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1.
欧盟国家燃煤电厂环保政策及技术路线分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
温室气体的排放控制作为全球性的环境问题受到了广泛关注。中国是火力发电的大国,其燃煤机组的温室气体排放总量巨大。《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》(GB 13223-2011)提高了我国燃煤电厂的烟气污染物排放的要求,对火电厂烟气处理的技术选择和投资都会产生重大影响。针对中国燃煤电厂环保面临的新形势,阐述了欧盟国家的环保政策重点,并对欧盟国家燃煤电厂污染物控制的相关标准进行了分析,同时简要介绍了欧盟国家燃煤电厂环保的主要技术路线,在一定程度上可作为中国燃煤电厂污染物控制的借鉴和参考。  相似文献   

2.
本文将《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》(GB13223-1996)与原《燃煤电厂大气污染物排放标准》(GB13223-91)在多方面作了比较,从环保管理者的角度,分析了新标准对电力建设与污染治理产生的影响,对今后在执行新标准的过程中可能遇到的问题提出了一些见解。  相似文献   

3.
新的《火电厂大气污染排放标准》全面加大了对火电厂大气污染物中烟尘、SO2、NOx的控制力度,收严了污染物排放限值。近期提出的煤电节能减排升级与改造行动计划,进一步提出了燃煤电厂达到燃气机组排放标准的超低排放要求。解读了燃煤电厂推行超低排放的一些政策支撑、技术路线,从华电集团超低排放技术及应用实例出发,对超低排放技术实施过程中需要关注的问题进行了探讨,具有一定的参考价值。  相似文献   

4.
香港特区与广东省政府联合成立粤港持续发展与环保合作小组,并发表《改善珠江三角洲空气质量的联合声明》(简称"减排联合声明"),同意制定合理的减排方案,共同执行管理计划。总结分析了粤、港地区在治理燃煤电厂大气污染物方面的控制政策,并对大陆与香港特区燃煤电厂大气污染物的排放标准进行比较。  相似文献   

5.
新的《火电厂大气排放标准》的颁布实施,燃煤电厂汞的排放正式纳入控制标准。针对目前我国燃煤电厂汞排放化学形态转换、排放特征,分析和总结现有污染控制设施对汞协同控制效果,提出适合我国国情的燃煤电厂汞控制技术措施的建议及发展趋势,可有效控制燃煤电厂汞的排放量。  相似文献   

6.
燃煤电厂汞排放是最大的人为汞污染源,《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》(GB 13223-2011)首次提出了我国燃煤发电锅炉汞及其化合物的控制指标,规定汞及其化合物排放限值为0.03 mg/m3.介绍了国内外汞污染发展情况,汞的形态以及汞污染控制技术.汞控制技术主要分为三种:燃烧前脱汞、燃烧中脱汞和燃烧后脱汞,其中燃烧后脱汞的研究最广泛.  相似文献   

7.
《化工环保》2004,24(6):466-466
为贯彻实施新修订的《火电厂大气污染物排放标》(GB13223-2003)(以下简称《排放标准》),有效控制火电厂大气污染物排放,2004年5月21日国家环保总局就有关要求通知如下:  相似文献   

8.
石油炼制行业新旧污染物排放标准的差异   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
付鹏  潘峰  莫欣岳  马岩  段超越 《化工环保》2015,35(5):526-530
分别介绍了旧标准GB 8978—1996《污水综合排放标准》、GB 16297—1996《大气污染物综合排放标准》和新标准GB 31570—2015《石油炼制工业污染物排放标准》的核心内容。从适用范围、排放限值和污染控制因子3个方面分析了石油炼制行业新旧污染物排放标准的差异。  相似文献   

9.
稀土氧化物催化还原烟气中的SO2   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在实验室研究结果的基础上,建立了小型实际燃煤烟气脱硫试验装置,采用实际燃煤烟气进行了稀土氧化物催化还原烟气脱硫的试验,考察了空速、反应温度对脱硫率的影响。试验结果表明,在反应温度520~550℃、空速2800h。的条件下,脱硫率为99%,NOx的去除率为95%,SO2最高排放质量浓度为100mg/m^3,NOx最高排放质量浓度为50mg/m^3,符合GB13223-2003《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》2时段标准,与实验室的实验结果基本吻合。  相似文献   

10.
就《火电厂大气污染物排标准》(GB13223-1996)和《制定地方大气污染物排放标准的技术方法》(GB/T13201-91)两个国家标准的污染物允许排放量计算公式进行了比较,指出了它们的差异及适用范围。  相似文献   

11.
Concentrations and total quantity of cadmium (Cd), cupper (Cu),lead (Pb) and zink (Zn) were determined in biomass and soil compartments in a replicated tree species experiment with 27-yr-old stands growing on former farmland in N.E. Sweden. Sequentialextractions of soil samples were performed in order to estimate the exchangeable and an organically bound fraction of each element. The tree species included were Picea abies (L.)H. Karst., Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus contorta Dougl., Larix sibirica Ledeb., and Betula pendula Roth.Tree species influenced the rate of removal of Cu, Pb and Zn incase of stemwood harvesting, and of Cd, Cu and Zn in the case ofwhole-tree harvesting. B. pendula and P. abies had higher quantities and average concentrations of Zn in the biomass. For all species, >50% of the Zn in the stems was found in the bark. P. abies and L. sibirica had higher quantities of Cu in the biomass than the other species.P. abies and P. contorta had high quantities of Cd inthe biomass in relation to the other species. Branches and stembark contained high concentrations of Cd and Pb in relation to foliage and stemwood. Dead branches had especially high concentrations of Pb. The high accumulation rate of Zn in thebiomass of B. pendula was related to a low exchangeable amount of Zn in the A horizon. In the superficial centimeters ofthe A horizon, a depletion similar to that found for Zn was detected for Cu, whereas for Cd and Pb, no correlations were found between quantities of elements in the trees and element pools in the soil.  相似文献   

12.
Recent starch-plastic research at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research is reviewed and related worldwide efforts are noted. Properties of starch that influence its formulation and performance in plastics are discussed. Methods are given for preparation of starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymer, starch-poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid), and starch-poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-polyethylene plastics. Their physical properties are discussed, as is degradability by enzymes or amylolytic organisms from soil, ponds, and streams.The mention of firm names or trade products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture over other firms or similar products not mentioned.  相似文献   

13.
Bioassessment is a useful tool to determine the impact of logging practices on the biological integrity of streams and wetlands. Measuring biota directly has an intuitive appeal for impact assessment, and biota can be superior indicators to physical or chemical characteristics because they can reflect cumulative impacts over time. Logging can affect stream and wetland biota by increasing sedimentation rates, altering hydrologic, thermal, and chemical regimes, and changing the base of food webs. Biotic impacts of logging on streams compared to wetlands probably differ, and in this paper we review some of those differences. In streams, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, algae, and macrophytes have been used as indicators of logging impacts. In wetlands, bioassessment is just beginning to be used, and plants and birds are the most promising indicator taxa. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed to reduce the impacts of logging on stream and wetland biota, and we review quantitative studies that have evaluated the efficacy of some of these techniques in streams and wetlands in the eastern United States. Remarkably few studies that address the overall efficacy of BMPs in limiting biotic changes in streams and wetlands after BMP implementation have been published in scientific journals, although some work exists in reports or is unpublished. We review these works, and compile conclusions about BMP efficacy for biota from this body of research.  相似文献   

14.
Air emissions and residual ash samples were collected and analyzed during experiments of open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste), simulating practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recycling operations. Circuit boards and insulated wires were handled separately to simulate processes associated with metal recovery. The average emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) were 92 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg [n = 2, relative standard deviation (RSD) = 98%] and 11 900 ng TEQ/kg (n = 3, RSD = 50%) of the initial mass of the circuit boards and insulated wire, respectively. The value for the insulated wire is about 100 times higher than that for backyard barrel burning of domestic waste. The emission concentrations of polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/PBDFs) from the combustion of circuit boards were 100 times higher than for their polychlorinated counterparts. Particulate matter (PM) sampling of the fly ash emissions indicated PM emission factors of approximately 15 and 17 g/kg of the initial mass for the circuit boards and insulated wire, respectively. Fly ash samples from both types of e-waste contained considerable amounts of several metallic elements and halogens; lead concentrations were more than 200 times the United States regulatory limits for municipal waste combustors and 20 times those for secondary lead smelters. Leaching tests of the residual bottom ash showed that lead concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency landfill limits, designating this ash as a hazardous waste.  相似文献   

15.
During recent decades heathlands havechanged into grasslands in regions with high atmosphericnitrogen deposition. In regions with intermediatedeposition level (e.g., Denmark) changes have been lesspronounced which may be due to delay or decrease inresponse of the ecosystem. The mor layer (O horizon) mayplay an important role for this delay due to high sinkstrength for N. In this study, the capacity for netNH4 + immobilization and mineralization wasstudied during short- and long-term incubations (2–36 days)of mor samples from Danish dry inland heaths. High short-term capacity for net NH4 + immobilization wasfound to be a general characteristic of Danish heath morlayers both under heather (Calluna vulgaris) andcrowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp nigrum), the latterdominating late stages in heathland succession. The netNH4 + immobilization was higher under youngcompared to old or dead vegetation, and higher on lessnutrient poor soils than on extremely nutrient poor soils.The addition of N, P and C stimulated CO2 productionand net NH4 + immobilization, but not net Nmineralization. The immobilization of 15NH4 +caused release of dissolved organic N, increased N anddecreased C/N ratio in the microbial biomass, and indicatedgrowth of microorganisms with other metabolic abilitiesthan the indigenous population. No evidence was obtained ofstabilization of immobilized 15NH4 + intosoil organic matter during the experiment. On background ofthe results and current knowledge it was concluded that therecognition of the high capacity for net NH4 +immobilization in mor layers does not allow for a raiseof critical loads for N for northern dry inland heaths.  相似文献   

16.
Chemical weathering losses were calculated for two conifer stands in relation to ongoing studies on liming effects and ash amendments on chemical status, soil solution chemistry and soil genesis. Weathering losses were based on elemental depletion trends in soil profiles since deglaciation and exposure to the weathering environment. Gradients in total geochemical composition were assumed to reflect alteration over time. Study sites were Horröd and Hasslöv in southern Sweden. Both Horröd and Hasslöv sites are located on sandy loamy Weichselian till at an altitude of 85 and 190 m a.s.l., respectively. Aliquots from volume determined samples from a number of soil levels were fused with lithium metaborate, dissolved in HNO3, and analysed by ICP – AES. Results indicated highest cumulative weathering losses at Hasslöv. The weathering losses for the elements are in the following order:Si > Al > K > Na > Ca > MgTotal annual losses for Ca+Mg+K+Na, expressed in mmolc m-2 yr-1, amounted to c. 28 and 58 at Horröd and Hasslöv, respectively. Variations between study sites could not be explained by differences in bulk density, geochemistry or mineralogy. The accumulated weathering losses since deglaciation were larger in the uppermost 15 cm than in deeper B horizons for most elements studied.  相似文献   

17.
Much work has been done on gaseous emissions and leaching of nitrogenous compounds from whole soil profiles and also from soil surface measurements which are assumed to be mainly due to topsoil activity. In soils with an impervious clay subsoil, the boundary between the topsoil and subsoil may provide an interface for microbial activity, including N transformations. In this study, we investigated movement and transformations of two reactive N species (nitrate and urea) at the subsoil interface using a series of replicate, intact soil blocks, under two contrasting watering regimes. We measured fluxes in both liquid and gaseous phases and demonstrated that nitrate reaching the subsoil interface does not necessarily leach into water systems, but may denitrify immediately and could, therefore, add to atmospheric pollution through N2O production. On the other hand, ammonium reaching the subsoil interface either directly, or after mineralization, appears to be more mobile than expected and has the potential to pollute watercourses.  相似文献   

18.
Metals have rapidly accumulated in the anthroposphere, especiallyin urban areas, indicating possible environmental and resource problems. Here, Stockholm City was chosen for a case study of urban metal flows, i.e. metal inflow to, metals in the stock of,and metal outflow from the anthroposphere to the biosphere. Themetal stock of Stockholm is large and still growing. The large amounts of metals in the solid waste fraction totally dominatethe outflow from the city. For major parts of the stock, the emissions from goods in use are negligible. There are, however,goods applications corresponding to significant emissions: e.g. the traffic sector (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb), the tapwater system (Cu), roofs/fronts or other metal surfaces (Cu, Zn). Today's known metal flows from the anthroposphere of Stockholm to the biosphere and sewage sludge are quantitatively dominated by Zn(34 ton y-1) and Cu (14 ton y-1). Historical and present emissions have resulted in high metal concentrations insediments (especially Cd, Hg and Pb, but also Cu and Zn), groundwater (Cu, Hg) and in soils (Hg, Cu, Pb). At present theannual median concentrations are below the Swedish limits for metals in sewage sludge, even if the safety margins aresmall for Cd, Hg and to some extent Cu. The flows of Cu and Zn to Stockholm soils are high with a significant accumulationindicating an environmental impact in a longer time perspective.High levels of metals in surface sediments in the waterenvironments reflects an ongoing input where these metals aretransported from known (Cu, Zn) and or partly unknown (Cd, Hg, Pb) sources. In future urban areas, monitoring of metal flows must be performed both in the anthroposphere and the biospherein order to have a pro active approach to urban environmentalproblems and to get prompt answers to measures taken.  相似文献   

19.
We have studied particulate matter (PM) concentrations,PM10 and PM2.5, measured in an urban air qualitymonitoring network in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area during1997–1999. The data includes PM10 concentrationsmeasured at five locations (two urban traffic, one suburbantraffic, one urban background and one regional backgroundsite) and PM2.5 concentrations measured at twolocations (urban traffic and urban background sites). Theconcentrations of PM10 show a clear diurnal variation,as well as a spatial variation within the area. Bycontrast, both the spatial and temporal variation of thePM2.5 concentrations was moderate. We have analysedthe evolution of urban PM concentrations in terms of therelevant meteorological parameters in the course of oneselected peak pollution episode during 21–31 March, 1998.The meteorological variables considered included wind speedand direction, ambient temperature, precipitation, relativehumidity, atmospheric pressure at the ground level,atmospheric stability and mixing height. The elevated PMconcentrations during the 1998 March episode were clearlyrelated to conditions of high atmospheric pressure,relatively low ambient temperatures and low wind speeds inpredominantly stable atmospheric conditions. The resultsprovide indirect evidence indicating that the PM10concentrations originate mainly from local vehiculartraffic (direct emissions and resuspension), while thePM2.5 concentrations are mostly of regionally andlong-range transported origin.  相似文献   

20.
The effects of harvesting on the long-term mass balances of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) were evaluated on a regional level in Sweden. A new high-resolution weathering database was used together with estimates of total deposition, losses through harvest and leaching. Estimates were made for pine and spruce separately and for two harvesting intensity scenarios: stem harvesting and whole-tree harvesting. The mass balance calculations showed net losses of Ca and Mg in almost the whole country for both scenarios. The losses were smaller for pine than for spruce. The K balances were mainly positive for pine but negative for spruce. Leaching was a main factor in the mass balances, especially for Ca and Mg. Whole-tree harvesting in spruce forests led to substantially higher net losses of K and Ca than stem harvesting, according to the calculations. In the whole-tree harvesting scenario in spruce forests the estimated yearly net losses of Ca, Mg and K corresponded to at least 5%, 8% and 3% of the pools of exchangeable base cations, respectively, at 25% of the analysed sites. If losses of this magnitude continue the depletion of the pools of Ca, Mg and K may lead to very low base saturation of the soils, possibly accompanied by negative effects on soil fertility, runoff water quality, tree vitality and tree growth within a forest rotation in parts of Sweden. Avoiding whole-tree harvesting can improve the situation substantially for K, but the losses of Ca and Mg will still be significant.  相似文献   

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