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1.
聚合铝混凝过程研究:不同形态硅酸的影响作用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
研究了不同形态硅酸对聚合铝混凝过程的影响作用 .实验结果表明经预制形成的具有不同形态分布组成的硅酸与聚合铝 ,在投加后相互间发生了十分复杂的物理化学作用 ,并受溶液pH值的影响 ,从而最终决定了混凝效果 .反应过程中所生成的形态产物及其物化特征 ,很大程度上取决于聚合铝碱化度以及所投加的Si Al比 .其中碱化度越高 ,最终产物所带电荷越高 .而不同硅酸所起影响作用分别取决于聚合程度 ,在与聚合铝反应过程中表现出一定的规律性 .单体硅酸与单体铝迅速发生较强的络合作用 ,抑制了多聚水解铝阳离子的形成 .聚合硅酸则倾向于与聚合铝形态相互作用形成一定的胶状化合物 ,从而在溶液中稳定存在 .对于胶体硅酸 ,在聚合铝作用下迅速凝聚形成更大的聚集体 ,在颗粒物间架桥形成粗大的絮体 .所得结果对混凝机理的解释与复合混凝剂的发展提供了一定的参考作用  相似文献
2.
Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum.The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps.A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride(PACl).In this work,the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test,batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least,and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated,which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3.Al13 had the highest deposition tendency,and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated,which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13could be the main deposition mechanism.While for Al30,its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13.However,the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13,which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state.Compared with stationary condition,stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process,while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7.  相似文献
3.
High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) is used in water quality research primarily to determine the molecular weight distribution of the dissolved organic matter (DOM), but by applying peak fitting to the chromatogram, this technique can also be used as a tool to model and predict DOM removal. Six low specific UV absorbance (SUVA) source waters were treated using coagulation with alum and both the source and treated water samples were analysed using HPSEC. By comparing the molecular weight profiles of the source and treated waters, it was established that several DOM components were not effectively removed by alum coagulation even after high dosage alum treatment. A peak-fitting technique was applied based on the concept of linking the character (molecular weight profile) of the recalcitrant organics in the treated water with those of the source water. This was then applied to predict DOM treatability by determining the areas of the peaks which were assigned to removable organics from the source water molecular weight profile after peak fitting, and this technique quantified the removable and non-removable organics. The prediction was compared with the actual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal determined from jar testing and showed good agreement, with variance between 2% and 10%. This confirmed that this prediction approach, which was originally developed for high SUVA waters, can also be applied successfully to predict DOC removal in low SUVA waters.  相似文献
4.
The hydrodynamic behavior of diatom aggregates has a significant influence on the interactions and flocculation kinetics of algae. However, characterization of the hydrodynamics of diatoms and diatom aggregates in water is rather difficult. In this laboratory study, an advanced visualization technique in particle image velocimetry (PIV) was employed to investigate the hydrodynamic properties of settling diatom aggregates. The experiments were conducted in a settling column filled with a suspension of fluorescent polymeric beads as seed tracers. A laser light sheet was generated by the PIV setup to illuminate a thin vertical planar region in the settling column, while the motions of particles were recorded by a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. This technique was able to capture the trajectories of the tracers when a diatom aggregate settled through the tracer suspension. The PIV results indicated directly the curvilinear feature of the streamlines around diatom aggregates. The rectilinear collision model largely overestimated the collision areas of the settling particles. Algae aggregates appeared to be highly porous and fractal, which allowed streamlines to penetrate into the aggregate interior. The diatom aggregates have a fluid collection efficiency of 10%-40%. The permeable feature of aggregates can significantly enhance the collisions and flocculation between the aggregates and other small particles including algal cells in water.  相似文献
5.
Sediment resuspension plays an important role in the transport and fate of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the release and binding forms of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb under hydrodynamic conditions were investigated using an annular flume. Two sediments located at YLZ and GBD from Liangshui River, Beijing were resuspended for 10 hr at 0.159 and 0.267 m/sec, respectively. The concentrations of suspended particulate matters of YLZ were higher than those of GBD during resuspension, indicating that the former sediment is more sensitive to the velocity. Cr in the dissolved phase stayed nearly constant at about 2.25 and 1.84 μg/L for YLZ and GBD, respectively, due to the high percentage of its stable binding fractions in both sediments, while Cu, Zn, and Pb showed a fast release in the initial period of time. However, their concentrations in SPM generally decreased with time and were higher at the lower velocity of 0.159 m/sec, which resulted from the entrainment and depressing effect of larger size particles with lower heavy metal content, commonly referred to as the "particle concentration effect". In addition, the binding form and heavy metal fractions were also found to vary during the resuspension event. A decrease in the sulphide/organic matters bounded form in GBD sediment was observed, whereas no visible changes were perceived in YLZ site samples. This phenomenon is due to the oxidation of heavy metal-sulphide binding forms, which originated from its high acid volatile sulphide content in GBD sediment.  相似文献
6.
对不同Al/SO2-4比及碱化度条件下PACl与SO42-的反应过程进行研究,分析了体系中总铝浓度及形态分布变化规律,测定了各沉淀/结晶产物的组成,并对其形貌进行了扫描电镜观察.实验结果表明:碱化度对PACl/SO42-反应体系有较大影响,随着碱化度(B值)的增加,沉淀/结晶的析出速率加快,结果析出物中OH含量逐渐增加,而SO42-/Al比率从0.45~0.30逐渐降低.各聚合铝水解形态与SO42-反应速率上存在明显差异,从而为其混凝优势形态的分离纯化创造了条件.  相似文献
7.
Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size effect of coagulation with inorganic polymer fiocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR,photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited different roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1-2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5-2.11 mol/L)were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations,Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90°C.  相似文献
8.
Characteristics of organic matter may affect the residual aluminum after the coagulation process. This study reported the results of a survey for one drinking water treatment plant and measured the concentration of residual aluminum species with different molecular weights. Survey results indicated that humic acid or organic matter whose molecular weight was smaller than 1500 Da had significant effects on residual aluminum. All the treatment processes were ineffective in removing dissolved organic matter whose molecular weight was smaller than 1500 Da. These results also indicated that the addition of sand or polyacrylamide in the coagulation process could greatly decrease the concentration of humic acid, and the concentration of residual aluminum also decreased. These results revealed that for all water samples after filtration, the majority of total residual aluminum existed in the form of total dissolved aluminum, accounting for 70%–90%. The concentration of residual aluminum produced in bovine serum albumin solutions indicated that when the DOC was larger than 4.0 mg/L, there were still significant differences when the solution pH value varied from 4.0 to 9.0.  相似文献
9.
Biopolymer solubilization is considered to be the rate-limiting stage of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge(WAS). Oxidation processes have been proven to be effective in disrupting sludge flocs and causing solubilization of the solid biopolymers. In this study,WAS was treated by NaNO2 or H2 O2 oxidation at p H of 2. The changes in extracellular polymeric substances properties and the speciation of heavy metals were investigated. The results revealed that both NaNO2 and H2 O2 treatments were effective in solubilizing organics in WAS, while the conversion of biopolymers in the two treatment processes was different. Free nitrous acid destroyed the gel network structure of EPS, and organic materials were released from the solid phase to the supernatant. Indigenous peroxidase catalyzed H2 O2 to produce hydroxyl radicals which caused significant solubilization of biopolymers, and the protein-like substances were further degraded into micro-molecule polypeptides or amino acids at high dosages of H2 O2. During the oxidation processes, Zn, Cd and Cu, with excellent mobility, tended to migrate to the supernatant, and thus were easy to remove through the liquid–solid separation process. Ni and As showed moderate migration ability, of which the residual fraction tended to transform into reducible and soluble fractions. With poor mobility, Cr and Pb mainly existed in the forms of residual and oxidizable fractions, which were difficult to dissolve and remove from WAS. Both NaNO2 and H2 O2 treatment resulted in the enhancement of sludge solubilization efficiency and heavy metal mobility in WAS, but different heavy metals showed distinct migration and transformation behaviors.  相似文献
10.
A novel polyimide-inlaid amine-rich porous organic block copolymer (PI-b-ARPOP) was prepared via one-step polymerization by using different molar ratios of melamine (MA)/terephthalaldehyde (TA)/pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), at molar ratios of 4/3/1, 4/2/2 and 4/1/3. The copolymer contained both aminal groups belonging to ARPOP and imide groups belonging to PI, and the bonding styles of the monomers and growth orientations of the polymeric chains were diversiform, forming an excellent porous structure. Notably, MA/TA/PMDA (4/2/2) had a surface area and pore volume of 487.27 m2/g and 1.169 cm3/g, respectively. The adsorption performance of the materials towards 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in ultra-pure water was systematically studied. The pH value of 7 was optimal in aqueous solution. Na+ and Cl ions did not negatively affect the adsorption process, while humic acid (HA) slightly decreased the capacity. The equilibrium time was 40 sec, and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 282.49 mg/g at 298 K. The removal process was endothermic and spontaneous, and the copolymer could maintain its porous structure and consistent performance after regeneration by treatment with alkali. Moreover, to further assess the practical applicability of the material, the adsorption performance towards 2,4-DCP in river water was also investigated. This paper demonstrated that the PI-b-ARPOP can be an efficient and practical adsorbent to remove chlorophenols from aqueous solution.  相似文献
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