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1.
东北地区大气BTEX的时空分布特征   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
在东北地区7个典型城市中25个监测点进行了观测,时间分别为2008年4月、7月、10月和2009年1月,使用吸附剂采样管采集并通过热脱附-气相色谱-质谱联用技术分析了苯系物样品,系统研究了东北地区大气苯系物的时空分布特征。研究结果表明,苯和甲苯年均浓度值最高,分别为(4.19±2.31)μg/m3和(3.22±1.14)μg/m3,共占苯系物浓度近70%;各功能区按苯系物浓度大小顺序排列为混合区工业区交通区居民区文教区对照区;受排放源和气象条件的影响,采暖期苯系物浓度高于非采暖期苯系物浓度;风向频率影响苯系物浓度分布,沿下风向浓度逐渐降低;苯/甲苯比值分析表明,东北地区苯系物的主要来源是煤燃烧。  相似文献   

2.
上海市交通干道空气中苯系物冬季污染特征初探   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:5  
2004年冬季对上海市交通干道附近空气中苯系物的浓度水平进行了监测,并采用气相色谱法进行分析。结果表明,采样期间大气中苯、甲苯、乙苯、二甲苯的浓度分别为1.77~27.7μg/m3、7.29~195μg/m3、3.11~40.2μg/m3、4.49~82.4μg/m3。每日6:30~9:30和15:30~19:00两个时段苯系物的浓度要高于中午时间的浓度,与国内其他城市相比,上海市甲苯的浓度要高,浓度水平要远远高于国外城市的测定结果。苯系物的浓度受风速和风向影响较大。提出了制订空气中苯系物的排污清单和加强机动车尾气中苯系物控制的建议。  相似文献   

3.
杭州湾上虞工业园区环境空气中苯系物的调查及其特征   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
用活性炭吸附空气中有机物苯、甲苯、乙苯、对二甲苯、间二甲苯、邻二甲苯、苯乙烯,二硫化碳解吸后用毛细管气相色谱法同时测定,各组分线性响应良好,曲线相关系数均大于0.995;灵敏度高,检出限在0.01~0.03μg/ml之间;回收率在82.4%~105.8%之间。苯、甲苯、二甲苯均未超过GB 16297—1996中规定的0.5、0.3、1.5mg/m3,也未超过新污染源大气污染物排放限值中规定的0.4、2.4、1.2mg/m3,苯乙烯浓度也远小于恶臭污染物排放标准GB 14554—93中规定的一级标准3.0mg/m3,虽然工业园区及其周边大气环境均能检测出苯系物,但都在国家相关标准范围内。  相似文献   

4.
为推进城市空气质量精细化管理工作的实施,实现VOCs污染源精准排查,2019年3-4月,利用单光子电离飞行时间质谱对青岛市重点区域进行了VOCs走航观测。在排查到的污染源中,工业区的VOCs浓度较生活区整体偏高,且生活区、工业区夜间的VOCs浓度均较白天高。VOCs各类组分中,生活区白天苯系物、卤代烃、烯烃、烷烃的占比均在20%左右,夜间苯系物占比明显升高;工业区苯系物在白天和夜间的占比均最高,其他组分相对较小。浓度较高的前10位VOCs物种中,生活区白天烯烃物种占主导,夜间烷烃物种的比重明显增加;工业区苯系物、烯烃物种在白天和夜间的比重均较大,烷烃物种较小。生活区VOCs的污染源主要为机动车尾气排放和油品挥发,工业区主要为企业排放。烯烃和苯系物臭氧生成贡献较烷烃高,特别是丁烯、戊烯、己烯、甲苯、二甲苯/乙苯、三甲苯贡献显著,建议作为优控物种重点管控。  相似文献   

5.
车辆限行前后奥运场馆附近空气中苯系物污染特征与来源   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
在"好运北京"体育赛事车辆限行前后对北京奥运场馆,即四环路健翔桥附近空气中的6种苯系物进行了连续监测。监测结果显示,被测空气的苯系物中甲苯所占比例最大,为32.1%~42.5%,限行后总苯系物平均质量浓度降低了近47%。车辆限行前后,苯系物呈现类似的日变化规律,在交通早、晚高峰时出现峰值。限行前苯系物处于累积状态,日最高值出现在18点,限行后苯系物处于扩散状态,日最高值出现在8点。苯系物来源解析表明,整个交通管制期间苯/甲苯浓度的比值为0.49~0.55,且各苯系物具有良好的相关性,证明被测空气中苯系物具有良好的同源性,均来自汽车尾气。限制车流量可有效降低空气中苯系物浓度。  相似文献   

6.
采用动态顶空进样,气相色谱/离子阱质谱法测定土壤中的苯系物。对样品的吹扫温度、吹扫时间和解析时间进行了优化,各组分的方法检出限:苯为0.43 μg/kg,甲苯为1.13 μg/kg,对、间二甲苯均为1.74 μg/kg,邻二甲苯为0.37 μg/kg;对5种苯系物的低、中质量浓度标液进行加标,回收率为82.0%~115%,重复测定7次的RSD为4.8%~15.1%。对某造纸厂周边土壤样品中苯系物进行测定,结果固废堆存处周边土壤中苯和甲苯检出。  相似文献   

7.
采用气相色谱-质谱法,于2016年9月和12月对江苏省某化工企业与苯系物排放相关的废气排放口和周边居民区环境空气中苯、甲苯、邻二甲苯、间/对二甲苯、乙苯等5种典型苯系物(BTEX)的排放和区域污染特征进行分析,并开展BTEX来源分析及人体健康风险评估研究。结果表明,化工企业有机废气排放口苯质量浓度最高,超过《化学工业挥发性有机物排放标准》(DB32/3151—2016)限值,超标率达26.4%;环境空气中BTEX平均质量浓度为47.31μg/m3,BTEX检出率均超过80%,秋季和冬季BTEX质量浓度分别为72.5和22.2μg/m3,各组分质量浓度大小排序为:苯>甲苯>乙苯>间/对-二甲苯>邻-二甲苯,与废气排放口浓度大小顺序一致;与其他城市和地区进行比较,BTEX质量浓度处于中等水平。比值分析法研究BTEX来源结果表明,本地排放源是化工企业周边环境空气BTEX主要来源,一定程度上也受交通排放、化石燃料燃烧等污染源的影响。人体健康风险评估结果表明,BTEX单组分非致癌风险值(HQ)在安全范围之内,各监测点位 BTEX的HQ均<1,非致癌风险可以忽略不计;苯的致癌风险值(R)为7.33×10-6~7.49×10-5,均超过10,有一定的致癌风险,且苯是I类致癌物质,应采取源头控制措施避免健康风险。  相似文献   

8.
拉链排咪、塑料制品和印刷行业VOCs排放特征比对分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用GC-MS法测定拉链排咪、塑料制品、包装印刷行业的生产车间无组织VOCs排放,得到3个工业源VOCs源成分谱。结果表明:不同工业源排放的VOCs组分存在明显差异,拉链排咪以苯系物为主,占比3529%,主要污染物为正己烷、二氯甲烷、甲苯;塑料制品中苯系物占比为4735%,甲苯、乙酸乙酯、正己烷为主要污染物;包装印刷中苯系物质量分数高达6367%,甲苯、1,2,4-三甲苯、丙酮为主要污染物  相似文献   

9.
不同动力公交流动微环境BTEX的浓度水平及健康风险   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
用热解析气相色谱法采集分析不同动力公交车微环境中苯系物,研究了江南某旅游城市公交汽油车、柴油车、电车、液化天然气车、油电混合车空气中苯系物的浓度以及主要公交站台的苯系物的浓度。结果表明,公交车微环境中苯系物平均浓度从高到低依次为汽油车>柴油车>油电混合车>液化天然气车>电车,其中汽油车苯含量最高,为(21.02±9.51)μg/m3,各动力公交车的苯暴露对公交司机致癌风险为2.32×10-6~4.79×10-6,超过了美国EPA制定的人体致癌风险限值。  相似文献   

10.
室内装修后苯、甲苯、二甲苯和甲醛污染调查   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
对青岛市装修后房屋空气进行调查,按照装修时间分装修时间1周~6个月、7个月~1年、1年以上三个组,对三组室内空气中苯、甲苯、二甲苯和甲醛进行监测,发现室内装修时间短时苯、甲苯、二甲苯的浓度较高,甲醛浓度较低;随装修时间增长,苯、甲苯、二甲苯的浓度很快降低,但甲醛的浓度呈升高趋势。  相似文献   

11.
河流沉积物中有机污染物的分析研究进展   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6  
总结了近年来河流沉积物中有机污染物的研究进展 ,集中评述了国内有关沉积物中多环芳烃、有机氯农药和多氯联苯的分析研究现状 ,包括样品采集、样品前处理和样品分析 ,并对今后河流、湖泊及水库沉积物中污染物的分析工作作了展望  相似文献   

12.
Quantifying nickel in soils and plants in an ultramafic area in Philippines   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
In this study, concentrations of nickel (Ni) were quantified in the soils and plants in the agricultural areas of Salcedo watershed in Eastern Samar Island, Philippines. The quantity of total Ni in soils (TS-Ni) was significantly high with a mean of 1,409 mg kg?1, while the soil available Ni (SA-Ni) was low with a mean of 8.66 mg kg?1. As the levels of TS-Ni in the Salcedo watershed greatly exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soils, the site is not suitable for agricultural purposes. Despite significant TS-Ni levels, SA-Ni levels were very low due to tight binding between Ni and soil components. Consequently, all plants investigated did not meet the criterion for a Ni hyperaccumulator plant with low Ni contents (mean TP-Ni of 14.7 mg kg?1). Comparison of Ni levels between food plants and its recommended daily intake (RDI) suggests that consumption of food-plants grown in the study area is unlikely to pose health risks. However, caution must be taken against combined consumption of food plants with high Ni levels or their prolonged consumption, as it can induce accumulation of Ni above RDI.  相似文献   

13.
选取位于西藏拉萨的罗布林卡、龙王潭公园、布达拉宫广场,位于林芝的福建公园,以及位于昌都的天津广场等5个城市公园,于2017年5—6月采取样线法对其中的鸟类群落组成和外来鸟种情况进行调查。调查共记录到鸟类9目20科36种,其中属于古北界的有12种,东洋界和广布种也均为12种。36种鸟类中,留鸟24种,夏候鸟6种,冬候鸟2种,旅鸟4种。统计到外来鸟种4种,包括山噪鹛(Garrulax davidi)、八哥(Acridotheres cristatellus)、红嘴相思鸟(Leiothrix lutea)及大紫胸鹦鹉(Psittacula derbiana),占调查鸟种种类的11.1%,外来物种的入侵风险在高原不容忽视。  相似文献   

14.
Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world’s mega-diverse countries, with 20 % of the world’s flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2 %) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity.  相似文献   

15.
Implementing good practice social impact assessment (SIA) that meets international standards in countries in transition is problematic. We reflect on the challenges faced when undertaking SIA in the Russian Federation. These challenges restrict meaningful SIA processes from being undertaken and limit public participation and the effective community engagement of project-affected local people. Based on the self-reflexive professional experience of two Russian-based social practitioners, and their discursive interactions with two leading academics in environmental and social impact assessment, as well as on in-depth interviews with prominent Russian and international experts, we identified the key challenges that prevent effective SIA from being implemented in Russia: a lack of understanding of the international standards; discrepancy in the determination of the social area of influence between the national requirements and international standards; difficulties in combining national and international impact assessment processes; and a tendency by companies to restrict stakeholder engagement to the minimum. We hope that by having an awareness of these limitations, improvements to SIA practice in Russia and elsewhere will be made.  相似文献   

16.
HPLC法测定饲料中维生素A、维生素D 3 和维生素E   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
建立了以w(C2H5OH)=95 %乙醇直接提取,高效液相色谱仪在波长280 nm和254 nm处连续测定饲料中维生素A、维生素D3和维生素E的方法.色谱柱为大连依利特Hypersil ODS C18(25 cm×4.6 mm×5 μm),流动相为甲醇-水,流速为1.2 mL/min.维生素A、维生素D3、维生素E的质量浓度分别在1.0 mg/L~20.0 mg/L、0.5 mg/L~15.0 mg/L 、2.5 mg/L~50.0 mg/L范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,检测限分别为0.3×10-6 μg、0.04×10-6 μg、5.0×10-6 μg,相对标准偏差分别为1.6 %、2.7 %、2.4 %,平均回收率分别为99 %、102 %、98 %.  相似文献   

17.
Concern about nitrogen loads in marine environments has drawn attention to the existence and possible causes of long-term trends in nitrogen transport in rivers. The present study was based on data from the Swedish environmental monitoring programme for surface water quality; the continuity of these data is internationally unique. A recently developed semiparametric method was employed to study the development of relationships between runoff and river transport of nitrogen since 1971; the observed relationships were then used to produce time series of flow-normalised transports for 66 sites in 39 river basins. Subsequent statistical analyses of flow-normalised data revealed only few significant downward trends (p 0.05) during the time period 1971–1994, and the most pronounced of these downward trends were caused by reduced point emissions of nitrogen. The number of significant upward trends was substantially larger (15 for total-N and 18 for NO3-N). Closer examination of obtained results revealed the following: (i) the most pronounced upward trends were present downstream of lakes, and (ii) observed increases in nitrogen transport coincided in time and space with reduced point emissions of phosphorus or organic matter. This indicated that changes in the retention of nitrogen in lakes were responsible for the upward nitrogen trends. The hypothesis that nitrogen saturation of forest soils has caused a general increase in the riverine export of nitrogen from forested catchments in Sweden was not confirmed. Neither did the results indicate that improved agricultural practices have reduced the export of nitrogen from agricultural catchments.  相似文献   

18.
As a part the Italian National Programme of Research in Antarctica (PNRA) a monitoring study has been undertaken to quantify the concentrations of some selected trace elements in human hair of participants in the Antarctic expeditions. Such concentrations may vary as a consequence of the extreme environmental conditions and changes in lifestyle experienced by participants in the expeditions, as some evidence in previous investigations seems to suggest. The present study regards samples collected on the occasion of the 2002-2003 expedition to the Italian Base of Terra Nova Bay (now Mario Zucchelli Base), i.e., just before the expedition and about one month later. Seven essential elements were taken into account, namely, Ca, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn and Mo. Determinations were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Dynamic Reaction Cell Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). Data obtained were statistically treated by using the non-parametric Friedman test. The concentrations of Ca, Cu and Mg were found to decrease (P < 0.05). The stress caused by the severe environmental conditions might well play a role in the observed decrease.  相似文献   

19.
为调查丽水市空气中Pb污染现状,在机动车相对集中的市区布设5个测点,测点高度1.2m;监测周期为1a,每星期采样1d或2d,每天采集1个样,每次采样6h;监测项目为TSP、Pb;评价标准采用GB3095—1996《环境空气质量标准》。结果表明,丽水市各测点空气中Pb最大的季均值、年均值均未超标;常规测点和交通路口测点之间TSP、Pb质量浓度值均存在显著的差异性。  相似文献   

20.
Indoor and outdoor measurements of formaldehyde were conducted at seven flats located in residential areas in Greater Cairo, during spring and summer seasons 1999. The mean daytime formaldehyde concentrations in kitchens, bedrooms and living rooms were 89, 100 and 100 ppb, respectively, in the seven flats. Significant positive correlations were found between the concentrations of formaldehyde found in these three rooms. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between the mean formaldehyde concentrations in these three rooms. The maximum mean concentration of formaldehyde (147 ppb) was recorded in a new flat, while the minimum concentration (43 ppb) was observed in an old flat. The maximum hourly and daytime concentrations were 350 and 225 ppb, respectively. Air temperature, relative humidity and the age of the flat are factors affecting the emission and concentration of formaldehyde. The maximum indoor and outdoor formaldehyde concentrations were recorded during the summer season. During the spring, 38% of the samples indicated that the concentration of formaldehyde in the seven flats exceeded 0.1 ppm, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard; in the summer, this figure increased to 53%.  相似文献   

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