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1.
The aqueous photodegradation of fluopyram was investigated under UV light (λ?≥?200 nm) and simulated sunlight irradiation (λ?≥?290 nm). The effect of solution pH, fulvic acids (FA), nitrate (NO3 ?), Fe (III) ions, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) on direct photolysis of fluopyram was explored. The results showed that fluopyram photodegradation was faster in neutral solution than that in acidic and alkaline solutions. The presence of FA, NO3 ?, Fe (III), and TiO2 slightly affected the photodegradation of fluopyram under UV irradiation, whereas the photodegradation rates of fluopyram with 5 mg L?1 Fe (III) and 500 mg L?1 TiO2 were about 7-fold and 13-fold faster than that without Fe (III) and TiO2 under simulated sunlight irradiation, respectively. Three typical products for direct photolysis of fluopyram have been isolated and characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These products resulted from the intramolecular elimination of HCl, hydroxyl-substitution, and hydrogen extraction. Based on the identified transformation products and evolution profile, a plausible degradation pathway for the direct photolysis of fluopyram in aqueous solution was proposed. In addition, acute toxicity assays using the Vibrio fischeri bacteria test indicated that the transformation products were more toxic than the parent compound.  相似文献   

2.
The abiotic degradation of the imidazolinone herbicides imazapyr, imazethapyr and imazaquin was investigated under controlled conditions. Hydrolysis, where it occurred, and photodegradation both followed first-order kinetics for all herbicides. There was no hydrolysis of any of the herbicides in buffer solutions at pH 3 or pH 7; however, slow hydrolysis occurred at pH 9. Estimated half-lives for the three herbicides in solution in the dark were 6.5, 9.2 and 9.6 months for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. Degradation of the herbicides in the light was considerably more rapid than in the dark with half lives for the three herbicides of 1.8, 9.8 and 9.1 days for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. The presence of humic acids in the solution reduced the rate of photodegradation for all three herbicides, with higher concentrations of humic acids generally having greater effect. Photodegradation of imazethapyr was the least sensitive to humic acids. The enantioselectivity of photodegradation was investigated using imazaquin, with photodegradation occurring at the same rate for both enantiomers. Abiotic degradation of imidazolinone herbicides on the soil surface only occurred in the presence of light. The rate of degradation for all herbicides was slower than in solution, with half-lives of 15.3, 24.6 and 30.9 days for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. Abiotic degradation of these herbicides is likely to be slow in the environment and is only likely to occur in clear water or on the soil surface.  相似文献   

3.
The abiotic degradation of the imidazolinone herbicides imazapyr, imazethapyr and imazaquin was investigated under controlled conditions. Hydrolysis, where it occurred, and photodegradation both followed first-order kinetics for all herbicides. There was no hydrolysis of any of the herbicides in buffer solutions at pH 3 or pH 7; however, slow hydrolysis occurred at pH 9. Estimated half-lives for the three herbicides in solution in the dark were 6.5, 9.2 and 9.6 months for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. Degradation of the herbicides in the light was considerably more rapid than in the dark with half lives for the three herbicides of 1.8, 9.8 and 9.1 days for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. The presence of humic acids in the solution reduced the rate of photodegradation for all three herbicides, with higher concentrations of humic acids generally having greater effect. Photodegradation of imazethapyr was the least sensitive to humic acids. The enantioselectivity of photodegradation was investigated using imazaquin, with photodegradation occurring at the same rate for both enantiomers. Abiotic degradation of imidazolinone herbicides on the soil surface only occurred in the presence of light. The rate of degradation for all herbicides was slower than in solution, with half-lives of 15.3, 24.6 and 30.9 days for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. Abiotic degradation of these herbicides is likely to be slow in the environment and is only likely to occur in clear water or on the soil surface.  相似文献   

4.
The phototransformation of Oryzalin was studied under UV light (λmax ≥ 290 nm) and sunlight (λmax ≥ 250 nm) in aqueous isopropanol and acetonitrile solution in absence and presence of TiO2 as sensitizer. The rate of photodegradation of Oryzalin in different solvent system followed first-order kinetics, and calculated half-lives were found to be in the range of 23.52-53.75 h for UV light and 41.23-61.43 h for sunlight. From this study, total 12 photoproducts were identified and characterized on the basis of column chromatography and Q-Tof micromass spectral data. The plausible mechanism of phototransformation involved was hydrolysis, breaking of sulfonic bond, and loss of amino and sulfonic acid group.  相似文献   

5.
Light regime, riboflavin, and pH effects on 2,4-D photodegradation in water   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of light regime, riboflavin, and pH on photodegradation of 2,4-D in aqueous solution. In controlled-environment chamber experiments, riboflavin sensitized 2,4-D photolysis in a concentration-dependent manner under both attenuated UV (-UV) and enhanced UV (+UV) light regimes. The photolysis half-life of 2,4-D in solutions containing 10 mg L-1 riboflavin was 9.7 and 12.5 h when exposed to +UV and -UV, respectively, compared to no photolysis in the absence of riboflavin. In contrast, the extrapolated half-life of 2,4-D in solutions containing 2.5 mg L-1 riboflavin was 46 h under +UV and 72 h under -UV. The rate of 2,4-D photolysis in the presence of riboflavin increased under both light regimes as initial pH of the solution was decreased from 7.5 to 4.5. The half-life of 2,4-D in the presence of 10 mg L-1 riboflavin at pH 4.5 and exposed to +UV was 1.6 h. Lumichrome, a principal photoproduct of riboflavin, did not photosensitize 2,4-D. Concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol formed as a result of riboflavin-sensitized 2,4-D photolysis were higher under the -UV than the +UV regime. These results indicate that riboflavin concentration, solution pH, and light regime are interacting factors that may be manipulated to enhance rates of aqueous 2,4-D photolysis.  相似文献   

6.
ABSTRACT

Fungicide pyraclostrobin has been widely employed to control plant diseases by inhibiting the mitochondrial respiration of pathogenic fungi. Due to its broad spectrum, the extensive use of pyraclorstrobin was reported to cause emerging resistance on crops. Here, we evaluated the control effect of 250 g L?1 of pyrachlostrobin suspension concentrate (SC) against freckle disease (caused by Phyllosticta spp) on banana. Meanwhile, the dissipation and residue dynamics of pyraclostrobin in banana and soil under field conditions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with DAD detection in different locations. The analytical method was validated using spiked samples at three levels, which indicated the recoveries ranged from 92.0% to 99.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5%, providing a sensitive, precise and reliable method to monitor pyraclostrobin in banana fruit and soil. The dissipation of pyraclostrobine followed the first-order kinetics and its half-lives were 5.25 to 9.90 days. In addition, the terminal residues of pyraclostrobin in banana, banana sarcocarp and soil were below the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.02 mg kg?1) after a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 42 days, which suggesting that the use of pyraclostrobin at recommended dosages was safe to banana and the environment. In summary, we demonstrated the integrated evaluation on the disease control capacity of pyraclostrobin and its environmental behavior on banana, aiming to provide solid and basic data for the safe use of fungicide pyraclostrobin.  相似文献   

7.
Relative importance of hydrolysis and photolysis of atrazine and its degradation products in aqueous solutions with dissolved humic acids (HA) has been assessed under exposure to sunlight and under UV irradiation. Quantum yield for direct photolysis of atrazine at 254 nm was 0.037 mol photon(-1), the reaction order was 0.8. Atrazine, desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine converted to their 2-hydroxy analogs with rate constants 0.02-0.08 min(-1) in clear solutions, while addition of HA (300 mg L(-1)) caused a 10-fold increase in rate constants. Hydroxyatrazine was not degraded. No evidence of photo-Fenton reaction was found. Under exposure to solar light, atrazine, desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine were converted to 2-hydroxy analogs only at pH 2 because of acid hydrolysis and possible contribution of photolysis. At lower HA concentration, only their light-shielding effect was noticed, while at higher concentrations, HA-catalysed hydrolysis prevailed. Hydroxyatrazine concentration diminished at all pH values in solutions without HA exposed to sunlight.  相似文献   

8.
Phototransformation of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl was investigated on glass surface under sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) light and compared with dark condition. The half-lives of metsulfuron methyl under UV light and sunlight were found to be 0.5 and 7.8 days respectively. Rate of phototransformation followed first order kinetics with significant correlation coefficient. The major photoproducts were identified as methyl-2-sulfonyl-amino-benzoate, 2-amino-6-methoxy-4-methyltriazine and saccharin (O-sulfobenzoimide). Various metabolites from this study were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Authentic samples required for HPLC comparison were prepared in laboratory and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infra red (IR) spectral data. These metabolites were also identified from metsulfuron methyl treated wheat field soil.  相似文献   

9.
Phototransformation of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl was investigated on glass surface under sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) light and compared with dark condition. The half-lives of metsulfuron methyl under UV light and sunlight were found to be 0.5 and 7.8 days respectively. Rate of phototransformation followed first order kinetics with significant correlation coefficient. The major photoproducts were identified as methyl-2-sulfonyl-amino-benzoate, 2-amino-6-methoxy-4-methyltriazine and saccharin (O-sulfobenzoimide). Various metabolites from this study were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Authentic samples required for HPLC comparison were prepared in laboratory and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infra red (IR) spectral data. These metabolites were also identified from metsulfuron methyl treated wheat field soil.  相似文献   

10.
Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant. The main goal of the present study is the evaluation of SQX reactivity during chlorination and UV irradiations which are two processes mainly used in water treatment plants. The SQX transformation by chlorination and UV lights (254 nm) was investigated in purified water at common conditions used for water disinfection (pH =?7.2, temperature =?25 °C, [chlorine] =?3 mg L?1). The result shows a slow degradation of SQX during photolysis compared with chlorination process. Kinetic studies that fitted a fluence-based first-order kinetic model were used to determine the kinetic constants of SQX degradation; they were equal to 0.7?×?10?4 and 0.7?×?10?2 s?1corresponding to the half time lives of 162 and 1.64 min during photolysis and chlorination, respectively. In the second step, seven by-products were generated during a chlorination and photo-transformation of SQX and identified using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). SO2 extrusion and direct decomposition were the common degradation pathway during photolysis and chlorination. Hydroxylation and isomerization were observed during photodegradation only while electrophilic substitution was observed during chlorination process.  相似文献   

11.
The adsorption of amitraz to various adsorbents was studied in terms of the amount and rate of adsorption and the effect that adsorption had on the stability of amitraz in an aqueous environment. Adsorption results showed that in terms of their ability to adsorb amitraz from solution the adsorbents tested in this study can be ordered as follows: coarse carbon > cation exchange resin > or = anion exchange resin > fine carbon. Amitraz was not adsorbed on sand and potassium oxihumate. Adding sodium lauryl sulfate and potassium oxihumate to aqueous suspensions of suspended adsorbents containing adsorbed amitraz showed that both these anionic surfactants significantly increased the hydrolysis rate because the half-lives for amitraz was reduced from 27 days for a suspension to only 8 hours for amitraz adsorbed to a cation exchange resin and suspended in an aqueous buffer pH 5.8 containing 0.5% of the anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and 12 hours when 1% potassium oxihumate was added.  相似文献   

12.
Chaves A  Shea D  Cope WG 《Chemosphere》2007,69(7):1166-1174
The environmental fate of chlorothalonil (CHT) and its metabolites were studied under field-variable conditions in a commercial banana plantation in Costa Rica. Weather conditions were representative of a tropical environment and the fungicide applications were typical of those in banana production. The test plots were treated with Bravo 720 at 1.2 l ha(-1) of formulated product. Field persistence of CHT in soil and on banana leaves was measured during five consecutive months and after three aerial applications of the fungicide. Residues were analyzed in soil, sediment, water, banana leaves and drift cards by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In soil and on the surface of banana leaves, CHT dissipated rapidly with half-lives of 2.2 and 3.9 d, respectively. Soil residues persisted and were detected 85 d after application. The main metabolite found in soil, 4-hydroxy-chlorothalonil, accounted for approximately 65% of residues detected and was measured up to 6d after application.  相似文献   

13.
The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33?±?2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min?1), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO2, in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO2 nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination.  相似文献   

14.
4-Tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), a kind of endocrine-disrupting compounds, is widely distributed in natural water surroundings but can hardly be biodegraded. The advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been proved to be an efficient method to degrade 4-t-OP. In this study, the photodegradation of 4-t-OP in aqueous solution promoted by Fe(III) and the photooxidation mechanism were investigated. The ferric perchlorate was added into the aqueous solution for the production of hydroxyl radical. The efficiency of mineralization was monitored by total organic carbon analyzer, and photooxidation products were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. 4-t-OP (2.4?×?10?5 M) in aqueous solution was completely degraded after 45 min in the presence of Fe(III) (1.2?×?10?3 M) under UV irradiation (λ?=?365 nm). The optimal pH was 3.5. Higher Fe(III) concentration or lower initial 4-t-OP concentration led to increased photodegradation efficiency of 4-t-OP. The reaction was almost completely inhibited in the presence of 2-propanol. About 70 % mineralization of the solution was obtained after 50 h. The photooxidation product was supposed to be 4-tert-octyl catechol. 4-t-OP in aqueous solution can be degraded in the presence of Fe(III) under the solar irradiation. The photoinduced degradation is due to the reaction with hydroxyl radicals. It shows that the 4-t-OP is mineralized by the inducement of Fe(III) aquacomplexes, which exposes to solar light. Therefore, the results would provide useful information for the potential application of the AOPs to remove 4-t-OP in water surroundings.  相似文献   

15.
Background For their high photoreactivity, Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes are important sources of H2O2 for some atmospheric and surface waters. Citrate is one kind of carboxylate, which can form complexes with Fe(III). In our previous study, we have applied Fe(III)-citrate complexes to degrade and decolorize dyes in aqueous solutions both under UV light and sunlight. Results have shown that carboxylic acids can promote the photodegradation efficiency. It is indicated that the photolysis of Fe(III)-citrate complexes may cause the formation of some reactive species (e. g. H2O2 and ·OH). This work is attempted to quantify hydroxyl radicals generated in the aqueous solution containing Fe(III)-citrate complexes and to interpret the photoreactivity of Fe(III)-citrate complexes for degrading organic compounds. Methods By using benzene as the scavenger to produce phenol, the photogeneration of ·OH in the aqueous solution containing Fe (III)-citrate complexes was determined by HPLC. Results and Discussion In the aqueous solution containing 60.0/30.0 mM Fe(III)/citrate and 7.0 mM benzene at pH 3.0, 96.66 mM ·OH was produced after irradiation by a 250W metal halide light (l ≥ 313 nm) for 160 minutes. Effects of initial pH value and concentrations of Fe(III) and citrate on ·OH radical generation were all examined. The results show that the greatest photoproduction of ·OH in the aqueous solution (pH ranged from 3.0 to 7.0) was at pH 3.0. The photoproduction of ·OH increased with increasing Fe(III) or citrate concentrations. Conclusion In the aqueous solutions containing Fe(III)-citrate complexes, ·OH radicals were produced after irradiation by a 250W metal halide light. It can be concluded that Fe(III)-citrate complexes are important sources of ·OH radicals for some atmospheric and surface waters. Recommendations and Outlook It is believed that the photolysis of Fe(III)-citrate complexes in the presence of oxygen play an important role in producing ·OH both in atmospheric waters and surface water where high concentrations of ferric ions and citrate ions exist. The photoproduction of ·OH has a high oxidizing potential for the degradation of a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic substances. We can use this method for toxic organic pollutants such as organic dyes and pesticides.  相似文献   

16.
On exposure to sunlight or photolysis at λ >300nm, the dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (Aroclor 1254) in the H donor alcohol 2-propanol under neutral conditions is enhanced by the presence of the photosensitizer hydroquinone. Dechlorination is strongly promoted by an increasingly aqueous solvent (1:1 water:alcohol) and by maintaining neutral conditions (pH 7.0 buffer) both in the presence and absence of sensitizer. Atmospheric oxygen (continuous aeration) retards the hydroquinone induced dechlorination less than the direct photolysis process.  相似文献   

17.
Hydrolytic degradation of azimsulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The chemical degradation of the herbicide azimsulfuron was investigated in aqueous solutions at different pH values. The hydrolysis rate, determined by HPLC analyses, was pH dependent and was much faster in acidic than in neutral or weakly basic conditions. The metabolites formed at different pH values were compared with standards when possible or isolated and identified using ESI-LC-MS/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The two main products of hydrolysis in mild acidic solution were identified as 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine and 2-methyl-4-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide, both produced as a result of the sulfonylurea bridge cleavage. Under basic conditions, a new product, a substituted 2-pyrimidinamine, deriving from the contraction of the sulfonylurea bridge, was isolated and completely characterized for the first time.  相似文献   

18.
Quinclorac (QNC) is an effective but rather persistent herbicide commonly used in rice production. This herbicide presents a mean persistence in the environment so its residues are considered of environmental relevance. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate its environmental behavior and degradation. In the present work, direct photolysis and TiO2 photocatalysis of the target compound in ultrapure and paddy field water were investigated. After 10 h photolysis in ultrapure water, the concentration of QNC declined 26% and 54% at 250 and 700 W m−2, respectively. However, the amount of quinclorac in paddy field water remained almost constant under the same irradiation conditions. QNC dissipated completely after 40 min of TiO2 photocatalysis in ultrapure water, whereas 130 min were necessary to degrade 98% of the initial concentration in paddy field water.Possible QNC photolytic and photocatalytic degradation pathways are proposed after structure elucidation of the main transformation products, through liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and exact mass measurements. Pyridine ring hydroxylation at C-9 followed by ring opening and/or oxidative dechlorination were the key steps of QNC degradation.  相似文献   

19.
The behavior and fate of triasulfuron (TRS) in water and soil systems were examined in laboratory studies. The degradation of TRS in both buffer solution and soil was highly pH-sensitive. The rate of degradation could be described with a pseudo first-order kinetic and was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 7 and 9. Aqueous hydrolysis occurred by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge to form 2-(2-chloroethoxy) benzenesulfonamide (CBSA) and [(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino] (AMMT). AMMT was unstable in aqueous solutions in any pH condition but it degraded more quickly at pH 4 and 9. CBSA did not degrade in aqueous solutions or in enriched cultures but it underwent a quick degradation in the soil. The rates of TRS degradation in sterile and non-sterile soils were similar, suggesting that microorganisms played a minimal role in the breakdown process. This hypothesis is supported by the results of studies on the degradation of TRS by enriched cultures during which the molecule underwent a prevalently chemical degradation.  相似文献   

20.
The behavior and fate of triasulfuron (TRS) in water and soil systems were examined in laboratory studies. The degradation of TRS in both buffer solution and soil was highly pH-sensitive. The rate of degradation could be described with a pseudo first-order kinetic and was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 7 and 9. Aqueous hydrolysis occurred by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge to form 2-(2-chloroethoxy) benzenesulfonamide (CBSA) and [(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino] (AMMT). AMMT was unstable in aqueous solutions in any pH condition but it degraded more quickly at pH 4 and 9. CBSA did not degrade in aqueous solutions or in enriched cultures but it underwent a quick degradation in the soil. The rates of TRS degradation in sterile and non-sterile soils were similar, suggesting that microorganisms played a minimal role in the breakdown process. This hypothesis is supported by the results of studies on the degradation of TRS by enriched cultures during which the molecule underwent a prevalently chemical degradation.  相似文献   

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