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1.
采用响应曲面法对微生物絮凝剂M-C11处理高岭土悬浊液的过程参数进行优化,选取中心复合实验设计(CCD),以p H、M-C11投加量和Ca Cl2投加量等因素为自变量,以处理后的高岭土悬浊液絮凝率(Fr)为响应值,并借助扫描电镜对絮凝剂的作用机理进行初步探讨。结果表明,微生物絮凝剂M-C11可显著改善高岭土悬浊液的絮凝性能,且选取的3种单因素水平均可影响絮凝剂活性。经多元回归拟合分析,在M-C11投加量为2.56 m L,Ca Cl2投加量为0.37 g/L的最优条件下,微生物絮凝活性实验值可达92.37%,接近模型预测值(92.30%)。Ca Cl2投加量对絮凝效果的影响高于M-C11投加量(PCa Cl2相似文献   

2.
短芽孢杆菌RL-2絮凝机理研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
由编号为RL-2的短芽孢杆菌(Bacillus brevis)产生的生物高分子,经研究发现是一种对高岭土悬液有较高絮凝活性的阴离子型絮凝剂.对絮凝剂的热处理及酶处理表明,其活性成分为多糖;经茚三酮试验,Molish反应,薄层色谱及红外光谱分析表明,该絮凝剂为一种阴离子型多糖絮凝剂;ζ电位测定及絮凝剂与高岭土颗粒之间结合键的检测表明,絮凝剂与高岭土颗粒间的结合力为氢键,絮凝过程基于"桥联"机理;絮凝剂和高岭土在絮凝剂的活性部位--多糖中的羟基或羧基以氢键相结合,经架桥作用絮凝沉淀.  相似文献   

3.
一株产絮凝剂的黑曲霉的分离及培养条件优化   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
从活性污泥中筛选出一株产絮凝剂的霉菌,初步鉴定为黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger).其所产生的微生物絮凝剂对高岭土悬浊液具有良好的絮凝作用.通过培养条件优化,其所产生的微生物絮凝剂对高岭土悬浊液的絮凝率从85.6%提高到98.7%,实验结果表明,(1)黑曲霉孢子最佳接种量为9.33×108 个/L;(2)产絮凝剂适宜的碳源为蔗糖,氮源为尿素,用量分别为30.00、1.600 g/L;(3)最佳培养条件为:查氏液体培养基初始pH 7.0,培养温度30℃,摇床转速180 r/min,培养时间120 h;(4)在最佳培养条件下微生物絮凝剂的产量为1.805 g/L;(5)絮凝性能比较结果表明,微生物絮凝剂的絮凝性能优于传统絮凝剂.  相似文献   

4.
微生物絮凝剂产生菌KJ-10的絮凝性能及絮凝成分分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
从炼厂含油污泥中分离筛选出一株高效微生物絮凝剂产生菌KJ-10,初步鉴定为芽孢杆菌.为进一步探讨该菌株的絮凝性能和絮凝成分,实验考察了该菌株对高岭土悬液和含油废水的处理效果,研究了所产絮凝剂的热稳定性,并通过紫外光谱、红外光谱、GC-MS技术及多糖含量测定等途径对其絮凝成分进行了深入分析.结果表明,该菌株对高岭土悬液的...  相似文献   

5.
微生物絮凝剂产生菌的培养条件研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
从活性污泥中分离筛选到1株高效絮凝剂产生菌E 9,初步鉴定其为大肠杆菌。首次发现大肠杆菌能产生微生物絮凝剂。该菌产生絮凝剂的适宜培养条件为:乙醇为碳源,大豆粉为氮源,初始pH值为6. 5~7 .2、温度为30℃。絮凝实验结果表明,该菌产絮凝剂对高岭土悬浊液的絮凝率可达97% ~99. 5%,而絮凝剂投加量仅为通用发酵培养基的1 /15,絮凝效果优于聚丙烯酰胺等常用絮凝剂。  相似文献   

6.
通过高岭土烧杯实验表征了P(CMTC-AM-DMC)的絮凝效率,考察了絮凝时间、介质酸度以及搅拌强度等因素对絮凝性能的影响,并借助絮凝-解絮凝-再絮凝过程中絮体的形态变化分析该絮凝剂的絮凝机理。结果表明:p H=6~8时,在150 r/min下搅拌20 min,絮凝效率大于90%;P(CMTC-AM-DMC)的絮凝效率及絮体沉降速度随搅拌强度增大而增大;300 r/min下搅拌5 min时,絮体沉降速度可达16 mm/s,继续增大搅拌速度,达到400 r/min时,絮凝效率在5 min内即可达到100%。P(CMTC-AM-DMC)絮体化程度较高,在高强度搅拌下破碎后,可迅速聚集恢复至初始状态,并迅速下沉,实现再絮凝。该絮凝剂在不同的p H下表现出不同的絮凝机理,p H=6时,借助电性中和、吸附架桥作用,絮凝效率较高,且絮体沉降较快;p H=10~12时,絮体沉降相对较慢,絮凝效率主要为颗粒卷扫的贡献。  相似文献   

7.
微生物絮凝剂产生菌的培养条件研究   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
从活性污泥中分离筛选到1株高效絮凝剂产生菌E-9,初步鉴定其为大肠杆菌。首次发现大肠杆菌能产生微生物絮凝剂。该菌产生絮凝剂的适宜培养条件为:乙醇为碳源,大豆粉为氮源,初始pH值为6.5~7.2、温度为30℃。絮凝实验结果表明,该菌产絮凝剂对高岭土悬浊液的絮凝率可达97%~99.5%,而絮凝剂投加量仅为通用发酵培养基的1/15,絮凝效果优于聚丙烯酰胺等常用絮凝剂。  相似文献   

8.
为了回收利用粉煤灰,采用盐酸浸提法制备粉煤灰提取液(CFAL)用作絮凝剂。通过单因素实验优化CFAL的制备条件,并在高岭土模拟体系内研究CFAL的絮凝效应。研究在不同CFAL投加量下浊度的去除率,确定最佳的投加剂量及在此剂量下絮体的大小与沉降性能。对原浊度为100 NTU的高岭土悬浊液,当CFAL为0.44 mg·L~(-1)(以Al的含量计)时,浊度去除率达到90%以上。在同等剂量下,聚合氯化铝(PAC)和氯化铝(Al Cl3)的浊度去除率均低于CFAL,分别为78.7%和79.2%。CFAL的絮体大小约为400μm,沉降较快,在20 min后,去除率达到90%以上;PAC和Al Cl3的絮体分别为260和330μm,分别沉降60和40 min后,去除率稳定在80%左右。在实验剂量范围内,CFAL絮凝后对高岭土悬浊液的pH不会造成明显影响,且余铝满足《生活饮用水卫生标准》(GB 5749-2006),CFAL是一种廉价、高效、安全的混凝剂。  相似文献   

9.
在含有阴离子表面活性剂-十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)的6 NTU高岭土悬浊液中,改变SDS的浓度,投加纳米SiO2与聚合铝PAC进行动态混凝实验与静沉实验,借助图像分析技术与分形理论,探讨了纳米SiO2与PAC处理含SDS低浊水的作用机理、絮凝效果与形态学特征.结果表明:①纳米SiO2与SDS使高岭土粒子表面负电性增强.纳米SiO2的絮凝机理以吸附架桥为主.②纳米SiO2对SDS的去除效果优于PAC.SDS浓度越高,去除效果越显著.但纳米SiO2对无机高岭土粒子的处理能力不如PAC,PAC絮凝后的上清液浊度低.当SDS浓度增至10 mg/L时,纳米SiO2对SDS的去除率高,而PAC对SDS的絮凝能力弱,PAC对无机颗粒的去除效果也下降.③助凝剂纳米SiO2较强的吸附活性能加快PAC絮体成长为结构密实的RLCA构型,分维值高,絮凝效果好.  相似文献   

10.
生物絮凝剂产生菌群发酵特性及动力学   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
从土壤中分离、筛选得到2株具有协同发酵的微生物絮凝剂产生菌。通过单因素实验考察了碳源、氮源、不同C/N等多种发酵条件对复合菌株产絮的影响,并对复合菌株的生长动力学进行了研究。当碳源为蔗糖、氮源为草酸铵、C/N为30∶1,pH=7.0、在30℃,160 r/min的摇床速度下培养24 h,其发酵液对4 g/L的高岭土的悬浊液的絮凝率达到99.3%。根据Logistic方程,得到复合型生物絮凝剂产生菌群的生长动力学模型与实验数据能较好地拟合,基本反映了复合菌群生长的动力学特征。  相似文献   

11.
The ability of two biodegradable surfactants, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol MA), to recover a representative dense non-aqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL), trichloroethene (TCE), from heterogeneous porous media was evaluated through a combination of batch and aquifer cell experiments. An aqueous solution containing 3.3% Aerosol MA, 8% 2-propanol and 6 g/l CaCl(2) yielded a weight solubilization ratio (WSR) of 1.21 g TCE/g surfactant, with a corresponding liquid-liquid interfacial tension (IFT) of 0.19 dyn/cm. Flushing of aquifer cells containing a TCE-DNAPL source zone with approximately two pore volumes of the AMA formulation resulted in substantial (>30%) mobilization of TCE-DNAPL. However, a TCE mass recovery of 81% was achieved when the aqueous-phase flow rate was sufficient to displace the mobile TCE-DNAPL toward the effluent well. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 exhibited a greater capacity to solubilize TCE (WSR=1.74 g TCE/g surfactant) and exerted markedly less reduction in IFT (10.4 dyn/cm). These data contradict an accepted empirical correlation used to estimate IFT values from solubilization capacity, and indicate a unique capacity of T80 to form concentrated TCE emulsions. Flushing of aquifer cells with less than 2.5 pore volumes of a 4% T80 solution achieved TCE mass recoveries ranging from 66 to 85%, with only slight TCE-DNAPL mobilization (<5%) occurring when the total trapping number exceeded 2 x 10(-5). These findings demonstrate the ability of Tween 80 and Aerosol MA solutions to efficiently recover TCE from a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone, and the utility of the total trapping number as a design parameter for a priori prediction of DNAPL mobilization and bank angle formation when flushing with low-IFT solutions. Given their potential to stimulate microbial reductive dechlorination at low concentrations, these surfactants are well-suited for remedial action plans that couple aggressive mass removal followed by enhanced bioremediation to treat chlorinated solvent source zones.  相似文献   

12.
The occurrence of particle associated PAH and other mutagenic PAC was determined in 1996 in the street air of Copenhagen. In addition, particle extracts were tested for mutagenicity. The measurements were compared with previous measurements in 1992/1993. The levels had decreased in this period. The decrease was caused by an implementation of light diesel fuels for buses and the exchange of older petrol-driven passenger cars with catalystequipped new ones. About 65% of the reduction was caused by the application of the light diesel fuels. Under special conditions, chemical processes in the atmosphere produced many more mutagens than the direct emissions. The concentrations of S-PAC and N-PAC were 10 times lower than those of PAH, while the levels of oxy-PAH were in the same order of magnitude as those of PAH. Benzanthrone, an oxy-PAH, is proposed to be formed in the atmosphere in addition to direct emissions. Benzo(a)pyrene, often applied as an air quality criteria indicator, was photochemically degraded in the atmosphere. A strong increase in the mutagenic activities was observed to coincide with a depletion of benzo(a)pyrene.  相似文献   

13.
Concentrations of different chlorinated compounds were measured in mussels incubated in two polluted watercourses, a river (the River Kymijoki) and a lake (Lake Vanaja) for four weeks in summer 1995. The sum concentrations of polychlorinated phenols (PCP) and biphenyls (PCB) were both about 1 μg/g lipid weight (lw) in Lake Vanaja mussels, while in the River Kymijoki mussels PCPs were non-detectable and PCBs were measured 120 ng/g lIw. The concentrations of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners ranged between <17 and 370 pg/g Iw in Lake Vanaja mussels and between <38 and 11,000 pg/g lw in the River Kymijoki mussels. Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE) were detected in the mussels incubated in the River Kymijoki (0.4–1.1 ng/g Iw), but not in those incubated in Lake Vanaja. Polychlorinated phenoxyanisoles (PCPA) were measured 33 ng/g lw and polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPP) 300 ng/g lw in the mussels incubated in the River Kymijoki. PCPAs were also detected in reference samples, which were sediment and pike from the River Kymijoki and Baltic salmon, seal and white-tailed sea eagle.  相似文献   

14.
Abstract

In the last decades, the use and misuse of pesticides in the agriculture have increased, having a severe impact on ecosystems and their fauna. Although the various effects of pesticides on biodiversity have been already documented in several studies, to our knowledge no consistent overview of the impact of pesticides in vertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic, is available. In this review, we try to present a concise compilation of the teratogenic effects of pesticides on the different classes of vertebrates – mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.  相似文献   

15.
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine radionuclide and trace element concentrations in bottom‐feeding fish (catfish, carp, and suckers) collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lands with the Rio Grande (RG) and the potential radiological doses from the ingestion of these fish. Samples of muscle and bone (and viscera in some cases) were analyzed for 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, totU, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am and Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cr, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Most radionuclides, with the exception of 90Sr, in the muscle plus bone portions of fish collected from LANL canyons/RG were not significantly (p<0.05) higher from fish collected upstream (San Ildefonso/background) of LANL. Strontium‐90 in fish muscle plus bone tissue significantly (p<0.05) increases in concentration starting from Los Alamos Canyon, the most upstream confluence (fish contained 3.4E‐02 pCi g‐1 [126E‐02 Bq kg‐1]), to Frijoles Canyon, the most downstream confluence (fish contained 14E‐02 pCi g‐1 [518E‐02 Bq kg‐1]). The differences in 90Sr concentrations in fish collected downstream and upstream (background) of LANL, however, were very small. Based on the average concentrations (±2SD) of radionuclides in fish tissue from the four LANL confluences, the committed effective dose equivalent from the ingestion of 46 lb (21 kg) (maximum ingestion rate per person per year) of fish muscle plus bone, after the subtraction of background, was 0.1 ± 0.1 mrem y‐1 (1.0 ± 1.0 μSv y‐1), and was far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection (all pathway) permissible dose limit of 100 mrem y‐1 (1000 μSv y‐1). Of the trace elements that were found above the limits of detection (Ba, Cu, and Hg) in fish muscle collected from the confluences of canyons that cross LANL and the RG, none were in significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations than in muscle of fish collected from background locations.  相似文献   

16.
Book review     
The Pesticide Manual ‐ A World Compendium, 8th Edition, C.R. Worthing, Editor and S.B. Walker, Assistant Editor, British Crop Protection Council, BCPC Publications Sales, Bear Farm, Binfield, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 5QE, England. 1987, 1100 pp., UK £50; Overseas £56. ISBN 0–948404–01–9.  相似文献   

17.
We reported previously that trichodiene, a volatile trichothecene derivative, was produced by a Stachybotrys isolate, also known to produce highly cytotoxic, non-volatile, macrocyclic trichothecenes (satrotoxins). We investigated the relationship between the production of trichodiene and various non-volatile trichothecenes for several molds. Volatile metabolites were concentrated by adsorption on Tenax TA and analyzed by GC/MS, while non-volatile metabolites were separated by HPLC, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. Stachybotrys chartarum isolates producing macrocyclic trichothecenes secreted significantly larger amounts of trichodiene and other sesquiterpenes than isolates which only produced simple trichothecenes. The amounts of secreted trichodiene were relatively small in all cases. With the exception of Memnoniella, which excreted small amounts of sesquiterpenes, the other isolates produced varying amounts of sesquiterpenes, including trichodiene, as well as simple tricothecenes, no detectable trichodiene, but large amounts of griseofulvin derivatives. In Stachybotrys there is apparently a correlation between trichodiene and macrocyclic trichothecene production. In the remaining isolates, there was no simple relationship between trichodiene and non-volatile trichothecene synthesis. Trichodiene is produced in larger amounts by Stachybotrys isolates, which also produce satratoxins, but it will be difficult to utilize this metabolite to detect toxic isolates in buildings due to the relatively small amounts excreted.  相似文献   

18.
Abstract

The pH‐disappearance rate profiles were determined at ca. 25°C for 24 insecticides at 4 or 5 pH values over the range 4.5 to 8.0 in sterile phosphate buffers prepared in water‐ethanol (99: 1 v/v). Half‐lives measured at pH 8 were generally smaller than at lower pH values. Changes in half lives between pH 8.0 and 4.5 were largest (>1000x) for the aryl carbamates, carbofuran and carbaryl, the oxime carbamate, oxamyl, and the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon. In contrast, half lives of phorate, terbufos, heptachlor, fensulfothion and aldicarb were affected only slightly by pH changes. Under the experimental conditions described half lives at pH8 varied from 1–2 days for trichlorfon and oxamyl to >1 year for fensulfothion and cyper‐methrin. Insecticide persistence on alumina (acid, neutral and basic), mineral soils amended with aluminum sulfate or calcium hydroxide to different pH values and four natural soils of different pH was examined. No correlation was observed between the measured pH of these solids and the rate of disappearance of selected insecticides applied to them. These observations demonstrate the difficulty of extrapolating the pH dependent disappearance behaviour observed in homogeneous solution to partially solid heterogeneous systems such as soil.  相似文献   

19.
A Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded Knowledge Transfer (KT) workshop was held in the United Kingdom (UK) to identify the needs and opportunities in the application of molecular biology and ‘omics’ techniques to environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Attendees highlighted a lack of effective communication between end-users and researchers as well as difficulties with data interpretation as reasons behind the slow uptake of molecular biology and omics techniques. A number of promising areas in which new techniques could be implemented at a practical level in the very near future were identified, thereby raising the profile of these recent technologies and providing vital proof of concept work. Molecular taxonomy, bacterial source tracking and pre-screening of chemicals for potential toxicities were all viewed as areas in which omics and molecular techniques could have immediate value, with the aim of reducing cost, increasing efficiency and providing more comprehensive data of improved quality.  相似文献   

20.
This study was undertaken to determine sorption coefficients of eight herbicides (alachlor, amitrole, atrazine, simazine, dicamba, imazamox, imazethapyr, and pendimethalin) to seven agricultural soils from sites throughout Lithuania. The measured sorption coefficients were used to predict the susceptibility of these herbicides to leach to groundwater. Soil-water partitioning coefficients were measured in batch equilibrium studies using radiolabeled herbicides. In most soils, sorption followed the general trend pendimethalin > alachlor > atrazine~ amitrole~ simazine > imazethapyr > imazamox > dicamba, consistent with the trends in hydrophobicity (log Kow) except in the case of amitrole. For several herbicides, sorption coefficients and calculated retardation factors were lowest (predicted to be most susceptible to leaching) in a soil of intermediate organic carbon content and sand content. Calculated herbicide retardation factors were high for soils with high organic carbon contents. Estimated leaching times under saturated conditions, assuming no herbicide degradation and no preferential water flow, were more strongly affected by soil textural effects on predicted water flow than by herbicide sorption effects. All herbicides were predicted to be slowest to leach in soils with high clay and low sand contents, and fastest to leach in soils with high sand content and low organic matter content. Herbicide management is important to the continued increase in agricultural production and profitability in the Baltic region, and these results will be useful in identifying critical areas requiring improved management practices to reduce water contamination by pesticides.  相似文献   

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