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1.
The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010. The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 37.7, 31.3, 39.7, 50.5 μg/m3, respectively, and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime. In contrast to carbonyls, the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2, 31.9, 23.2, 19.1 μg/m3, respectively, and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon. The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010, for BTEX, increased about 15%. Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.  相似文献
2.
Ambient benzene homologues were measured at a site in the northeastern urban area of Beijing, China, from August 24 to September 4, 2012 by SUMMA canister sampling followed by laboratory determination using cryogenic cold trap pre-concentration-GC-MS/FID, and their health risks were also assessed. Daily total benzene homologues ranged from 0.99 to 49.71 μg/m3with an average of 11.98 μg/m3. Benzene homologues showed higher concentrations in the morning and evening than that at noontime. Comparison with previous studies revealed a trend of decrease for ambient benzene homologues probably due to the efective emission control in Beijing in recent years. Vehicular exhaust was the main source while volatilization of paints and solvents also made substantial contributions. Health risk assessment showed that BTEX(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene) and styrene had no appreciable adverse non-cancer health risks for the exposed population, while benzene has potential cancer risk of 1.34E-05. Available data from cities in China all implied that benzene imposes relatively higher cancer risk on the exposed populations and therefore strict control measures should be taken to further lower ambient benzene levels in China.  相似文献
3.
The measurements of atmospheric carbonyls concentrations in Beijing were conducted from 12 July to 8 October, 2008, covering the periods of the 2008 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Six carbonyls, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexaldehyde, were identified in all air samples. The total average concentrations of these carbonyls before, during, and after tra c restriction were (48.1 15.2), (36.6 14.5) and (23.4 12.3) g/m3, respectively. Compared with the period after tra c restriction, the distinct high concentrations of the carbonyls before and during tra c restriction were primarily ascribed to the remarkable contribution of photochemical reactions. With respect to our previous investigation in the summer of 2005, the reductions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone during tra c restriction period were about 64%, 47% and 27%, respectively, indicating that the air cleaning actions adopted by the Chinese government for the two games were e cient. The lowest levels of atmospheric carbonyls and the extremely high composition proportion of acetone after the tra c restriction were mainly attributed to the long-term e ect of the control measures for the two games.  相似文献
4.
To understand the pollution characteristics of atmospheric particles and heavy metals in winter in Chang-Zhu-Tan city clusters, China, total suspended particulate(TSP) and PM10samples were collected in cities of Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan from December 2011 to January 2012, and heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Cr, and As were analyzed. It shows that the average TSP concentration in Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan were(183 ± 73),(201 ± 84) and(190 ± 66) μg/m3respectively, and the average PM10 were(171 ± 82),(178 ± 65) and(179 ± 55) μg/m3respectively. The lowest TSP and PM10concentrations occurred at the background Shaping site of Changsha. The average ratio of ρ(PM10)/ρ(TSP) was 91.9%, ranging from 81.3% to 98.9%. Concerning heavy metals, in TSP samples, the concentration of Cr, As, Cd and Pb were 28.8–56.5, 18.1–76.3, 3.9–26.1 and 148.0–460.9 ng/m3, respectively, while in PM10samples, were 16.4–42.1, 15.5–67.9, 3.3–22.2 and 127.9–389.3 ng/m3, respectively. The enrichment factor of Cd was the highest, followed by Pb and As, while that of Cr was the lowest.  相似文献
5.
紫外光-氯联用污水消毒削弱拖尾程度的实验研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
研究了紫外光-氯联用消毒工艺削弱二级出水氯消毒拖尾程度.考察了紫外光-氯使用顺序、pH、氯投量、紫外光剂量等因素对氯消毒大肠杆菌动力学曲线的影响.SS浓度对“拖尾现象”有显著影响,降低SS浓度能够有效提高拖尾区灭活率.紫外光-氯联用消毒能提高一级反应区的灭活速率1.08~1.25倍,并将拖尾区灭活率提高2~2.5个对数级,二者存在明显协同作用.UV/HOCl方式效果优于HOCl/UV方式.降低pH,提高氯投量将加快一级反应区消毒速度而更快进入拖尾区.紫外光剂量变化对拖尾区开始时间没有显著影响.  相似文献
6.
为查明硫酸工业中主要重金属的危害以及不同制酸工艺产生的危害差异,对辽宁省主要生产硫酸企业进行了调研,并应用MEG法,对矿石原料中重金属的含量进行了数学模型分析。  相似文献
7.
"十八届三中全会"提出了推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,生态文明治理能力是国家治理能力的重要组成部分。提高生态文明治理能力,是生态文明建设亟需解决的关键问题和重要突破口。本文围绕生态文明治理的理论基础和内涵,在梳理生态文明治理存在的问题基础上,从体制机制创新出发,提出生态文明治理能力建设的思路和框架,并从培育多元主体、转变政府职能、建设生态文明制度体系和创新生态文明治理机制四个方面提出对策和建议,以供相关政策的制定和相关部门及地方深化改革参考。  相似文献
8.
黄玉洁  张焕祯 《环境工程》2012,30(4):1-3,35
为了提高人造沸石对地下水中铬(Ⅵ)的去除能力,采用氯化铝对人造沸石进行改性。确定最佳改性条件:20%氯化铝溶液,液固比12 mL/g,室温下以180 r/min振荡改性8 h;最佳除Cr(Ⅵ)条件:pH值为4~8,液固比为33.3 mL/g,室温下水浴恒温振荡2 h。改性沸石对铬(Ⅵ)的吸附符合Langmuir及Freundlich等温线方程,由Langmuir吸附等温线可得其吸附容量为5.624 mg/g。在最佳反应条件下,水样中铬(Ⅵ)浓度可由5 mg/L下降到0.026 mg/L,低于0.05 mg/L,满足GB/T 14848—93《地下水环境质量标准》Ⅲ类标准。  相似文献
9.
用硫酸改性的粉煤灰作为吸附剂,处理含铬(Ⅵ)为5mg/L地下水,最佳条件为:pH=2,液固比10000:3,25℃下反应3h。处理后水样铬(VI)浓度0.03mg/L,满足(GB/T 14848-93)《地下水环境质量标准》。在不改变原水pH条件下,增加粉煤灰用量,水样中铬(VI)浓度也可由5mg/L降至0.05mg/L。同时,吸附剂对铬(VI)的吸附符合Freundlich和Langmuir等温线。  相似文献
10.
Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate(PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate(PPN), and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 in Beijing. PAN exhibited low values from mid-autumn to early spring(October to March) with monthly average concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 0.73 ppbV, and increased from early spring to summer(March to August), ranging from 1.37–3.79 ppbV. The monthly variation of PPN was similar to PAN, with low values(below detection limit to 0.18 ppbV) from mid-autumn to early spring, and a monthly maximum in September(1.14 ppbV). The monthly variation of CCl4was tightly related to the variation of temperature, exhibiting a minimum in winter(69.3 pptV) and a maximum of 180.6 pptV in summer. Due to weak solar intensity and short duration, PAN and O3showed no distinct diurnal patterns from morning to night during winter, whereas for other seasons, they both exhibited maximal values in the late afternoon(ca. 15:00 to 16:00 local time) and minimal values during early morning and midnight. Good linear correlations between PAN and PPN were found in autumn(R = 0.91), spring(R = 0.94), and summer(R = 0.81), with slopes of 0.130, 0.222, and 0.133, respectively, suggesting that anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Positive correlation between PAN and O3 in summer with the low slopes( O3 / PAN) ranging from 9.92 to 18.0 indicated serious air pollution in Beijing, and strong negative correlation in winter reflected strong O3consumption by NO titration and less thermal decompositin of PAN.  相似文献
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