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Various natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods and debris flows can result in enormous property damages and human casualties in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Mountainous topographic character and high frequency of heavy rain are the main factors for landslide occurrence in Ardesen, Rize. For this reason, the main target of the present study is to evaluate the landslide hazards using a sequence of historical aerial photographs in Ardesen (Rize), Turkey, by Photogrammetry and Geographical Information System (GIS). Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpretation of aerial photographs dated in 1973 and 2002, and by field surveys. In the study, the selected factors conditioning landslides are lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, vegetation cover, land class, climate, rainfall and proximity to roads. These factors were considered as effective on the occurrence of landslides. The areas under landslide threat were analyzed and mapped considering the landslide conditioning factors. Some of the conditioning factors were investigated and estimated by employing visual interpretation of aerial photos and topographic data. The results showed that the slope, lithology, terrain roughness, proximity to roads, and the cover type played important roles on landslide occurrence. The results also showed that degree of landslides was affected by the number of houses constructed in the region. As a consequence, the method employed in the study provides important benefits for landslide hazard mitigation efforts, because a combination of both photogrammetric techniques and GIS is presented.  相似文献
2.
In this study, freshly deposited soils were sampled from the Seyhan River (Turkey) from the exit of the Seyhan Dam to the Adana exit. Heavy metal contents were measured with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Multivariate statistical approach is used to identify the sources of heavy metals and other elements in soil samples. Considering the size of anomalies, metals are ranked as Co>Pb>Cr>Zn>Al. Based on the hierarchical cluster analysis results, three clusters were observed. P, Mg, Ti, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Al, Si, and Nb form the first cluster, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cr associated as the second cluster, and Ba and Co form the third cluster. Three factors computed from principal component analysis are explained with a cumulative variance of 95%. The first factor is defined with “high background lithogenic factor” Co, the second factor with “local industrial factor” Pb, Cr, Ba, and Mg, and the third factor with “natural factor” Cr and Pb.  相似文献
3.
Heavy metal contamination in sediments of the Karasu spring was investigated in the presented study. In this respect, sediment samples were collected from contaminant sites along the spring starting from the spring water manifestation site, base of the Akkaya dam to the dam exit site. Heavy metal concentrations were determined by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. Cobalt, copper, arsenic, tin, nickel, zinc, cadmium, lead, aluminum, iron, titan, chromium and manganese contents of the Karasu creek sediments are found as 18.30–69.00, 12.40–595.0 5.50–345.3, 5.80–15.1, 10.9–64.1, 28.90–103,300, 4.1–356.2, 7.70–37,840, 13,460–109,400, 11,740–62,900, 22.18–59.04, 41.70–369 and 12.09–3,480 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicate the presence of a contamination in the Karasu creek. All the metal concentrations were found to be exceeding their acceptable limit values. Eutrophication is developed in the Karasu creek and the Akkaya dam. It is thought that heavy metal accumulation in the creek is originated from discharge from mine quarries, industrial and domestic wastes. Protection zones should be defined and all necessary measures must be taken along the Karasu creek.  相似文献
4.
The spring waters of Tuzla–Icmeler are on the Marmara Sea coast in Tuzla town of Istanbul city. The springs discharge a natural sodium chloride mineral water that consumed for ages for therapeutic purposes attributed to their chemical properties. Development of springs commenced during the Ottoman times and a surface collection structure was built at the discharge point of the main spring. Two deep wells were drilled to tap mineral water within the past decades. The bottled water of these springs is also sold for a couple of years and its consumption as a beverage is increasing. The geochemical properties of these springs were investigated by several researchers in the past. This study comprises geochemical and geophysical measurements performed between July 2001 and July 2002 in order to construct a conceptual hydrogeological model for environmental and land use planning purposes. The seasonal evaluation of Tuzla–Icmeler (mineral spring) shows that the chemical properties fluctuate from the beginning of summer until the beginning of winter. This indicates that the overdraft of water during the summer season causes the movement and mix of normal groundwater with the mineralized groundwater. As a result, mixing of less mineralized groundwater decreases the salinity of mineralized groundwater. Using the site-specific hydrogeological, geochemical and geophysical data, zones of protection areas were delineated in order to prevent a possible pollution access to the springs and surroundings from nearby dockyards, dwellings and vehicle traffic. For this purpose, a new land use plan was proposed using the existing settlement sustainability plans.  相似文献
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