decolorization efficiencies were much higher than that achieved by physical mixing of HJ clay and nZVIs, or the sum of HJ clay and nZVIs alone. The synergetic effect was primarily due to the improved dispersion and more effective utilization of the nZVI particles on/in the composite materials. Higher decolorization efficiency of MO was obtained at larger HJ-nZVI dosage, higher temperature and under N2 atmosphere, while the MO initial concentration and pH were negatively correlated to the efficiency. HJ clay not only works as a carrier for nZVI nanoparticles, but also contributes to the decolorization through an “adsorption-enhanced reduction” mechanism. The high efficiency of HJ-nZVI for decontamination gives it great potential for use in a variety of remediation applications.  相似文献
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