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我国4个大城市空气PM_(2.5)、PM_(10)污染及其化学组成   总被引:51,自引:3,他引:48  
报告了 1 995~ 1 996年在中国的广州、武汉、兰州、重庆 4大城市 8个采样点 PM2 .5 、PM2 .5~ 1 0 和 PM1 0 的监测结果。结果表明 ,1 995年 PM2 .5 年均值浓度为 57~ 1 60 μg/m3,比美国 1 997年颁布的标准值 (1 5μg/m3)高 2 .8~ 9.7倍。PM1 0 年日均值为 95~ 2 73μg/m3。除武汉市 1个对照点外 ,其余 7个监测点的 PM1 0 均超过我国空气质量二极标准 (1 0 0μg/m3)2 8%~ 1 73 % ,比美国标准 (50μg/m3)超过更多 ,说明污染是相当严重的。用 XRF分析了 PM2 .5 、PM2 .5~ 1 0 中 4 2种化学元素 ,结果表明 ,燃煤、燃油和其它工业污染的元素 As、Pb、Se、Zn、Cu、Cl、Br、S在这些颗粒物中有明显富集 ,特别是在PM2 .5 中的富集倍数达数十倍至数万倍 ,对人体健康有很大危害  相似文献
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Thirty-five surface sediment samples from the Indian continental shelf were recovered offshore from the mouths of the major rivers (Brahmaputra, Ganges, Narmada, Tapti, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery) discharging into the coastal region of both east and west coasts were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for selected major (i.e. Al, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Mg and Na) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, P and V), after total dissolution. The main objectives are to understand the processes controlling major and trace elements in the surface sediments and to identify natural and anthropogenic sources in the coastal environment using statistically regressed elemental concentrations to establish regional baseline levels. Metal enrichments observed close to the major urban areas in the east and west coasts are associated with the industrialised activities areas rich in Cu and Co in both the east and west coast sediments. Normalisation of metals to Al indicated that high enrichment factors are in the order of Ca>Ti≥Fe>Na>Mg>Co>Cu>Ga>V>Ba except K and P depletion. This indicated that the characteristic of estuarine sediment showed higher level along the west coast of India, which was reflected in the coastal sediments as similar to the source of its origin from the riverine composition and its abundances.  相似文献
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