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我国环境监测能力建设的现状及建议   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
对我国环境监测能力建设的现状进行了分析。指出我国环境监测能力建设取得了明显进展 ,但地区差异很大 ,整体水平不高 ,存在的主要问题是投入不足、体制不顺。提出应加强环境监测管理 ,加大投入 ,建设水质、空气、重点污染源自动监测系统 ,建立国家级开放式环境分析实验室和全国生态与环境监测网络 ,完善数据卫星传输系统 ,全面提高环境监测能力。  相似文献
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中小城市空气质量预报试验与问题研究   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:0  
当前中国大气污染形势严峻,迫切需要开展环境空气质量预报预警业务工作。为调研国内中小城市开展空气质量预报的基础条件和业务需求,促进全国城市空气质量业务体系建设,中国环境监测总站组织8个典型中小城市,利用基于数值预报基础的统计模式预报系统开展了空气质量预报实验工作。在此基础上,针对开展全国预报业务体系建设所需的中小城市预报方法、基础条件、人员技术水平等方面进行专项调研,并对国内中小城市开展空气质量预报能力建设和业务工作面临的问题、困难提出了建议和参考对策。  相似文献
3.
上海市突发性水环境污染事故应急监测能力建设   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
从硬件条件和软件能力两方面介绍了目前上海市突发性水环境污染事故应急能力的建设现状,从现场应急监测设备和专家库能力建设,污染事故风险源动态数据库建设等6个方面阐述了应急监测能力建设的工作程序,并对如何完善水环境应急监测能力建设进行了探讨。  相似文献
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The Atlantic Coastal Action Program (ACAP) is a unique, community-based program initiated by Environment Canada in 1991 to help Atlantic Canadians restore and sustain watersheds and adjacent coastal areas. ACAP is the eastem-most Environment Canada Ecosystem Initiative. The ACAP family is currently made up of 14 ecosystem-based organizations in the four Atlantic provinces. Each one of these non-profit organizations operates independently, but is formally linked under the umbrella of ACAP to represent a force stronger than the individual parts. In Environment Canada's experience, the program consistently demonstrates the value of a community-based approach and produces results on an ecosystem basis. This paper will examine some of the impacts of ACAP in terms of economics, credible community science, and environmental results which most often align with Environment Canada's objectives. It will explore the influences of the community-based approach to environmental management on multiple scales (local, regional, etc.). Through examples, the paper will demonstrate the effectiveness of ACAP in influencing some of the policies, programs and attitudes of various levels of government and industry in the region, as well as describe how the community-based model has been exported internationally. The paper will conclude with a discussion on a planned path forward for ACAP.  相似文献
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Community knowledge exchanges have played a key role in developmental processes in the Suid Bokkeveld community of South Africa. Two exchange visits were undertaken with the support of the Department of Agriculture and an NGO, the Environmental Monitoring Group, which have led to local economic development and enhanced capacity to manage natural resources in a sustainable manner. These pilot projects were undertaken within the framework of the Community Exchange and Training Programme of the Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The methodology applied included facilitation to develop a community-based vision for development, in terms of which the community exchange process was designed. A Facilitation Team of service providers conducted preparatory workshops, and identified potential partner communities. Two exchange visits were carried out, one focused on Rooibos production and marketing, and the other on community-based eco-tourism. Following report-back and planning workshops, emerging community-driven initiatives were supported through their formative stages. The initiatives have not only resulted in enhanced livelihoods, but the methodology has also been applied widely in a number of different contexts.  相似文献
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Combating desertification requires the involvement of many people ranging from communities who experience the effects on a daily basis and scientists attempting to understand the biophysical and socio-economic causes and consequences of desertification, to developers and policy makers on all levels. In many instances, however, the understanding, approaches and actions of these different groups contradict rather than support one another. Over the period 2000 to 2002, a conference process undertaken in southern Africa brought together communities, scientists, and development workers to test the concept that they could connect and work together to combat desertification, given an appropriate framework. The conference was a success, and communities, scientists and developers did exchange experience, knowledge and information. Many lessons were learned, although some pitfalls were experienced. Time, funding, enhanced communication, and good will are the primary ingredients for ensuring that different sectors complement one another in their efforts to combat desertification.  相似文献
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A nation-wide ecosystem science network for Canada was formed in 1994. At that time, mercury was a re-emerging issue in Canada and the Coordinating Office for the networksought collaboration to assess the issue. The key mechanismsby which the network has added value in addressing this issue are: 1) Information Dissemination, the network has organised, facilitated and co-hosted a number of regional,national and international mercury events (meetings, conferences and workshops) which have served to bring theexpertise together, the network also disseminates informationon it's web page, and the Coordinating Office hosts an annualNational Science Conference; 2) Collaborative Mercury Monitoring, network partners advocated the need for a singlehemispheric mercury network which resulted in the developmentof a compatible Canada–U.S. mercury deposition network, whichmay also be expanded into Mexico, and 3) Environmental Reporting, the network has collaborated with others to reporton current mercury findings through initiatives such as the 1998 Northeast States and Eastern Canadian Mercury Study, a 1999 Mercury Case Study and is presently a partner in the University of Quebec's proposal to form a Collaborative Mercury Ecosystem Research Network in Canada.  相似文献
8.
简述了环境监测机构监测能力的内涵以及监测能力认定的依据。指出,监测机构应保证其各项能力的持久性,才能确保其正常运作。其中,监测人员、仪器设备、监测方法等因素会造成监测能力中断。因此,监测机构应注重人才的培养和储备,加强仪器设备的日常维护、保障仪器运维资金的投入,及时做好监测方法变更,探索新的管理模式,维持监测能力,促进监测机构稳定持续发展。  相似文献
9.
近年来,环境监测能力建设项目资金投入不断加大,项目规模增长迅速,实施任务日益繁重,项目绩效考核要求越来越高,但项目管理还处于比较粗放的状态。在分析环境监测能力建设项目管理现状和需求的基础上,提出通过转变项目管理模式、强化信息支撑手段、完善制度建设、培养管理人才等多种手段,提高项目管理的科学性和时效性,实现重点项目管理的精细化、科学化和规范化。  相似文献
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