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1.
The burning rate of a slick of oil on a water bed is calculated by a simple expression derived from a one-dimensional heat conduction equation. Heat feedback from the flame to the surface is assumed to be a constant fraction of the total energy released by the combustion reaction. The constant fraction (χ) is named the burning efficiency and represents an important tool in assessing the potential of in situ burning as a counter-measure to an oil-spill. The total heat release, as a function of the pool diameter, is obtained from an existing correlation. It is assumed that radiative heat is absorbed close to the fuel surface, that conduction is the dominant mode of heat transfer in the liquid phase and that the fuel boiling temperature remains constant. By matching the characteristic thermal penetration length scale for the fuel/water system and an equivalent single layer system, a combined thermal diffusivity can be calculated and used to obtain an analytical solution for the burning rate. Theoretical expressions were correlated with crude oil and heating oil, for a number of pool diameters and initial fuel layer thickness. Experiments were also conducted with emulsified and weathered crude oil. The simple analytical expression describes well the effects of pool diameter and initial fuel layer thickness permitting a better observation of the effects of weathering, emulsification and net heat feedback to the fuel surface. Experiments showed that only a small fraction of the heat released by the flame is retained by the fuel layer and water bed (of the order of 1%). The effect of weathering on the burning rate decreases with the weathering period and that emulsification results in a linear decrease of the burning rate with water content.  相似文献   

2.
The degradation of cellulose (a substantial component of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste) under alkaline conditions occurs via two main processes: a peeling-off reaction and a basecatalyzed cleavage of glycosidic bonds (hydrolysis). Both processes show pseudo-first-order kinetics. At ambient temperature, the peeling-off process is the dominant degradation mechanism, resulting in the formation of mainly isosaccharinic acid. The degradation depends strongly on the degree of polymerization (DP) and on the number of reducing end groups present in cellulose. Beyond pH 12.5, the OH- concentration has only a minor effect on the degradation rate. It was estimated that under repository conditions (alkaline environment, pH 13.3-12.5) about 10% of the cellulosic materials (average DP = 1000-2000) will degrade in the first stage (up to 105 years) by the peeling-off reaction and will cause an ingrowth of isosaccharinic acid in the interstitial cement pore water. In the second stage (105-106 years), alkaline hydrolysis will control the further degradation of the cellulose. The potential role of microorganisms in the degradation of cellulose under alkaline conditions could not be evaluated. Proper assessment of the effect of cellulose degradation on the mobilization of radionuclides basically requires knowing the concentration of isosaccharinic acid in the pore water. This concentration, however, depends on several factors such as the stability of ISA under alkaline conditions, sorption of ISA on cement, formation of sparingly soluble ISA-salts, etc. A discussion of all the relevant processes involved, however, is far beyond the scope of the presented overview.  相似文献   

3.
Six film samples of low-density polypropylene (LDPE)/linear LDPE (LLDPE)/high-density polypropylene (HDPE) with varying ratios of LDPE (20–45 ... wt%) and LLDPE (25–50 wt%) having a fixed amount of HDPE at 30 wt% were prepared by blown film extrusion technique. The samples were aged at four different temperatures, 55°, 70°, 85°, and 100°C, for four different time periods in the interval of between 150 hours and up to 600 hours. The change in the structure of various constituents and the formation of various oxygenated (peroxy and hydroperoxy) and unsaturated groups during thermo-oxidative degradation was discussed by infrared spectroscopy. The visiosity-average molecular weight was found to have decreased slowly in the initial aging hours and temperatures, whereas it decreased by 10% with its previous value tensile strength that is, 100°C when aged for 600 hours. The tensile strength of the sample first increased by 67% at 55°C and 89% at 70°C up to 450 hours, whereas the values increased by 52.5% at 85°C and 33.9% at 100°C when aged for 150 hours and then decreased. The percentage elongation at break increased by 2.7% at 55°C and 10.7% at 70°C for 150 and 300 hours of aging, respectively, whereas the percentage decreased when aged at 85°C and 100°C for up to 600 hours of aging. The values of gel content (percent) increased and initial degradation temperature decreased with aging time and temperature.  相似文献   

4.
Establishing carbon balances has been proven to be an applicable and powerful tool in testing biodegradability of polymers. In controlled degradation tests at a 4-L scale with the model polymer poly(-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), it was shown that the degree of degradation could not be determined with satisfactory accuracy from CO2 release alone. Instead, the course of degradation was characterized by means of establishing carbon balances for the degradation of PHB withAcidovorax facilis and a mixed culture derived from compost. Different analytical methods for determining the different carbon fractions were adapted to the particular test conditions and compared. Quantitative determination of biomass and residual polymer were the main problems in establishing carbon balances. Amounts of biomass derived from protein measurements depend strongly on assumptions of the protein content of the biomass. Selective oxidation of biomass with hypochlorite was used as alternative, but here problems arose from insoluble metabolic products. Determination of soluble components with the method of chemical oxygen demand (COD) also includes empirical assumptions but seems acceptable if the dissolved carbon fraction is in the range of some 10% total carbon. Results confirm both analytical assays and theoretical approaches, in ending up at values very close to 100%, within an acceptable standard deviation range under test conditions comparable to standard test practice.Paper presented at the Bio/Environmentally Degradable Polymer Society—Third National Meeting, June 6–8, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts.  相似文献   

5.
The effects of temperature on the release of chemical components of six solid organic materials under conditions of oversaturation were investigated in this paper. The six materials were peat moss (PM), weathered coals (WC), charred rice husks (CRH), sawdust (Sd), turfgrass clippings (TC), and chicken manure (CM). Significant differences were observed in the available nitrogen and phosphorus content of the aqueous extracts of organic materials at different temperatures. The available nitrogen content in aqueous extracts of PM and WC at 25 °C was higher than that registered at 15 °C and 35 °C. Available nitrogen content in the aqueous extracts of CRH, Sd, TC, and WC at 35 °C was higher than at 15 °C and 25 °C. The available phosphorus content in the aqueous extracts of organic materials at 35 °C was higher than that available at 15 °C and 25 °C, with the exception of Sd. In addition, the release of available phosphorus in the aqueous solution of organic materials at different temperatures varied constantly for 108 h. The release of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) ions in the aqueous extracts of organic materials was basically steady over time, with the exception of CM. High temperature (35 °C) may significantly hasten the release of K+ from organic substrates (except for WC) with low temperatures significantly inhibiting release of K+ in Sd and CRH. High temperatures (35 °C) might significantly facilitate the release of Na+ in CM and TC. However, no significant differences were manifested in the release of Na+ from organic substrates at different temperatures, with the exception of CM and TC. Moreover, no significant differences were observed in the release of calcium, magnesium and iron ions with time, nor were there any significant differences in the contents of iron ions in the aqueous extracts of organic materials at different temperatures. The results indicate that multiple mediums should be pretreated in water for a week before being used for planting. They should be used when all mineral elements of organic materials are steady and ignoring the effect of organic mediums.  相似文献   

6.
Octenyl succinate starch of degree of substitution (ds) 0.03, 0.07, and 0.11 was synthesized in an aqueous medium. These compounds were then tested for the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. The multiple-enzyme regime of -amylase, amyloglucosidase, and pullulanase was chosen for the evaluation. This combination of enzymes had been proven to degrade 99.5% of unmodified starch to glucose and hence was chosen for this study. It was found that even small amounts of subsituent caused a considerable decrease in the extent of degradation. The net extent of degradation decreased with increasing ds. Surprisingly, the amount of glucose from all three substituted substrates was quite similar, suggesting the effect small amounts of subtituent had on the enzymatic activity.  相似文献   

7.
The burning rate of a slick of oil on a water bed is characterized by three distinct processes, ignition, flame spread and burning rate. Although all three processes are important, ignition and burning rate are critical. The former, because it defines the potential to burn and the latter because of the inherent possibility of boilover. Burning rate is calculated by a simple expression derived from a one-dimensional heat conduction equation. Heat feedback from the flame to the surface is assumed to be a constant fraction of the total energy released by the combustion reaction. The constant fraction (χ) is named the burning efficiency and represents an important tool in assessing the potential of in situ burning as a counter-measure to an oil spill. By matching the characteristic thermal penetration length scale for the fuel/water system and an equivalent single layer system, a combined thermal diffusivity can be calculated and used to obtain an analytical solution for the burning rate. Theoretical expressions were correlated with crude oil and heating oil, for a number of pool diameters and initial fuel layer thickness. Experiments were also conducted with emulsified and weathered crude oil. The simple analytical expression describes well the effects of pool diameter and initial fuel layer thickness permitting a better observation of the effects of weathering, emulsification and net heat feedback to the fuel surface. Experiments showed that only a small fraction of the heat released by the flame is retained by the fuel layer and water bed (of the order of 1%). Ignition has been studied to provide a tool that will serve to assess a fuels ease to ignite under conditions that are representative of oil spills. Two different techniques are used, piloted ignition when the fuel is exposed to a radiant heat flux and flash point as measured by the ASTM D56 Tag Closed Cup Test. Two different crude oils were used for these experiments, ANS and Cook Inlet. Crude oils were tested in their natural state and at different levels of weathering, showing that piloted ignition and flash point are strong functions of weathering level.  相似文献   

8.
The simultaneous adsorption of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) ions from spiked deionized water and spiked leachate onto natural materials (peat A and B), by-product or waste materials (carbon-containing ash, paper pellets, pine bark, and semi-coke), and synthetic materials (based on urea-formaldehyde resins, called blue and red adsorbents) or mixtures thereof was investigated. The adsorbents that gave the highest metal removal efficiencies were peat A, a mixture of peat B and carbon-containing ash, and a mixture of peat A and blue. At an initial concentration of 5 mg/l for each metal, the removal of each species of metal ion from spiked water and spiked leachate solutions was very good (>90%) and good (>75%), respectively. When the initial concentration of each metal in the solutions was twenty times higher (100 mg/l), there was a noticeable decrease in the removal efficiency of Cu2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+, but not of Pb2+. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacities, qm, on peat A were found to be 0.57, 0.37, and 0.36 mmol/g for Pb2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+, respectively. The order of metal adsorption capacity on peat A was the same in the case of competitive multimetal adsorption conditions as it was for single-element adsorption, namely Pb2+ > Cd2+ ≥ Ni2+. The results show that peat alone (an inexpensive adsorbent) is a good adsorbent for heavy metal ions.  相似文献   

9.
Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) in Greece consist mainly of fermentable organic material such as food scraps (~50%) and paper residuals (~20%). The aim of this work was to study the thermo-chemical pretreatment of the kitchen waste (KW) fraction of MSW focusing on biotechnological exploitation of pretreated wastes for biofuel production. A representative sample of municipal food residues was derived by combining weighted amounts of each individual type of residue recognized in daily samples obtained from the University of Patras’ students restaurant located at the Students Residence Hall (Greece). Chemical pretreatment experiments of the representative KW sample were performed using several types of chemical solutions (i.e. H2SO4, HCl, NaOH, H2SO3) of different solute concentration (0.7%, 1.5%, 3%) at three temperatures (50, 75, 120 °C) and a range of residence times (30–120 min). Optimized results proved that chemical pretreatment of KW, using either 1.12% HCl for 94 min or 1.17% HCl for 86 min (at 100 °C), increased soluble sugars concentration by 120% compared to untreated KW. The increase of soluble sugars was mainly attributed to the mono-sugars glucose and fructose.  相似文献   

10.
This article presents a mathematical model which describes the sodium chromate (VI) production process with the use of chromic waste as a substitution of natural raw materials. This model is a function of selected process parameters common for all of the examined alternatives and based on equations of material balance. Optimization of the elaborated technological alternatives of the production process with use of recycling of chromic waste has been evaluated by determining the extreme value of the quality indicator WJ. This indicator defines the quantity of waste created in the process. Optimization results enabled the selection of the optimal technological solution from all of the alternatives possible for use in industrial practice. Negative values of the indicator prove that there is the possibility of introducing to the process a larger quantity of waste than the one obtained in the process and transported to the storage heaps.  相似文献   

11.
The chemical recycling of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to its monomer is crucial to reduce both the consumption of renewable resources for the monomer synthesis and the environmental impact related to its production and disposal. In particular, the production of lactic acid from PLA wastes, rather than from virgin raw materials, it is also possible to achieve considerable primary energy savings. The focus of this work is to analyse deeply the PLA hydrolytic decomposition by means of a kinetic model based on two reactions mechanism. To this end, new experimental data have been gathered in order to investigate a wider temperature range (from 140 to 180 °C) and to extend the water/PLA ratio up to 50 % of PLA by weight. The reported results clearly highlight that more than 95 % of PLA is hydrolyzed to water-soluble lactic acid within 120 min, when it is hydrolyzed within 160–180 °C. Furthermore, the kinetic constant is highly influenced by reaction temperature. The proposed “two reactions” kinetic mechanism complies satisfactorily with the experimental data under analysis.  相似文献   

12.
以N2和CO2混合气模拟燃烧烟气,研究了鼓泡反应器的高径比以及反应条件对氨法烟气脱碳性能的影响。实验结果表明:在相同高径比的条件下,CO2吸收率随氨水质量分数的增加、反应温度的升高而逐渐增大,随进气CO2体积分数和模拟烟气流量的增加而逐渐减小;CO2吸收率随高径比的增加而增大,在高径比为3.98、氨水质量分数为28%、进气CO2体积分数为10%、模拟烟气流量为1.0L/min、反应温度为40℃的条件下,CO2吸收率最高可达100%。  相似文献   

13.
The efficiency of waste degradation can be expressed by the rate of waste decomposition in individual phases. This article presents the durations of degradation phases of pretreated and untreated waste stabilized in anaerobic laboratory reactors. In this investigation, the quantities of organic and nitrogen contaminants emitted from the waste during the study are presented. The study confirmed the beneficial effects of aerobic pretreatment of waste before landfilling on reducing the duration of hydrolysis and acid phases, and speeding up the start of the stable methane phase. In the pretreated waste reactor, the stable methane phase began about 19 weeks earlier than in the untreated waste. The total amounts of contaminants removed from the aerobic pretreatment waste were lower than from untreated waste, with values of COD, TOC, BOD5, and VFA corresponding to 21, 18, 6, and 23 %, respectively, and values of TKN and NH4 of 7 and 50 %, respectively.  相似文献   

14.
In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu.  相似文献   

15.
Following the basics of soil mechanics, the physico-mechanical behaviour of municipal solid waste (MSW) can be defined through constitutive relationships which are expressed with respect to three physical parameters: the dry density, the porosity and the gravimetric liquid content. In order to take into account the complexity of MSW (grain size distribution and heterogeneity larger than for conventional soils), a special oedometer was designed to carry out laboratory experiments. This apparatus allowed a coupled measurement of physical parameters for MSW settlement under stress. The studied material was a typical sample of fresh MSW from a French landfill. The relevant physical parameters were measured using a gas pycnometer. Moreover, the compressibility of MSW was studied with respect to the initial gravimetric liquid content. Proposed methods to assess the set of three physical parameters allow a relevant understanding of the physico-mechanical behaviour of MSW under compression, specifically, the evolution of the limit liquid content. The present method can be extended to any type of MSW.  相似文献   

16.
Methyleneureas are condensation products of urea and formaldehyde of different molecular mass and solubility; they are used in large amounts both as resins, binders, and insulating materials for industrial applications, as well as a slow-release nitrogen fertilizer for greens, lawns, or in bioremediation processes. In the present study, the microbial breakdown of these products was investigated. The nitrogen was released as ammonia and urea, and the formaldehyde released immediately oxidized via formiate to carbon dioxide. The enzymatic mechanism of metabolization of methyleneureas was studied in microorganisms isolated from soil, which were able to use these compounds as the sole source of nitrogen for growth. A strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia paucula (formerly Alcaligenes sp. CDC group IVc-2) completely degraded methylenediurea and dimethylenetriurea to urea, ammonia, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. The enzyme initiating this degradation (methylenediurease) was purified and turned out to be different from the previously described enzyme from Ochrobactrum anthropi with regard to its regulation of expression and physicobiochemical properties. Fungal degradation of methyleneureas may occur via the formation of organic acids, thus leading to a nonenzymatic degradation of methyleneureas, which are unstable under acidic conditions.  相似文献   

17.
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management - Foot and mouth disease and avian influenza are highly contagious. The foot and mouth disease virus can be transmitted in a number of ways,...  相似文献   

18.
化学品生物降解性的评价与预测   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
介绍了有机化学物质生物降解性的测定方法及其预测方法研究概况,并讨论了生物降解性评价的发展前景。  相似文献   

19.
A fundamental study of the combustion characteristics and the de-HCl behavior of a single refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellet was carried out to explain the de-HCl phenomena of RDF during fluidized bed combustion and to provide data for the development of high efficiency power generation technology using RDF. In this research, combustion and pyrolysis experiments were carried out in an electrical furnace using a series of model and actual RDF samples. The de-HCl capability of Ca(OH)2 in RDF was evaluated by measuring the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the capture fraction of Cl in the residue. It was found that the capture fraction of Cl components in the residue increased from 0 to nearly 70% when the molar ratio of Ca/Cl was changed from 0 to around 13. Apparently, the capture fraction also decreased with increasing oxygen concentration in the feed gas. The devolatilization process of RDF was confirmed to be a very important part of de-HCl process. The effect of temperature profile of the RDF pellet on the de-HCl process, as it varies with the heating rate of RDF and the oxygen concentration in the vicinity of the sample, is discussed.  相似文献   

20.
Biodegradable polymers generally decompose in the various media in our environments. These environments contain soils, seawater, and activated sludge. If biodegradable materials waste is discarded, they decompose in these media. The biodegradation process of biodegradable polymers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Polycaprolactone, polybutylene succinate, and P(3HB-co-3HV) were tested. The shapes of holes on the decomposing surfaces are different according to the biodegradation media. Semispherical holes are observed on the surfaces of polybutylene succinate films degraded in activated sludge and cracks are observed on the surfaces of polycaprolactone films degraded in soil.  相似文献   

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