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Environmental contamination resulting from the production or release of harmful chemicals can lead to negative consequences for wildlife and human health. Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were historically produced as protective coatings for many household items and currently persist in the environment, wildlife, and humans. PFAAs have been linked to immune suppression, endocrine disruption, and developmental toxicity in wildlife and laboratory studies. This study examines the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, as an important indicator of ecosystem contamination and a potential pathway for PFAA exposure in humans. Alligator meat harvested in the 2015 South Carolina (SC) public hunt season and prepared for human consumption was collected and analyzed for PFAAs to determine meat concentrations and relationships with animal body size (total length), sex, and location of harvest. Of the 15 PFAAs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found in all alligator meat samples and at the highest concentrations (median 6.73 ng/g). No relationship was found between PFAA concentrations and total length or sex. Concentrations of one or all compounds varied significantly across sampling locations, with alligators harvested in the Middle Coastal hunt unit having the highest PFOS concentrations (median 16.0 ng/g; p = 0.0001). Alligators harvested specifically from Berkley County, SC (located in the Middle Coastal hunt unit) had the highest PFOS concentrations and the greatest number of PFAAs detected (p < 0.0001). The site-specific nature of PFAA concentrations in alligator meat observed in this study suggests a source of PFAA contamination in Berkley County, SC.  相似文献
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Exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) has been linked to many harmful health effects including reproductive disorders, developmental delays, and altered liver and kidney function. Most human exposure to environmental contaminants, including PFAAs, occurs through consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. This study uses PFAA data from meat samples collected from recreationally harvested American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in South Carolina to assess potential dietary exposure of hunters and their families to PFAAs. Consumption patterns were investigated using intercept surveys of 23 hunters at a wild game meat processor. An exposure scenario using the average consumption frequency, portion size, and median perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) concentration in alligator meat from all hunt units found the daily dietary exposure to be 2.11 ng/kg body weight per day for an adult human. Dietary PFOS exposure scenarios based on location of harvest suggested the highest daily exposure occurs with alligator meat from the Middle Coastal hunt unit in South Carolina. Although no samples were found to exceed the recommended threshold for no consumption of PFOS found in Minnesota state guidelines, exposure to a mixture of PFAAs found in alligator meat and site-specific exposures based on harvest location should be considered in determining an appropriate guideline for vulnerable populations potentially exposed to PFAAs through consumption of wild alligator meat.  相似文献
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