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1.
The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010. The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 37.7, 31.3, 39.7, 50.5 μg/m3, respectively, and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime. In contrast to carbonyls, the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2, 31.9, 23.2, 19.1 μg/m3, respectively, and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon. The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010, for BTEX, increased about 15%. Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.  相似文献
2.
The measurements of atmospheric carbonyls concentrations in Beijing were conducted from 12 July to 8 October, 2008, covering the periods of the 2008 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Six carbonyls, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexaldehyde, were identified in all air samples. The total average concentrations of these carbonyls before, during, and after tra c restriction were (48.1 15.2), (36.6 14.5) and (23.4 12.3) g/m3, respectively. Compared with the period after tra c restriction, the distinct high concentrations of the carbonyls before and during tra c restriction were primarily ascribed to the remarkable contribution of photochemical reactions. With respect to our previous investigation in the summer of 2005, the reductions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone during tra c restriction period were about 64%, 47% and 27%, respectively, indicating that the air cleaning actions adopted by the Chinese government for the two games were e cient. The lowest levels of atmospheric carbonyls and the extremely high composition proportion of acetone after the tra c restriction were mainly attributed to the long-term e ect of the control measures for the two games.  相似文献
3.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a maize field in the North China Plain (Wangdu County, Hebei Province, China) were investigated using static chambers during two consecutive maize growing seasons in the 2008 and 2009. The N2O pulse emissions occurred with duration of about 10 days after basal and additional fertilizer applications in the both years. The average N2O fluxes from the CK (control plot, without crop, fertilization and irrigation), NP (chemical N fertilizer), SN (wheat straw returning plus chemical N fertilizer), OM- 1/2N (chicken manure plus half chemical N fertilizer) and OMN (chicken manure plus chemical N fertilizer) plots in 2008 were 8.51, 72.1, 76.6, 101, 107 ng N/(m2·sec), respectively, and in 2009 were 33.7, 30.0 and 35.0 ng N/(m2·sec) from CK, NP and SN plots, respectively. The emission factors of the applied fertilizer as N2O-N (EFs) were 3.8% (2008) and 1.1% (2009) for the NP plot, 3.2% (2008) and 1.2% (2009) for the SN plot, and 2.8% and 2.2% in 2008 for the OM-1/2N and OMN plots, respectively. Hydromorphic properties of the investigated soil (with gley) are in favor of denitrification. The large differences of the soil temperature and water-filled pore space (WFPS) between the two maize seasons were suspected to be responsible for the significant yearly variations. Compared with the treatments of NP and SN, chicken manure coupled with compound fertilizer application significantly reduced fertilizer loss rate as N2O-N.  相似文献
4.
UASB+SBR处理皮革生产废水   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
介绍了采用UASB+SBR工艺处理皮革生产废水的设计实例。运行结果表明:该工艺对COD、BOD5、SS的去处率分别可达到96.1%、94.8%、95.1%,出水浓度分别为126,74,125 mg/L。该工艺出水水质稳定且达到GB8978-1996《污水综合排放标准》皮革类二级标准。  相似文献
5.
渭河是陕西省的第一大河流,准确的水质评价是治理渭河水体污染的重要前提。本文采用模糊变换原理和最大隶属度原则,运用模糊综合评判法对渭河潼关吊桥断面2012年的监测数据进行了全面评价。结果表明该断面春、夏、秋、冬四个季度的水质污染级别分别为:Ⅴ类(严重污染)、Ⅰ类(未污染)、Ⅳ类(重污染)和Ⅴ类(严重污染),主要污染物为NH3-N。与传统的单因子评价法相比,该方法能更全面合理地反映水质情况。  相似文献
6.
Gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) has been widely used for measuring atmospheric N2O,but nonlinear response and the influence of atmospheric CO2 have been recognized as defects for quantification.An original GCECD method using N 2 as carrier gas was improved by introducing a small flow rate of CO2 makeup gas into the ECD,which could well remedy the above defects.The N2O signal of the improved method was 4-fold higher than that of the original method and the relative standard deviation was reduced from > 1% to 0.31%.N2O concentrations with different CO2 concentrations (172.2×10-6-1722×10-6mol/mol) measured by the improved GC-ECD method were in line with the actual N2O concentrations.However,the N2O concentrations detected by the original method were largely biased with a variation range of-4.5%~7%.The N2O fluxes between an agricultural field and the atmosphere measured by the original method were greatly overestimated in comparison with those measured by the improved method.Good linear correlation (R2=0.9996) between the response of the improved ECD and N2O concentrations (93×10-9-1966×10-9mol/mol) indicated that atmospheric N2O could be accurately quantified via a single standard gas.Atmospheric N2O concentrations comparatively measured by the improved method and a high precision GC-ECD method were in good agreement.  相似文献
7.
Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate(PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate(PPN), and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 in Beijing. PAN exhibited low values from mid-autumn to early spring(October to March) with monthly average concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 0.73 ppbV, and increased from early spring to summer(March to August), ranging from 1.37–3.79 ppbV. The monthly variation of PPN was similar to PAN, with low values(below detection limit to 0.18 ppbV) from mid-autumn to early spring, and a monthly maximum in September(1.14 ppbV). The monthly variation of CCl4was tightly related to the variation of temperature, exhibiting a minimum in winter(69.3 pptV) and a maximum of 180.6 pptV in summer. Due to weak solar intensity and short duration, PAN and O3showed no distinct diurnal patterns from morning to night during winter, whereas for other seasons, they both exhibited maximal values in the late afternoon(ca. 15:00 to 16:00 local time) and minimal values during early morning and midnight. Good linear correlations between PAN and PPN were found in autumn(R = 0.91), spring(R = 0.94), and summer(R = 0.81), with slopes of 0.130, 0.222, and 0.133, respectively, suggesting that anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Positive correlation between PAN and O3 in summer with the low slopes( O3 / PAN) ranging from 9.92 to 18.0 indicated serious air pollution in Beijing, and strong negative correlation in winter reflected strong O3consumption by NO titration and less thermal decompositin of PAN.  相似文献
8.
Different concentrations of BTEX, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and three xylene isomers, were added into soil samples to investigate the anaerobic degradation potential by the augmented BTEX-adapted consortia under niwate reducing conditiom. All the BTEX substrates could be anaerobically biodegraded to non-detectable levels within 70 d when the initial concentrations were below 100 mg/kg in soil. Toluene was degraded faster than any other BTEX compounds, and the high-to-low order ofdegradation rates were toluene>ethylbenzene>m. xylene>o-xylene>benzene>P. xylene. Nitrite was accumulated with nitrate reduction. but the accumulation of nitrite had no inhibitory effect on the degradation of BTEX throughout the whole incubation. Indigenous bacteria in tIle soil could enhance the BTEX biodegradation ability of the enriched mixed bacteria. When the six BTEX compounds were simultaneously present in soil, there was no apparent inhibitory effect on their degradation with lower initial concentrations. Alternatively, benzene, o-xylene, and P-xylene degradation were inhibited with higher initial concentrations of 300 mg/kg. Higher BTEX biodegradation rates were observed in soil samples with the addition of sodium acetate compared to the presence of a single BTEX substrate. and the hypothesis of primary-substrate stimulation or cometabolic enhancement of BTEX biodegradation seems likely.  相似文献
9.
Nitrogen dioxide(NO_2)is an important substance in atmospheric photochemical processes and can also be absorbed by plants.N02 fluxes between the atmosphere and P.nigrc seedlings were investigated by a double dynamic chambers method in Beijing from June 15to September 3,2017.The range of N02 exchange fluxes between P.nigra seedlings and the atmosphere was from-14.6 to 0.8 nmol/(m~2.sec)(the positive data represent N02 emissior from trees,while the negative values indicate absorption).Under ambient concentrations the mean NO_2 flux during the fast-growing stage(Jun.15-Aug.4)was-3.0 nmol/(m2·sec)greater than the flux of-1.5 nmol/(m2-sec)during the later growth stage(Aug.8-Sept.3)The daily exchange fluxes of NO_2 obviously fluctuated.The fluxes were largest in the morning and decreased gradually over time.Additionally,the N02 fluxes were larger undei high light intensities than under low light intensities during the whole growth period.The effects of temperature on N02 fluxes were different under two growth periods.The NO_2exchange fluxes were larger in a range of temperatures close to 44℃in the fast-growing stage,whereas there were no evident differences in N02 exchange fluxes under widel differing temperatures in the later growth stage.Under polluted conditions,the uptake ability of N02 was weakened.Additionally,the compensation point of N02 was 5.6 ppb ir the fast-growing stage,whereas it was 1.4 ppb in the later growth stage.The depositior velocities of NO_2 were between 0.3 and 2.4 mm/sec.  相似文献
10.
The efficient maintenance of the activity of excised branches is the powerful guarantee to accurately determine gas exchange flux between the detached branches of tall trees and the atmosphere. In this study, the net photosynthetic rate (NPR) of the excised branches and branches in situ were measured simultaneously by using two photosynthetic instruments to characterize the activity of the excised branches of Phyllostachys nigra. The ratio of normalized NPR of excised branches to NPR in situ was used to assess the photosynthetic activity of detached branches. Based on photosynthetic activity, an optimal hydroponics protocol for maintaining activity of excised P. nigra branches was presented: 1/8 times the concentration of Gamborg B5 vitamin mixture with pH = 6. Under the best cultivation protocol, photosynthetic activity of excised P. nigra branches could be maintained more than 90% within 6 hr in the light intensity range of 200–2000 μmol/(m2·sec) and temperature range of 13.4–28.7°C. The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) flux differences between in situ and in vitro branches and the atmosphere were compared using double dynamic chambers. Based on the maintenance method of excised branches, the NO2 exchange flux between the excised P. nigra branches and the atmosphere (from −1.01 to −2.72 nmol/(m2·sec) was basically consistent with between the branches in situ and the atmosphere (from −1.12 to −3.16 nmol/(m2 sec)) within 6 hr. Therefore, this study provided a feasible protocol for in vitro measurement of gas exchange between tall trees and the atmosphere for a period of time.  相似文献
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