首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
相似文献
 共查询到20条相似文献,搜索用时 312 毫秒
1.
Abstract

The presence of diethyl-phthalate (DEP), dibutyl-phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl-phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl-phthalate (DINP) was determined in 295 tequila samples. They were grouped by age of maturation (white, aged, extra aged or ultra aged) and year of production (between 2013 and 2018). Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry was used for identification and quantification. The results showed that 65 samples (22% of the total) were phthalate free. DEP (0.13-0.27?mg/kg), BBP (0.05–2.91?mg/kg) and DINP (1.64–3.43?mg/kg) were detected in 11 (3.73%), 37 (12.54%) and 5 (1.69%) samples, respectively. But, these concentrations did not exceed the maximum permitted limits (MPL) of phthalates for alcoholic beverages. DBP (0.01–2.20?mg/kg) and DEHP (0.03–4.64?mg/kg) were detected in 96 (32.54%) and 224 (75.93%) samples, from them only 10 (3.39%) and 15 (5.08%) samples, respectively, exceeded the MPL for alcoholic beverages and they were few tequilas produced in the year 2014 or before. DEHP was the most frequent phthalate found in tequila and observed DEHP concentrations were 2-times higher in ultra aged tequilas compared to those in white tequilas. We concluded that all tequilas produced in 2015 and after, satisfied the international standards for these compounds.  相似文献   

2.
Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl, C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(7), and C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 microg/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl may be significant in the formation of C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl.  相似文献   

3.
Three blends formed by: (i) food processing waste (CP(FP)), (ii) waste water sewage sludge (CP(WW)), and (iii) their mixture (CP(FP+WW)), blended with tree pruning as bulking agent, were composted over 3 months. During composting the blends were monitored for the main physical-chemical characteristics: temperature, oxygen saturation level (O(2)%), pH, total and volatile solids, total organic carbon, and organic nitrogen (N(org)). In addition to the main parameters, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the inorganic nitrogen and the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) were monitored. All the mixtures easily reached a peak temperature around 70°C, related to the lowest O(2)%. After 90 d, CP(FP), CP(FP+WW), and CP(WW) showed an organic matter mineralization of 43%, 35% and 33%, respectively; CP(FP) fitted an exponential model while both CP(FP+WW), and CP(WW) fitted a logistic model. During composting an OUR reduction of 79%, 78% and 73% was registered in CP(FP), CP(FP+WW), and CP(WW), respectively; the OUR successfully fitted the adopted exponential model and well reflected the stabilization process in time. The N(org) recovery at the end of the process was positive only in CP(WW) (11.6%). The DOC significantly decreased during the composting process but did not successfully fit any model. The mineral nitrogen did not follow the typical pattern with NH(4)(+) disappearance and NO(3)(-) accumulation. Strong NO(3)(-) losses were evident in all blends, while NH(4)(+) accumulations were detectable only in CP(FP), and CP(FP+WW). The NH(4)(+)/NO(3)(-) ratio did not satisfactorily reflect the composting process over time. The comparison of the first order (exponential) and logistic (sigmoidal) models applied to the OUR and OM course highlights the role of mineral nitrogen as limiting factor during composting of the more stabilized sludge.  相似文献   

4.
Shen X  Huang W  Yao C  Ying S 《Chemosphere》2007,67(10):1927-1932
Heavy metals and surfactants have a significant effect on the sorption of organic contaminants. In this study, batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of Pb(NO(3))(2) on the sorption of p-nitrophenol (PNP) onto sediments in the presence of cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Results indicated that in the complex system containing PNP, Pb(NO(3))(2) and CPC, the sorption of PNP decreased with increasing concentration of Pb(NO(3))(2) due primarily to competing for adsorption sites. Likewise, partitioning of PNP in adsorbed surfactant layers and micelles decreased with increasing level of Pb(NO(3))(2). Moreover, the influence of different metal ions (Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+)) was examined and results indicated that the presence of heavy metals inhibited the sorption of PNP in the order: Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>Zn(2+). The competitive effect of the heavy metals was in agreement with the hydration energy and hydrated radius. The results are believed to provide a useful insight into describing the transport and fate of PNP in natural environments.  相似文献   

5.
6.
Prairie wetlands may be important sites of mercury (Hg) methylation resulting in elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water, sediments and biota. Invertebrates are an important food resource and may act as an indicator of MeHg exposure to higher organisms. In 2007-2008, invertebrates were collected from wetland ponds in central Saskatchewan, categorized into functional feeding groups (FFGs) and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg. Methylmercury and THg concentrations in four FFGs ranged from 0.2-393.5 ng · g(-1) and 9.7-507.1 ng · g(-1), respectively. Methylmercury concentrations generally increased from gastropods with significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrate taxa. Surrounding land use (agricultural, grassland and organic agricultural) may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates, with invertebrate MeHg concentrations being higher from organic ponds (457.5 ± 156.7 ng · g(-1)) compared to those from grassland ponds (74.8 ± 14.6 ng · g(-1)) and ponds on agricultural lands (32.8 ± 6.2 ng · g(-1)).  相似文献   

7.
Freitas H  Prasad MN  Pratas J 《Chemosphere》2004,54(11):1625-1642
In north–east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: Ni: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38 105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); Cr: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); Co: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); Mn: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.  相似文献   

8.
A series of novel synthetic monohydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) (5 trichloro-, 5 tetrachloro- and 5 pentachloro-compounds) have been characterized (1H and 13C NMR and high resolution MS) and their estrogenic and thyroid hormone activities assessed using a yeast two-hybrid assay, both with and without possible metabolic activation by rat liver S9 preparation. Moderate estrogenic activity was found for 2,3,4(')-trichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (compound 5) but this was eliminated when exposed to the S9 mix. 2,2('),3('),4,6-Pentachlorobiphenyl-3-ol (13) and 2('),3,3('),6-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (10) both showed weak estrogenicity in the absence of the S9 mix. The estrogenicity of compound (10) was enhanced 10-fold by exposure to S9 metabolic activation but that of compound (13) remained unchanged. 2('),4,5('),6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl-2-ol (6) showed strong thyroid hormonal activity (5% of that of T4) whereas 3('),4,6-trichlorobiphenyl-3-ol (4), compound (10) and 2,3('),4,5('),6-pentachlorobiphenyl-3-ol (14) showed moderate activity, and 2('),3,3('),5-tetrachlorobiphenyl-2-ol (8) and 3,3('),5,5('),6-pentachlorobiphenyl-2-ol (11) showed weak activity. The activity of (4) was eliminated by S9 metabolic activation whereas those of (6) and (14) were weakened and that of (10) remained unchanged.  相似文献   

9.
The interdependencies of parameters applied in the models of EUSES are visualised in a directed connectivity graph. The parameters (inputs, defaults, state variables, outputs) are represented by boxes (nodes) and their relations by lines (edges). The visualisation, on the one hand, clarifies the complexity of the models in EUSES and, on the other hand, creates an overview and transparency. The parameters’ relations to each other can be recognised faster, and the models can be better understood. The complexity was quantified by the number (variety), kind (substance parameter, physico-chemical parameter, concentration, other parameters), and depth (dimension) of the parameter and the number of relations (connectivity). The variety of EUSES (without the modelsSimple Treat andSimple Box whose interior structure is not documented and without the effect and risk characterisation) amounts to 466, the connectivity to 961, and the maximal dimension is 21.  相似文献   

10.
Pathogenic bacteria attached to the hide or shed in the feces of cattle at slaughter can contaminate carcasses intended to be processed for human consumption. Therefore, new pre-harvest interventions are needed to prevent the carriage and excretion of foodborne pathogens in cattle presented to the processing plant. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodborne pathogens when applied as a hide-intervention and as a feed additive to feedlot cattle. Water (control) or solutions (3 % wt/vol) of chestnut- and mimosa-extract treatments were sprayed (25 mL) at the left costal side of each animal to a 1000 cm2 area, divided in four equal quadrants. Hide-swabs samples obtained at pre-, 2-min, 8-h, and 24-h post-spray application were cultured to enumerate Escherichia coli/total coliforms and total aerobic plate counts. In a second experiment, diets supplemented without (controls) or with (1.5 % of diet dry matter) chestnut- or mimosa-extracts were fed during a 42-day experimental feeding period. Weekly fecal samples starting on day 0, and rumen fluid obtained on days 0, 7, 21 or 42 were cultured to enumerate E.coli/total coliforms and Campylobacter. Tannin spray application showed no effect of treatment or post-application-time (P > 0.05) on measured bacterial populations, averaging 1.7/1.8, 1.5/1.6 and 1.5/1.7 (log??CFU/cm2) for E. coli/total coliforms, and 4.0, 3.4 and 4.2 (log??CFU/cm2) in total aerobes for control, chestnut and mimosa treatments, respectively. Mean (± SEM) ruminal E. coli and total coliform concentrations (log(10) CFU/mL) were reduced (P < 0.01) in steers fed chestnut-tannins (3.6 and 3.8 ± 0.1) in comparison with the controls (4.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1). Fecal E. coli concentrations were affected by treatment (P< 0.01), showing the highest values (log?? CFU/g) in fecal contents from mimosa-fed steers compared to controls (5.9 versus 5.6 ± 0.1 SEM, respectively). Total coliforms (log CFU/g) showed the highest values (P < 0.01) in feces from chestnut- and mimosa-fed steers (6.0 and 6.1 ± 0.1 respectively) in comparison with controls (5.7 ± 0.1). Fecal Campylobacter concentrations (log??CFU/g) were affected by treatment (P < 0.05), day (P < 0.001) and their interaction (P < 0.01) with the controls having lower concentrations than chestnut- and mimosa-fed steers (0.4, 1.0, and 0.8 ± 0.3, respectively). It was concluded that under our research conditions, tannins were not effective in decreasing measured bacterial populations on beef cattle hides. Additionally, chestnut tannin reduced E. coli and total coliforms within the rumen but the antimicrobial effect was not maintained in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Further research is necessary to elucidate the possible antimicrobial effects of tannins at site-specific locations of the gastrointestinal tract in beef cattle fed high-grain and high-forage diets.  相似文献   

11.
This paper investigates some of the reflectivity characteristics that clouds (when modelled as solid bodies) must exhibit to be compatible with observations that the reflecting surface of a cloud (i) appears almost equally bright across its face, (ii) is brightest when the cloud is opposite to the Sun but decreases in brightness as the cloud moves to other positions and (iii) increases in brightness with increasing optical thickness of the cloud in the observer's line of sight. These observations, respectively, are shown to imply that the peak value of the bidirectional total reflectivity from a cloud surface (i) increases in inverse proportion to the cosine of the angle between the Sun and the normal to the cloud surface, as the incident angle increases, (ii) appears to be directed back in the direction of the incident radiation, and (iii) increases as optical thickness of the cloud in the observer's line of sight increases. The results could have application in many fields (e.g. modelling diffuse radiance distributions for cloudy skies).  相似文献   

12.
A laboratory study was conducted to monitor the effect of pencycuron [1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-1-cyclopentyl-3-phenylurea] on microbial parameters of alluvial (AL) soil (Typic udifluvent) and coastal saline (CS) soil (Typic endoaquept) under waterlogged condition. Pencycuron at field rate (FR), 2FR and 10FR affected the microbial biomass C (MBC), soil ergosterol content and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (FDHA) differentially. The DCM amendment did not seem to have any counteractive effect on the toxicity of pencycuron on the microbial variables. The change in microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) and microbial respiration quotient (QR), indicated pencycuron induced disturbance at 10FR. Present study revealed that the metabolically activated microbial population was more suppressed compared to the dormant population.  相似文献   

13.
A dynamic system based on the water/air equilibrium at the interface within the length of a microporous tube has been used to determine experimentally the Henry's law constants (HLC) of two pesticides: metolachlor and diazinon. The measurements were conducted over the temperature range 283-301 K. At 293 K, HLCs values are (42.6+/-2.8) x 10(3) (in units of M atm(-1)) for metolachlor and (3.0+/-0.3)x10(3) for diazinon. The obtained data were used to derive the following Arrhenius expressions: HLC=(3.0+/-0.4) x 10(-11) exp((10,200+/-1,000)/T) for metolachlor and (7.2+/-0.5) x 10(-15) exp((11,900+/-700)/T) for diazinon. At a cumulus cloud temperature of 283 K, the fractions of metolachlor and diazinon in the atmospheric aqueous phase are about 57% and 11% respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of a cloud on the atmospheric chemistry of both studied pesticides, we compare also their atmospheric lifetimes under clear sky (tau(gas)), and cloudy conditions (tau(multiphase)). The calculated multiphase lifetimes (in units of hours) are significantly lower than those in gas phase at a cumulus temperature of 283 K (in parentheses): metolachlor, 0.4 (2.9); diazinon, 1.9 (5.0).  相似文献   

14.
The quantitative evaluation of chemical fraction of Co and Ni in the industrial fly ash by methods of five step sequential extraction was carried out in order to characterize metal mobility in environmental conditions. The research involved (i) water-soluble (pH=7), (ii) acid-soluble (pH=5), (iii) oxide, (iv) sulfide and (v) residue metal fractions. It was discovered, that the total extraction of the studied metals from fly ash to solutions take place in the following quantities Co - 35.5 and Ni - 153.0mgkg(-1). The investigations of chemical fractions proved that the subject metals occur mainly in fly ash as: oxide (Co - 7.0, Ni - 28.5mgkg(-1)) and residue (Co - 11.5, Ni - 42.5mgkg(-1)) as well as sulfide (Co - 8.5, Ni - 46.5mgkg(-1)). Low concentrations of metals for water-soluble fraction (Co - 0.7, Ni - 1.2mgkg(-1)) and acid-soluble fraction (Co - 4.5, Ni - 23.5mgkg(-1)) were observed. The fractions of Co and Ni leachable from the ash in environmental conditions contain: 24.0% (Co) and 23.3% (Ni) of metal total amount in the industrial fly ash. The obtained mobility parameter of Co and Ni can be applied to estimate the concentration increase of mobile and hardly mobile forms of these metals in soil polluted with the ash.  相似文献   

15.
Results are presented from the UN/ECE ICP Vegetation (International Cooperative Programme on effects of air pollution on natural vegetation and crops) experiments in which ozone(O(3))-resistant (NC-R) and -sensitive (NC-S) clones of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Regal) were exposed to ambient O(3) episodes at 14 sites in eight European countries in 1996, 1997 and 1998. The plants were grown according to a standard protocol, and the forage was harvested every 28 days for 4-5 months per year by excision 7 cm above the soil surface. Biomass ratio (NC-S/NC-R) was related to the climatic and pollutant conditions at each site using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Twenty-one input parameters [e.g. AOT40, 7-h mean O(3) concentration, daylight vapour pressure deficit (VPD), daily maximum temperature] were considered individually and in combination with the aim of developing a model with high r(2) and simple structure that could be used to predict biomass change in white clover. MLR models were generally more complex, and performed less well for unseen data than non-linear ANN models. The ANN model with the best performance had five inputs with an r(2) value of 0.84 for the training data, and 0.71 for previously unseen data. Two inputs to the model described the O(3) conditions (AOT40 and 24-h mean for O(3)), two described temperature (daylight mean and 24-h mean temperature), and the fifth input appeared to be differentiating between semi-urban and rural sites (NO concentration at 17:00). Neither VPD nor harvest interval was an important component of the model. The model predicted that a 5% reduction in biomass ratio was associated with AOT40s in the range 0.9-1.7 ppm x h (microl l(-1) h) accumulated over 28 days, with plants being most sensitive in conditions of low NO(x), medium-range temperature, and high 24-h mean O(3) concentration.  相似文献   

16.
Biodegradation mechanisms were elucidated for three dibenzoate plasticizers: diethylene glycol dibenzoate (D(EG)DB), dipropylene glycol dibenzoate (D(PG)DB), both of which are commercially available, and 1,6-hexanediol dibenzoate, a potential green plasticizer. Degradation studies were done using Rhodococcus rhodochrous in the presence of pure alkanes as a co-substrate. As expected, the first degradation step for all of these systems was the hydrolysis of one ester bond with the release of benzoic acid and a monoester. Subsequent biodegradation of the monobenzoates of diethylene glycol (D(EG)MB) and dipropylene glycol (D(PG)MB) was very slow, leading to significant accumulation of these monoesters. In contrast, 1,6-hexanediol monobenzoate was quickly degraded and characterization of the metabolites indicated that the biodegradation proceeded by way of the oxidation of the alcohol group to generate 6-(benzoyloxy) hexanoic acid followed by β-oxidation steps. This pathway was blocked for D(EG)MB and D(PG)MB by the presence of an ether function.The use of a pure hydrocarbon as a co-substrate resulted in the formation of another class of metabolites; namely the esters of the alcohols formed by the oxidation of the alkanes and the benzoic acid released by hydrolysis of the original diesters. These metabolites were biodegraded without the accumulation of any intermediates.  相似文献   

17.
Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
Chicken litter (a mixture of chicken manure, wood shavings, waste feed, and feathers) was composted in forced-aeration piles to understand the changes and losses of nitrogen (N) during composting. During the composting process, the chemical [different N fractions, organic matter (OM), organic carbon (C), and C:N ratio], physical, and microbial properties of the chicken litter were examined. Cumulative losses and mass balances of N and organic matter were also quantified to determine actual losses during composting. The changes in total N concentration of the chicken litter piles were essentially equal to those of the organic N. The inorganic N concentrations were low, and that organic N was the major nitrogenous constituent. The ammonium (NH(4)(+))-N concentration decreased dramatically during first 35 days of composting. However, the rapid decrease in NH(4)(+)-N during composting did not coincide with a rapid increase in (NO(3)(-)+NO(2)(-))-N concentration. The concentration of (NO(3)(-)+NO(2)(-))-N was very low (<0.5 g kg(-1)) at day 0, and this level remained unchanged during the first 35 days of composting suggesting that N was lost during composting. Losses of N in this composting process were governed mainly by volatilization of ammonia (NH(3)) as the pile temperatures were high and the pH values were above 7. The narrow C:N ratio (<20:1) have also contributed to losses of N in the chicken litter. The OM and total organic C mass decreased with composting time. About 42 kg of the organic C was converted to CO(2). On the other hand, 18 kg was lost during composting. This loss was more than half (59%) of the initial N mass of the piles. Such a finding demonstrates that composting reduced the value of the chicken litter as N fertilizer. However, the composted chicken contained a more humified (stabilized) OM compared with the uncomposted chicken litter, which would enhance its value as a soil conditioner.  相似文献   

18.
Nguyen HT  Kim KH 《Chemosphere》2006,65(2):201-212
The concentration data of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), obtained from four different types of air quality monitoring (AQM) stations in Korea (i.e., urban traffic (A), urban background (B), suburban background (C), and rural background (D)), were explored to evaluate the fundamental facets of its distribution and behavior. As there are many distinctions between these four types of AQM stations, the observed NO(2) values were clearly distinguished from each other. It is found that the average NO(2) concentrations from all A stations exhibit notably high values within the range of 24.8 (Gwangju) to 54.6 ppb (Seoul), while those of all B stations change from 19.6 (Ulsan) to 34.7 ppb (Seoul). Similarly, large differences were also observed from NO(2) values measured between C and D type stations. The NO(2) values of the former were from 16.5 (Jeonbuk) to 30.2 ppb (Gyunggi), while the latter from 4.3 (Gyeongbuk) to 8.7 ppb (Gyunggi). Although their annual patterns are rather complicated to explain, the results by and large reflected the changes in the conditions of the surrounding environment. When the results are compared across seasons, most stations (A, B, and D types) tend to exhibit their maximum values in the winter followed by spring, fall, and summer. The results of this study confirm that the distribution patterns of NO(2) are fairly sensitive enough to reflect the basic characteristics of its source processes in association with such factors as the intensity of anthropogenic activity or population density.  相似文献   

19.
Characteristics of leachate from pyrolysis residue of sewage sludge   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Hwang IH  Ouchi Y  Matsuto T 《Chemosphere》2007,68(10):1913-1919
The pyrolysis residue (SP) of sewage sludge (SS) produced at 500 degrees C was subjected to batch and column leaching tests to investigate the release of its organic and inorganic constituents and metals. For comparison, incineration ash (SI) obtained from a SS incinerator was also tested. Pyrolysis and incineration reduced organic matter of SS from 0.78 kg kg(-1)-dry SS to 0.16 and 0.01 kg kg(-1)-dry SS, respectively. Heavy metals remained in SP without being volatilized, although Cd and Pb were transferred into the off-gas during incineration. In the batch leaching test with the leaching liquid-to-solid mass ratio (L/S)=10, the pH of the SS, SP, and SI filtrates was 6.3, 7.9, and 11.0, respectively. The total organic carbon concentrations were in the order SS (877 l mg l(-1))>SP (99 mg l(-1))>SI (26 mg l(-1)). The SP and SI filtrates met the landfill standard for the Cd and Pb concentrations (<0.3 mg l(-1)). In the column tests, although the SP contained more organic matter than that of SI, its carbon discharge into the leachate under aerobic conditions was similar to that of SI under anaerobic conditions. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn, was also suppressed in SP during the active decomposition of organic matter. We demonstrated that pyrolysis reduces the potential release of pollutants from sewage sludge in landfill, making it a promising method of treating sewage sludge before landfilling.  相似文献   

20.
Unlike synthetic metal chelators, microbe-assisted phytoremediation provides plants with natural metal-solubilizing chelators which do not constitute a potential source of environmental pollution. Concurrently with microbial chelators, plant growth promotion can be enhanced through bacterially-produced phytohormones. In this work, the simultaneous production of siderophores and auxins by Streptomyces was studied to gain insight for future application in plant growth and phytoremediation in a metal-contaminated soil. Standard auxin and siderophore detection assays indicated that all of the investigated Streptomyces strains can produce these metabolites simultaneously. However, Al(3+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Ni(2+), or a combination of Fe(3+) and Cd(2+), and Fe(3+) and Ni(2+) affected auxin production negatively, as revealed by spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This effect was more dramatic in a siderophore-deficient mutant. In contrast, except for Fe, all the metals stimulated siderophore production. Mass spectrometry showed that siderophore and auxin-containing supernatants from a representative Streptomyces species contain three different hydroxamate siderophores, revealing the individual binding responses of these siderophores to Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), and thus, showing their auxin-stimulating effects. We conclude that siderophores promote auxin synthesis in the presence of Al(3+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) by chelating these metals. Chelation makes the metals less able to inhibit the synthesis of auxins, and potentially increases the plant growth-promoting effects of auxins, which in turn enhances the phytoremediation potential of plants.  相似文献   

设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号