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Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex–Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for narrowing the set of scenarios that decision-makers need to consider in this relocation process.  相似文献
Residents of within 50 miles of the nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI), Pennsylvania, were surveyed in 1979, 1980, and 1982 to assess their general attitudes toward nuclear power, to assess their individual coping responses to the March 1979 accident, and to monitor changes in attitudes over the three-year period. Most respondents feel that future accidents like TMI will occur once or twice more in their lifetimes, that operating nuclear power stations should have improved safeguards and should continue operating, and that major institutions—government and utility companies—are experiencing a continued erosion of public trust.  相似文献
Previous research notes that sense of place may intensify, and that levels of public risk perception may decrease with proximity to an established hazardous or stigmatised site. In addition, the literature suggests that sense of place may act either to mediate or moderate community perceptions of risk in such localities. This study comprised a major household survey (n = 1326) and an interview study (n = 39) and was conducted close to the nuclear power stations at Oldbury and Hinkley Point, both in the UK. It investigated the roles of perceptions of place and hazard proximity in considering (a) perceptions of risk and (b) public attitudes towards the building of a new nuclear power station in the nearby area. In addition, a novel scale was developed to measure the perceived contribution of the nearby nuclear power station to sense of place. The results suggest first, that sense of place mediates (but does not moderate) perceptions of risk in very proximate communities, and second, that public attitudes to new build in communities situated very close to established nuclear sites may be largely dependent on the extent to which the existing facility is perceived to contribute towards sense of place. The implications of these results for existing theory are discussed.  相似文献
王茹静 《四川环境》2014,(1):119-123
大多数内陆核电厂将采用大型自然通风冷却塔作为其二次循环冷却方式,本文基于美国核管会推荐的SACTI程序,给出了该模型的基本原理和框架结构,并以江西彭泽核电厂为例,采用该程序预测分析了该核电厂大型自然通风冷却塔所造成的雾羽和太阳辐射损失的影响。并进一步研究了不同环境风速、相对湿度条件下对冷却塔造成的太阳辐射损失的影响。SACTI模型可以根据厂址逐时气象观测数据,较好地计算可见雾羽的长度、抬升高度和太阳辐射损失,其结果可以作为冷却塔环境影响评价的依据。  相似文献
面对能源紧缺问题,世界各国除了加强对常规能源开发外,一些国家纷纷投入到新能源开发中来。核电作为一种新能源,因其清洁、安全、供应能力强等特性逐渐受到各国的青睐。我国核电发展较晚,但进步很快。根据我国大力发展核电的政策形势,分析了我国发展核电的必要性,并用区位商定量分析了核电区域布局,对我国核电发展提出了一些参考建议。  相似文献
Research on attitudes toward environmental policy making has often overlooked the important role that risks play in forming individual attitudes towards the environment. Similarly, this research often assumes that the factors that affect attitudes are similar across different environmental domains. The purpose of this research is to examine how the factors that affect an individual's willingness to get involved in environmental policy making differ on two environmental issues – nuclear power and drinking water. The study utilises multivariate statistical techniques to explore the relationship that uncertainty, risk, and trust play in an individual's willingness to take action in environmental policy making. The data consist of responses to a national random telephone survey of 403 adults in the United States. The individuals surveyed are more likely to take action on the less avoidable potential threat of nuclear power than they are on drinking water. The respondents believe that the potential harm from nuclear power is greater than that from drinking water. The individuals most likely to take action are those who indicate that they are interested in environmental issues.  相似文献
Large nuclear waste management, laboratory and electric power generating complexes are a daunting challenge for state, regional and local planners. A survey of 2101 residents who lived near 11 nuclear power plants and US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste management sites and laboratories was conducted to determine how much nearby residents worried about accidents and chronic emissions at the nuclear sites, how much they trusted the sites’ responsible parties, and actions that they wanted responsible parties to take to reduce public concern. Six hundred other people who lived elsewhere in the US were a comparison group. Nuclear site-related issues were a greater concern among the 2101 who lived near the sites than the comparison group. Yet many were more concerned about global warming, traffic congestion, and loss of open space than nuclear technologies. Monitoring the environment and people were the actions deemed most likely to reduce public concern. The results pose a challenge to owner-operators of nuclear facilities, government entities and especially to locally based environmental planners and managers to establish partnerships with each other and diverse communities that will allow them to manage some of these risks for decades and in some cases into perpetuity.  相似文献
为满足快速增长的电力需求,缓解传统化石能源紧缺及其所伴随的大气污染问题,发电过程中几乎不产生常规大气污染物的核电逐渐成为我国重要的能源战略选择。但是,由于核电站在运行过程中,特别是发生重大核事故时,产生的放射性物质可能对健康造成负面影响,发展核电仍然存在较大的争议和阻力。在此背景下,需要构建科学、完善的核电风险评估与管理体系,以保障我国的核电行业健康、有序发展。在对国内外核电风险评估研究现状进行系统梳理的基础上,分析其对核电风险管理的意义,提出了我国未来构建核电风险评估与管理体系的建议。  相似文献
This paper’s purpose is to predict China’s uranium resources demand from 2016 to 2030 based on experimental modeling. In addition, we discuss the future supply structure of China’s uranium resources by analyzing the domestic and foreign supply capacity of China’s uranium resources. According the forecast results, Chinese uranium resource demand will reach 21385 tU in 2030 under a medium scenario. Due to the poor endowment of uranium resources, China’s domestic uranium production will increase slowly. It can be calculated that the total demand of uranium resources in China during 2016–2030 will be 216581 tU, the cumulative production of domestic production will be 37900 tU, the overseas production will be 41950 tU, and the international market purchases will be 130574 tU. Hence, the cumulative degree of dependence on foreign resources is approximately 80%. China’s foreign dependence on uranium will be greater than for oil, and the situation will become extremely serious. Therefore, we put forward several suggestions to ensure the supply of China’s uranium resources: (1) strengthening mineral exploration and increasing domestic production, (2) actively operating the “going out” strategy, (3) enhancing the enterprise competition ability, and (4) establishing uranium resource reserves. By these means, China could efficiently guarantee the domestic uranium resource security and respond to the competition of India’s uranium resources demand increased.  相似文献
Following the export success of the South Korean small modular reactor (SMR), it has been investigated for the marketing strategy of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The information feedback oriented method for the social-business matters, system dynamics (SD), is applied to the assessment of the marketing strategy in which the forecasting skills are performed. Each element has the Boolean value as 0 or 1 in which the values are selected by the random number generation. If the generated values are higher than the designed value decided by the operator, it is 1. Otherwise, it is 0. The networking based dynamical modeling is discussed. The modification of the linear networking is changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original network dynamics theory. This new method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPPs.  相似文献
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