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Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, selemium,and tin concentrations were measured in the feathers of Capecormorant (Phalacrocorax capensis), Hartlaubs gull(Larus hartlaubii), kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), andlesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) from the coast ofNamibia in southern Africa. Metal concentrations in feathers represent the concentrations in the blood supply at the time offeather formation. Cape Cormorants are piscivores; kelp gullsare primarily piscivores; Hartlaubs gull is an omnivore; and lesser flamingos eat primarily blue-green algae and invertebrates filtered from the water and sediment ofhypersaline lagoons. We predicted that metal concentrationswould reflect these trophic level differences. There weresignificant species differences in the concentrations of allmetals, with flamingos having the lowest levels, and cormorantshaving the highest levels of 4 metals but not mercury. The gulls hadthe highest levels of mercury, perhaps reflecting their morescavenging behavior.  相似文献
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Levels of heavy metals are usuallyhigher in adult than young birds because they eatlarger, more contaminated prey, or because they havehad longer to accumulate metals in their tissues.Further, levels of contaminants are usually less inbirds nesting on remote, offshore islands than inbirds breeding closer to mainland areas that areurbanized and industrialized. We examined the featherlevels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese,mercury, and selenium in adult sooty terns (Sterna fuscata), gray-backed terns (Sterna lunata), and brown noddy (Anous stolidus, and adult and young white terns (Gygis alba, fromMidway Atoll, and in adult and young sooty terns andadult brown noddy from Manana Island, Hawaii (chicksof other terns were not available). We tested andrejected the null hypotheses that metal levels are notsignificantly different among species, ages, andlocations. Despite their small size, adult white ternshad the highest levels of lead, arsenic and tin. Brownnoddies had the highest levels of cadmium, chromium,manganese, and selenium. Sooty and white terns had thehighest levels of mercury. Sooty tern adults hadsignificantly higher levels of cadmium, mercury, andselenium than young, while young had significantlyhigher levels of arsenic and manganese. White ternadults had significantly higher levels of selenium andtin than young, while young had higher levels ofcadmium and mercury than adults. Except for mercury,there were significant inter-location differenceswithin species in all heavy metals. Contrary toexpectation, where the differences were great, metalsgenerally were higher in the feathers of terns andnoddies from Midway than from Manana.  相似文献
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