首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
相似文献
 共查询到20条相似文献,搜索用时 484 毫秒
1.
淮南市秋季大气可吸入颗粒物中多环芳烃的污染特征分析   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
2007年秋季在淮南市五个采样点采集大气可吸入颗粒物样品,用色谱-质谱法分析多环芳烃中16种优控污染物.结果显示,交通区PAHs浓度最高;PAHs以四环为主,二环所占比例最小;PM10与ΣPAHs成显著正相关关系,与苯并[a]芘成显著正相关;采用比值法对准南市PM10中的PAHs进行来源分析,得到PAHs主要来源于交通源及燃煤排放.  相似文献   

2.
采用SUMMA罐采样-预浓缩-气相色谱/质谱联用技术测定挥发性有机物(VOCs),滤膜采样-高效液相色谱法测定颗粒物中多环芳烃(PAHs)。选取攀枝花市不同功能区的5个测点,分别采集并测定了4个季度的大气样品。共检出VOCs 54种,其中烃类占24%,卤代烃类占52%,含氧化合物占22%,其它化合物占2%,苯系物检出率最高。检出PAHs15种,其中苯并[a]芘等11种PAHs单体的检出率为100%。主要大气有机物分布整体呈现出旱季高,雨季低的特点。应用比值法、相关性及因子分析法对来源进行识别,结果表明机动车、燃煤和炼焦排放是攀枝花市大气有机污染物的主要来源。  相似文献   

3.
对2012年郑州市大气中气态和颗粒态多环芳烃(PAHs)的分布特征与来源进行了分析。结果表明,ρ(∑PAHs)(包括气相与颗粒相)为23.27~194.61 ng/m3,气相中∑PAHs高于颗粒相,四环以下的PAHs大都存在于气态中;在夏、春2季,较小分子质量(≤178)的PAHs占比较高,冬季,较大分子质量(≥252)的PAHs占比明显较高;各功能区ρ(PAHs)排序为工业区交通密集区医疗、文化、行政混合区。郑州大气和颗粒物中PAHs可能主要来自煤和液体燃料(汽油柴油)的燃烧。  相似文献   

4.
在郑州市交通密集区、工业区、居民文化区等不同功能区设置监测点位,分春、夏、秋、冬4季对大气环境中半挥发性有机污染物的污染状况进行初步研究。结果表明:不同季节半挥发性有机物检出数量的变化趋势为:冬季秋季春季夏季;不同功能区SVOC检出数量变化趋势为:交通密集区工业区混合区文化区对照区。  相似文献   

5.
重庆市春季不同功能区PM10中多环芳烃的污染特征   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
2012年4月在重庆市4个不同功能区连续10 d同步采集了大气PM10环境样品,利用气相色谱-质谱法分析测定美国环保局16种优控多环芳烃(PAHs).结果显示,在重庆主城区PM10中检测到16种优控PAHs,总浓度(∑PAHs)范围为31.68~ 189.31 ng/m3,平均浓度为108.05 ng/m3.各个功能区大气PM10中PAHs总浓度存在明显差别:交通区(沙坪坝七中)154.47 ng/m3>工业区(大渡口区政府)132.92 ng/m3>居民区(南岸工商大学)105.58 ng/m3>对照区(缙云山风景区)39.16 ng/m3.根据典型污染来源中PAHs的特征比值综合判断,重庆市春季大气中PM10主要来源于燃煤和交通污染的混合源.  相似文献   

6.
淮南市春季大气PM 10 中多环芳烃的污染特征及来源   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
2008年4月-2008年6月对淮南市的5个采样点PM10连续采样,分析了其中多环芳烃(PAHs)。PAHs质量浓度的最大值和最小值分别为112ng/m^3和15.2ng/m^3,PAHs春季质量浓度均值为40.2ng/m^3;PAHs组成以4环和5环为主;春季不同采样点PAHs质量浓度与环境温度呈负相关关系,运用PAHs比值综合判断,淮南市春季大气PM10中PAHs主要来源于燃煤和机动车尾气。  相似文献   

7.
通过采集了2004~2006年北京市昌平区四个季节中大气PM10样品,采用超声抽提方法,使用GC/MS分析了该区PAHs含量和组成.结果显示,三年中四个季度的18种PAHs总量范围分别为21.64~656.39ng/m3、31.94~164.33ng/m3和7.294~209.3ng/m3,其中致癌性极强的苯并[a]芘含量范围为2.69~36.95 ng/m3、1.44~6.6ng/m3和0.256~8.625ng/m1,其变化趋势与PAHs总量有较好的相关性.PAHs的浓度是冬季>秋季>夏季>春季,这与夏季时雨水冲刷和阳光照射强度大导致PAHs光解,冬季时燃煤排放大等影响因素有关.文章还使用多种方法判断昌平区大气PM10中的PAHs主要来源于燃煤和汽车尾气,其它污染源贡献较小.  相似文献   

8.
炼焦过程中挥发性有机物成分谱特征初步研究   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
通过吸附管采样和热脱附/GC/MS分析研究了土焦炉生产过程中挥发性有机物排放和机械炼焦厂外大气中挥发性有机物分布.土法炼焦过程中TVOC排放高达1782.2μg/m3.成分分析显示,土法炼焦烟气和机械炼焦厂外大气中挥发性有机物包含苯系物、烷烃、卤代烃和萜烯类,其中以苯系物为主,分别占75.63%和72.25%.BTEX比值分析显示,炼焦排放挥发性有机物的特征有别于汽车等交通排放.  相似文献   

9.
用玻璃纤维滤膜采集PM_(2.5)样品,乙腈超声提取-高效液相色谱法分析测量多环芳烃浓度。结果表明:PAHs的浓度变化受到大气降水的影响,夏季浓度最低,冬季浓度最高,PM_(2.5)中PAHs总量月平均变化趋势呈"凹"形变化;PAHs的结构以2~3环、5~6环为主;比值法显示PAHs来源与稳定的排放源相关,机动车排放不容忽视,与北方城市燃煤污染有着较大区别。  相似文献   

10.
在克拉玛依市中心城区布设4个采样点,在供暖期和非供暖期分别同步采集4个点位大气中不同粒径的颗粒物,采用HPLC进行分析并计算2个采样期内PM_(10)和PM_(2.5)中多环芳烃(PAHs)的浓度和种类。结果表明:中心城区供暖期PM_(10)中PAHs浓度为56.19 ng/m3,PM_(2.5)中PAHs浓度为48.85 ng/m3;中心城区非供暖期PM_(10)中PAHs浓度为18.86 ng/m~3,PM_(2.5)中PAHs浓度为14.53 ng/m~3。不同采样期PM_(10)和PM_(2.5)中PAHs浓度变化趋势相同,均为供暖期明显大于非供暖期。中心城区供暖期大气颗粒物吸附的PAHs以4环以下的组份为主,非供暖期则是5~6环的高环数组份偏多。分析结果表明克拉玛依市中心城区供暖期颗粒物中PAHs来源于燃煤排放叠加机动车排放,与中心城区集中供热锅炉关系密切;非供暖期则是以机动车排放污染为主。  相似文献   

11.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air of Chinese cities   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the air of 37 cities and 3 rural locations across China during the winter, spring, summer and autumn of 2005, using polyurethane foam (PUF) disks as passive air samplers (PAS). Winter and autumn concentrations in cities exceeded spring and summer values. Concentrations were amongst the highest in the world; seasonally averaged autumn/winter values in some cities in the north and north-west of China exceeded proposed European Union air quality standards. Several factors, acting in combination, influenced air concentrations. A significant negative correlation was found between average annual city concentrations and the annual average temperature, while winter time PAH concentrations correlated with estimated coal consumption. The highest total PAH concentrations and loadings of high molecular weight compounds generally occurred in major cities located on higher land (500-2000 m), where relatively cold winters and higher coal consumption occurs. Lower values occurred in cities located in the south and east China and along the coastal regions. Molecular markers indicated incomplete combustion of fossil fuels dominated the urban air and gave evidence for photo-decomposition of selected compounds.  相似文献   

12.
主动采样技术在中国大气POPs监测中的应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
为了履行斯德哥尔摩公约,查明持久性有机污染物(POPs)在中国大气环境介质的存在水平,该研究首次采用主动采样技术,在中国境内大尺度范围内进行了环境大气中POPs的监测工作.利用主动采样技术,可以在短时间内采集数百立方米的大气样品.分别利用玻璃纤维滤膜采集大气颗粒物(固相)中的POPs,同时使用聚氨酯泡沫(PUF)吸附气态的POPs.该采样技术还便于样品的运输和保存.研究表明,大气主动采样技术可以很好地运用于区域大气POPs的监测工作并填补了我国在POPs履约监测中专用仪器设备的空白.  相似文献   

13.
Measurements of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air are subject to substantial variability and uncertainty. This study apportions total variance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlordanes to variability and uncertainty components. Concentrations of PAHs and chlordanes were measured inside and outside of 116 residences in three large cities in the U.S. during 1999-2000. Total variance was apportioned to between-city, between-tract, between-residence, and seasonal variation, as well as measurement uncertainty using variance component analysis and log-transformed data for frequently detected compounds. Outdoors, seasonal variation was the greatest portion (44-67%) of total variance, and city effects were significant (19-24%). Indoors, seasonality dominated variability of PAH measurements (>50%). Gas-phase PAHs varied more within city than between cities; particulate-phase PAHs varied significantly between cities but were largely homogeneous within cities. Gas-phase chlordanes showed larger intra-urban variation (63%) than seasonal variation (18%). Measurement uncertainty was generally below 10% with a few exceptions occurring at very low concentrations. Results indicate a need to collect multiple-season samples to account for the large temporal variation between seasons. Samples from centrally located monitoring stations could be representative of ambient SVOCs. Variance component analysis is useful to weigh influential factors in SVOC concentrations, identify and apportion sources, evaluate method performance, and design effective monitoring programs.  相似文献   

14.
The contamination of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the surface sediments of the Guan River Estuary, China was fully investigated. Total concentrations of 56 species of SVOCs ranged from 132 to 274 ng/g with an average of 186 ng/g (dry weight). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were positively correlated with clay content and negatively correlated with sediment grain size. Source identification indicated that PAHs originated mainly from pyrolytic sources. However, intense ship traffic in the estuary may provide sources of petrogenic PAHs. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) mainly originated from direct input of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) during some industrial processes. The SVOC concentrations were also compared with International Sediments Quality Guidelines and Sediments Quality Criteria, and the results indicated that negative biological impacts may originate from high concentrations of FLO, p,p′-DDE, and total DDTs.  相似文献   

15.
A GC-MS procedure for the determination of hydrocarbons in air samples from Oviedo, Spain, was developed. Air hydrocarbons were sampled with a high volume sampler equipped with a holder containing a glass fiber filter, to trap the particulate phase, and two polyurethane foams to capture hydrocarbons of the vapour phase. Compounds were extracted with CH2Cl2 by Soxhlet extraction and then fractionated using column chromatography with alumina silica. Analyses of the fractions were performed by GC-MS in the electron ionization mode. PAHs and n-alkanes were the compounds examined in this work. Samples collected in the vicinity of the Faculty of Chemistry (a semi-urban area) were analysed. The total concentration of PAHs in the air samples analysed ranged from 28 to 76 ng m(-3). The total concentration of n-alkanes and PAHs in the vapour phase exceeded the concentration in the particulate phase in the samples analysed.  相似文献   

16.
In this study we performed a direct comparison between two different ambient air samplers to characterize their performance in sampling oxidized gaseous organic compounds, known as oxidation products of aromatics. We investigated compounds with a variety of functional groups and vapor pressures. A polyurethane foam (PUF) adsorbent and an annular diffusion denuder sampler were operated along with particle filters. In both systems the sampling devices were liquid-extracted, followed by derivatization and analysis by GC-MS. The PUF system works very well for aromatic as well as non-aromatic compounds, whereas the denuder shows smaller collection efficiencies for highly volatile non-aromatic compounds. In addition, the sampling efficiencies in the PUF set-up are in good agreement with the calculated vapor pressures of the compounds and also the particle phase is not affected by most compounds.  相似文献   

17.
于非采暖季和采暖季分别采集某石化化工行业聚集城市中心城区室内外PM_(2.5)样品,采用高效液相色谱法分析PM_(2.5)上载带的16种PAHs,对其分布特征、来源以及室外PAHs污染对室内污染的贡献进行了初步探讨。结果表明,研究区域非采暖季和采暖季室外PM_(2.5)中ΣPAHs浓度日均值分别为36.3、294 ng/m~3,室内PM_(2.5)中ΣPAHs浓度分别为14.8、84.6 ng/m~3,均以4、5环PAHs为主;室内PAHs主要来自室外渗透污染,但同时明显存在室内排放源贡献;PAHs来源分析进一步证实研究区域PAHs主要来自煤炭、石油等不完全燃烧,采暖季煤炭燃烧源贡献更突出。  相似文献   

18.
Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.  相似文献   

19.
宣威市和富源县位于我国云南省东北部,是全世界肺癌发病率最高的地区之一。当地居民在不通风的房间内燃烧烟煤做饭或取暖造成了严重的室内空气污染。研究表明,长期暴露在燃煤造成的污染物中是导致两地居民肺癌持续高发的主要原因,多环芳烃是最可疑的致病因子之一。2008年1月,分别用聚胺脂泡沫和玻璃纤维滤膜采集了当地9个点位室内、室外空气中气相和颗粒物相中的多环芳烃,同时采集了对应点位的土壤样品。通过对样品的分析,考察了当地空气和土壤中多环芳烃的污染水平、特征以及来源。结果证明,当地空气和土壤中存在严重的多环芳烃污染,室内污染显著高于室外,然而随着当地工业的发展室外污染同样不可忽视,主成分分析结合比值法证明,当地室内外多环芳烃的主要污染源来自于煤炭的燃烧。对空气颗粒物和土壤中多环芳烃浓度进行了比较,对土壤中多环芳烃的来源进行了验证。  相似文献   

20.
Prior to the 1950's, manufactured gas was commerciallyproduced from the pyrolysis of coal, coke, and oil atfacilities that are termed manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The constituents of residual coal tar present on many MGPsites are an environmental health concern because of theirtoxicity and the possibility for their off-site migration viawater and air. Atmospheric concentrations of five volatileorganic compounds (VOCs, e.g., benzene), sixteen polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, e.g., naphthalene), and particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamicdiameter (PM10) were measured at the site of a former MGP. Air samples were obtained before, during, and after excavationof subterranean coal tar at the site. The results of thisinvestigation indicate that subterranean coal tar was not aprimary source of VOCs and PAHs in the local atmosphere beforeor after remediation of the site. However, excavation,treatment, blending, and transfer of the coal tar duringremediation generated concentrations of selected aromatic andsemi-volatile organic compounds that were substantiallygreater than typical ambient levels. In addition, these datasuggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead toexceedance of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standardfor PM10, although additional research is required to fullyevaluate this possibility. Nuisance odors associated with thesite remediation were likely the result of naphthalene andpossibly isomers of xylene. Air pollutant concentrationsmeasured adjacent to the excavation area and at the siteperimeter during remediation activities were less than therelevant occupational and environmental exposure limits.  相似文献   

设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号