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1.
This research investigated the role of the pH buffer capacity of sediment on the dechlorination of atrazine using zero valent iron (ZVI). The buffer capacity of the sediment was quantified by batch experiments and estimated to be 5.0 cmol OH(-) . pH(-1). The sediments were spiked with atrazine at 7.25-36.23 mg kg(-1) (6.21 x 10(-7)-3.09 x 10(-6) mol atrazine . g(-1) sediment) for the batch experiments. The buffer capacity of the sediment maintained the sediment suspension at neutral pH, thereby enabling continuous dechlorination until the buffer capacity of the sediment was depleted. The pseudo-first order dechlorination constants were estimated to be in the range of 1.19 x 10(-2)-7.04 x 10(-2) d(-1) for the atrazine-spiked sediments.  相似文献   

2.
In this study the values of subcooled vapor pressures (log P(L)) were estimated for 209 trans chloroazobenzenes (Ct-ABs) that fill some gaps in analytical and experimental data on these compounds. There are 209 chloro derivatives of trans azobenzenes that are relatively stable and more environmentally relevant than 209 chloro cis congeners. The calculations models were based on the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme using the semi-empirical method (PM6) in molecular package (MOPAC) software and density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP functional and 6-311++G** basis set) in Gaussian 03 software method and the artificial neural networks (ANNs) prediction. The values of log P(L) predicted by models used varied between -3.94 to -2.66 for Mono-; -4.85 to -2.97 for Di-; -5.18 to -3.17 for Tri-; -6.02 to -3.77 for Tetra-; -6.64 to -4.64 for Penta-; -7.36 to -4.76 for Hexa-; -7.54 to -5.79 for Hepta-; -7.75 to -6.64 for Octa-; -7.89 to -7.44 for Nona-Ct-Abs; and -8.09 and -8.13 for Deca-Ct-AB. Based on these values Ct-ABs can be grouped localized among relatively low (log P(L) -4 to -2) and low (log P(L) < -4) mobile Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Both the calculation methods employed were characterized by similar prediction ability of subcooled vapor pressure values of Ct-ABs, while those of PM6 are much more efficient due to a cheaper hardware used and around 300-fold less time spent on calculations.  相似文献   

3.
The quantitative evaluation of chemical fraction of Co and Ni in the industrial fly ash by methods of five step sequential extraction was carried out in order to characterize metal mobility in environmental conditions. The research involved (i) water-soluble (pH=7), (ii) acid-soluble (pH=5), (iii) oxide, (iv) sulfide and (v) residue metal fractions. It was discovered, that the total extraction of the studied metals from fly ash to solutions take place in the following quantities Co - 35.5 and Ni - 153.0mgkg(-1). The investigations of chemical fractions proved that the subject metals occur mainly in fly ash as: oxide (Co - 7.0, Ni - 28.5mgkg(-1)) and residue (Co - 11.5, Ni - 42.5mgkg(-1)) as well as sulfide (Co - 8.5, Ni - 46.5mgkg(-1)). Low concentrations of metals for water-soluble fraction (Co - 0.7, Ni - 1.2mgkg(-1)) and acid-soluble fraction (Co - 4.5, Ni - 23.5mgkg(-1)) were observed. The fractions of Co and Ni leachable from the ash in environmental conditions contain: 24.0% (Co) and 23.3% (Ni) of metal total amount in the industrial fly ash. The obtained mobility parameter of Co and Ni can be applied to estimate the concentration increase of mobile and hardly mobile forms of these metals in soil polluted with the ash.  相似文献   

4.
Light-induced disappearance of nitrite in the presence of iron (III)   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Zhang H  Bartlett RJ 《Chemosphere》2000,40(4):411-418
Understanding of rapid disappearance of nitrite in natural waters and its impact on nitrogen natural cycling has remained limited. We found that NO2- disappeared rapidly in pH 3.2 aqueous Fe(III) solutions both in sunlight and in 356 nm light. Quantum yields of the NO2- loss at 356 nm were 0.049-0.14 for initial levels of 10-80 microns NO2- and 200 microns Fe(III). The NO2- loss (at 356 nm) followed apparent first-order kinetics. The rate constants were 1.3 x 10(-3) (40 microns NO2-) and 4.1 x 10(-4) s-1 (80 microns NO2-) for 100 microns Fe(III), and 2.3 x 10(-3) (40 microns NO2-) and 7.5 x 10(-4) s-1 (80 microns NO2(-1)) for 200 microns Fe(III) (t1/2 = 8.7, 27.9, 5.1, and 15.3 min, respectively). The rate constants were directly proportional to [Fe(III)]0 and inversely proportional to [NO2-]0. Agreement between the rate constants obtained experimentally and those calculated mechanistically supports the hypothesis that NO2- was oxidized to NO2 by .OH radicals from photolysis of FeOH2+ complexes, and at high [NO2-]0 (e.g., 80 microns) relative to [Fe(III)]0, hydrolysis of NO2 or N2O4 to form NO3- and NO2- could be significant. This study showed that light and Fe(III)-induced oxidation of NO2- (rate = approximately 10(-1)-10(-2) microns s-1) was more rapid than its direct photolysis (rate = approximately 10(-4) microns s-1), and the photolysis could be a significant source of .OH radicals only in cases where the Fe(III) level is much lower than the NO2- level ([Fe(III)]/[NO2-] < 1/80). This study suggests that the light and Fe(III)-induced oxidation of NO2- would be one potential important pathway responsible for the rapid transformation of NO2- in acidic surface waters, especially those affected by acid-mine drainage or volcanic activities. This study also may be of interest for modeling certain acidic atmospheric water environments.  相似文献   

5.
The aim of this research was monitoring the distribution of atrazine and simazine as well as metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Al, Co, Ni, and V along with trophic chains: soil-vegetables and soil, carrot or grass and meat. Different techniques of herbicides extraction by means of many solvents were examined. Triazines were analysed by means of HPLC, metals by means of ICP-AES. Detection limits: LOD=0.2 microg ml(-1), determination limits: LOQ=0.73 microg ml(-1) for atrazine and LOD=0.3 microg ml(-1), LOQ=1.12 microg ml(-1) for simazine were obtained. The content (microg g(-1)) of simazine in soil was in range: 3.45-8.60, in vegetable roots: 6.62-38.15, in vegetable leaves: 2.45-31.71, in rabbit fat: 0.13-49.90. The content (microg g(-1)) of atrazine in soils was in range: 11.9-13.03, in vegetable roots: 13.61-92.90. In analysed material the particular metals after microwave or dry digestion were determined in range (microg g(-1)): Pb: 6.48-43.18; Cd: 0.11-0.57; Zn: 8.79-51.90; Al: 10.22-24.48; Co: 0.18-3.89; Ni: 0.37-6.36; V: 0.29-1.48.  相似文献   

6.
Unusual products of the aqueous chlorination of atenolol   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The reaction of the drug atenolol with hypochlorite under conditions that simulate wastewater disinfection was investigated. The pharmaceutical reacted in 1h yielding three products that were separated by chromatographic techniques and characterized by spectroscopic features. Two unusual products 2-(4-(3-(chloro(2-chloropropan-2-yl)amino)-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl) acetamide and 2-(4-(3-formamido-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl) acetamide were obtained along with 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide. When the reaction was stopped at shorter times only 2-(4-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl) acetamide and the dichlorinated product were detected. Tests performed on the seeds of Lactuca sativa show that chlorinated products have phytotoxic activity.  相似文献   

7.
Zushi Y  Takeda T  Masunaga S 《Chemosphere》2008,71(8):1566-1573
Products containing perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used during the last 50 years. As a result, worldwide environmental pollution by PFCs has been reported. The sources of PFC pollution in the aquatic environment have been poorly understood. In this study, river water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent were sampled along the stretch of the Tsurumi River and also at a fixed station in the river. The concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured. With an increase in river flow rate, it was observed that the PFC concentrations in the river water at fixed station were remained the same or increased for PFOS (179.9+/-34.4-179.6+/-69.5 ng l(-1)), PFHxA (5.5+/-0.8-9.0+/-2.6 ng l(-1)), PFHpA (3.1+/-0.3-4.4+/-1.0 ng l(-1)), and PFOA (15.9+/-0.3-13.4+/-2.5 ng l(-1)) whereas the concentration of PFNA (38.0+/-3.3-15.4+/-3.0 ng l(-1)) and PFDA (3.9+/-0.3-2.1+/-0.3 ng l(-1)) were decreased. On the other hand, the loads of every PFC increased with an increase in river flow rate. The loads of PFCs in rain runoff were estimated to be 2-11 times greater than those in STP effluents that are discharged into the river. These results indicate the existence of a PFC nonpoint source (NPS) and its impact to the total PFC load of river is significant.  相似文献   

8.
Shapiro AM  Chan HM 《Chemosphere》2008,74(1):112-118
Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant but its toxicity depends on the species present. A steady emergence of inorganic Hg in the brain following chronic and accidental exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) has suggested that MeHg can undergo demethylation. The objective of this study is to develop an in vitro model to study factors affecting Hg demethylation in the central nervous system. Astrocytes obtained from neonatal rat pups were cultured for 24h with 1 microM MeHg in the presence of two pro-oxidants, buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and rotenone. The BSO treatment produced a 21% increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) content compared to the control (control vs. BSO; 100+/-1.35 vs. 121+/-1.52 relative fluorescence units (RFU)mg(-1) protein, p<0.001) but did not affect total Hg accumulation (control vs. BSO=86.5+/-4.14 ng mg(-1) vs. 95.7+/-9.26 ng mg(-1)). Rotenone increased ROS levels 107% (control vs. rotenone; 100%+/-1.35 vs. 207%+/-6.78RFU mg(-1)protein, p<0.001) and significantly increased the accumulation of total Hg (control vs. rotenone=86.5+/-4.14 ng mg(-1) vs. 124+/-3.80 ng mg(-1), p<0.001). There was no detectable demethylation in the control or BSO treated group, however, the rotenone treatment significantly increased the demethylation (control vs. rotenone=-1.86+/-5.57% vs. 16.3+/-2.68%, p<0.05). For the first time, we have demonstrated in an in vitro primary astrocyte culture model that MeHg can be converted to inorganic Hg and demethylation increases with oxidative stress. Our results provide a useful model to study demethylation of Hg in astrocytes and to explore potential ways to protect against Hg toxicity.  相似文献   

9.
10.
硝基氧化剂废水处理研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
用钠盐(Na2CO3和NaHCO3)作为和剂去除硝基氧化剂废水中HNO3;用尿素、Na2SO3去除NO2^-、NO3^-;加入适量的沉淀剂、络合剂、絮凝剂、助凝剂去除废水中的F^-和PO4^3-;并对处理pH值、各种药剂浓度及处理时间作了讨论,得出了最佳条件,处理后的出水达到国家污水排放标准。  相似文献   

11.
Monitoring of airborne dust in Delhi during May to July 1985 revealed residues of DDT varying from 1.3 to 7.14 ng mg(-1) (4.06-22.31 ng m(-2) day(-1)) with an average of 3.32 ng mg(-1) (10.38 ng m(-2) day(-1)), and HCH which ranged from 0.46 to 2.35 ng mg(-1) (1.44-7.34 ng m(-2) day(-1)) with a mean of 1.16 ng mg(-1) (3.63 ng m(-2) day(-1)). The concentration of total DDT was almost 3 times greater than that of HCH.  相似文献   

12.
A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption.  相似文献   

13.
Xu N  Christodoulatos C  Braida W 《Chemosphere》2006,62(10):1726-1735
The adsorption of two major molybdenum (Mo) species, molybdate (MoO4(2-)) and tetrathiomolybdate (MoS4(2-)) onto two main iron minerals pyrite (FeS2) and goethite (FeOOH) is addressed to elucidate the possible mechanisms of molybdenum immobilization in anoxic sediments. Suspensions of MoS4(2-) (or MoO4(2-)) and goethite (or pyrite) in 0.1M NaCl solution were equilibrated under anoxic conditions at 25 degrees C in the pH range from 3 to 10. The competitive effects of sulfate, phosphate, and silicate on the adsorption of MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-) by pyrite and goethite are also addressed. Adsorption of MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-) on pyrite and goethite is in general well described by a Langmuir model at low pH; the extent of sorption is a function of pH and the surface loading. Maximum sorption is observed in the acidic pH range (pH<5) at low surface loading. The adsorption of molybdenum (micromol g(-1)) depends upon Mo species and on the type of iron mineral following the order: MoS4(2-)-goethite > MoO4(2-)-goethite > MoS4(2-)-pyrite > MoO4(2-)-pyrite. Phosphate appears to compete strongly with MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-) for the sorption sites of pyrite and goethite. The strength of the phosphate competitive effect follows the sequence of MoO4(2-)-goethite approximately = MoO4(2-)-pyrite > MoS4(2-)-pyrite > MoS4(2-)-goethite. Silicate and sulfate have a negligible effect on the sorption of MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-). The preferred adsorption by iron mineral of MoS4(2-), as well as its behavior in the presence of competitive anions suggests that tetrathiomolybdate species may be an ultimate reservoir and may control Mo enrichment in the sediments.  相似文献   

14.
Butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds were measured in seawater, sediment, and biological samples collected from coastal areas of Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Tributyltin (TBT) compounds in seawater, sediment, plankton, mussels, scallops and fish were in the range of 0.008-0.074 microg liter(-1), 0.01-0.64 mg (kg dry wt)(-1), 0.24-9.8 mg (kg dry wt)(-1), 0.04-0.18 mg (kg wet wt)(-1), 0.10-0.13 mg (kg wet wt)(-1) and 0.01-0.02 mg (kg wet wt)(-1), respectively. Trace amount of PTs were found in seawater. The highest concentrations of TBT and triphenyltin (TPT) were found near a shipyard. Triorganotin compounds were more dominant than their metabolites. A positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of TBT and TPT in the mussels. Concentrations of TBT and TPT in mussels were high in the upper intertidal zone, and decreased toward the water.  相似文献   

15.
Dissipation study of sulfosulfuron in natural water and its bioaccumulation in fish was conducted at 25+/-2 degrees C and at two different concentration levels 1mgl(-1) and 2mgl(-1). The dissipation data in water showed the DT50 and DT90 values 67-76 and 222-253 days and followed first order kinetics. Bioaccumulation of sulfosulfuron in fish was conducted under static conditions exposing the fish at one-tenth of sub-lethal concentration 9mgl(-1) and at double the concentration 18mgl(-1), for a period of 56 days. On different occasions fish samples were collected and analyzed. A HPLC-RF method was used for the quantification of sulfosulfuron and aminopyrimidine with the limit of quantification 0.001microg ml(-1). Results showed the accumulation of residues of sulfosulfuron in fish over the concentration range 0.009-0.496microg g(-1). Both in water and fish samples, identified the presence of metabolites aminopyrimidine, desmethyl sulfosulfuron, guanidine, sulfonamide, ethyl sulfone and rearranged amine. The formations of these metabolites are confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. An LC-MS/MS electro spray ionization technique was used for this purpose. One of the metabolite Aminopyrimidine was identified at higher concentration levels (0.01-0.1microg ml(-1)) when compared with other metabolites. Subsequently dissipation of aminopyrimidine in water and its bioaccumulation was also studied at the concentration level 1mgl(-1) and 2mgl(-1). The calculated DT50 and DT90 values are 66-68 days and 218-226 days, respectively. This followed first order kinetics. Three hundred days after the exposure complete demineralization was observed.  相似文献   

16.
George C  Chovelon JM 《Chemosphere》2002,47(4):385-393
The rate constant for the reaction of sulphate radical (SO4-) with Cl- has been determined using laser photolysis, at 248 nm, of peroxodisulphate anions to produce the radicals and time resolved optical absorption of the transient species (at 450 or 480 nm for SO4- and 350 nm for Cl2-) for the kinetic determinations. The experiments were performed, in the absence of added sulphate, as a function of temperature and ionic strength and yielded (at an ionic strength of 0.0157 M): kIV = (9.90+/-0.16) x 10(9) exp((-7.12+/-2.0) kJ mol(-1)/RT) M(-1) s(-1), where the errors reflect the 2sigma statistical error. This reaction produces Cl2-, the formation and decay of which were also monitored allowing a determination of the rate constant of its second-order self-recombination reaction which gave k = (6.50+/-1.40) x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) at 293 K and zero ionic strength.  相似文献   

17.
Huang JS  Chou HH  Chen CM  Chiang CM 《Chemosphere》2007,68(2):382-388
A laboratory study using a combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-activated sludge (AS) reactor system was undertaken to explore the effect of recycle-to-influent ratio (R(e)=1, 2, and 3) on the activities of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Suspended-solids pre-settled piggery wastewater was used as the substrate-feed wastewater. At the R(e) of 1-3, the combined reactor system achieved efficient removal of COD (96-97%), TKN (100%) and total nitrogen TN (54-77%). Methanogenesis occurred with nearly-complete denitrification in the UASB reactor, whereas complete nitrification took place in the AS reactor. A higher R(e) (i.e., accompanied with a shorter solids retention time) resulted in a larger amount of high-activity denitrifiers and thereby achieved a higher TN removal efficiency. Compact granules and a high biomass concentration in the UASB reactor were observed. At the R(e) of 1-3, the maximum specific reaction rate of nitrifiers (0.45-0.49 NH(4)(+)-NmgVSS(-1)d(-1)) and the specific nitrification rates of mixed culture (0.18-0.22mg NH(4)(+)-NmgVSS(-1)d(-1)) in the AS reactor varied slightly; whereas the maximum specific reaction rate of denitrifiers (0.18-0.27mg NO(x)(-)-NmgVSS(-1)d(-1)) and the specific denitrification and COD removal rates of mixed culture (0.025-0.050mg NO(x)(-)-NmgVSS(-1)d(-1); 0.24-0.31mgCODmgVSS(-1)d(-1)) in the UASB reactor increased with increasing R(e). The primary finding of the study is that the combined UASB-AS reactor system should be operated at a higher R(e) to maintain high-activity denitrifiers to remove organic materials and nitrogen from piggery wastewater.  相似文献   

18.
Kong XJ  Li D  Cao LQ  Zhang XM  Zhao Y  Lv Y  Zhang J 《Chemosphere》2008,72(1):59-66
In order to evaluate the municipal sewage treatment systems used at Harbin municipal sewage treatment plant for their pollutant removal efficiency, raw sewage and effluent samples at different treatment stages from the sewage treatment systems were taken, priority pollutants (PPs) were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrograph (ICP-AES). The test results indicated that there were one hundred and fifty species of organic pollutants identified in the raw sewage sample, and only ten species of PPs in all the sewage samples. The levels of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in the sewage samples were 0.779-0.111 microg l(-1), 1.977-0.022 microg l(-1), 6.411-2.194 microg l(-1) and 7.152-2.953microg l(-1), respectively, and most of these phthalate esters (PAEs) were removed through anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) process; The levels of alachlor, acetochlor, atrazine were 0.074-0.021 microg l(-1), 0.160-0.096 microg l(-1) and 0.238-0.184 microg l(-1), respectively, and the total removal efficiency of atrazine was poorest through the sewage treatment systems. The levels of Cu, Cr, Se, Hg, Ni and Zn were 0.0030-0.2327 mg l(-1). It is therefore concluded from these results that the sewage treatment systems were efficient in removing most of the organic and inorganic compounds in this study, and so, the discharged effluent could cause little of the secondary pollution of the aquatic environment.  相似文献   

19.
Thermodynamics of binding of cadmium to bovine serum albumin   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Qu SS  Liu Y  Wang TZ  Gao WY 《Chemosphere》2002,46(8):1211-1214
The binding isotherm of Cd2+ ion to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by microcalorimetry at 310.15 K and pH 7.0. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reaction have been determined, and the stoichiometry of the complex is 2:1, indicating that there exist two identical binding sites of BSA with Cd2+ ion. The value of deltarHthetam is -28.4+/-1.7 kJ mol(-1), the free energy of binding deltarGthetam is -25.2 kJ mol(-1), and the entropy of binding deltarSthetam is -10.3 J mol(-1) K(-1). The negative deltarHthetam and deltarSthetam values are observed for the binding reaction of Cd2+ ion and BSA, suggesting that the binding reaction is mainly enthalpy-driven and the entropy is unfavorable for it.  相似文献   

20.
Jantunen LM  Bidleman TF 《Chemosphere》2006,62(10):1689-1696
The Henry's law constants (HLC) for trans- and cis-chlordane (TC, CC), trans-nonachlor (TN), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE were determined by the gas-stripping method over a temperature range of 5-35 degrees C. The HLC variation versus temperature (K) was described by logH=m/T+b. Parameters of this equation were (with standard deviations) TC: m=-1524+/-158, b=6.58+/-0.54; CC: m=-1786+/-209, b=7.42+/-0.71; TN m=-2068+/-284, b=8.44+/-0.97; HCB: m=-3013+/-174, b=11.60+/-0.59 and p,p'-DDE: m=-2043+/-240, b=8.37+/-0.82. The HLCs (Pa m3 mol(-1)) at 25 degrees C (298.15 K) were: TC=29; CC=27; TN=32; p,p'-DDE=33 and HCB=35. These HLCs values were used to calculate fugacity ratios from paired air and water data from Lake Ontario, July 1998. The resulting fugacity ratios predict that volatilization was occurring for all compounds during that month.  相似文献   

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