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1.
《Chemosphere》1987,16(10-12)
The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated in samples of water, suspended particles, sediments and fish from the Kupa river, Croatia, Yugoslavia, along a river stretch extending up to 10 km upstream and 200 km downstream of the primary contaminated karst region. Contamination was due to improper disposal of industrial waste discharge. The PCB levels detected in the samples collected downstream ranged from 1 to 52 ng 1−1 for water, from 50 to 190 μg kg−1 for suspended particles and from 8 to 39 μg kg−1 for the sediment. A wide range of PCB concentrations, from 0.1 to 42.3 μg g−1, which were measured in edible portions of different fish confirmed a long-term contamination of the river with PCBs. As the Kupa may be classified among low to moderately contaminated waters, it is essential that the investigations of the presence and behaviour of PCBs in the river and its environment be continued.  相似文献   

2.
The Microtox® test, using the prokaryote Vibrio fischeri, was employed to assess the toxicity of the maize herbicides S-metolachlor, benoxacor, mesotrione and nicosulfuron, and their formulated compounds: Dual Gold Safeneur®, Callisto® and Milagro®; alone and in mixtures. For each compound we obtained original IC50 values, with consistent higher toxicities for formulated compounds compared to active ingredients alone. Mixtures of the four herbicides, prepared according to application doses encountered in agriculture, were found to be toxic at a lower concentration than single molecules. Mesotrione and nicosulfuron mixture appeared to be highly toxic to V. fischeri, however, this recommended post-emergence combination for maize crops got its toxicity decreased in formulated compound mixtures, suggesting that chemical interactions could potentially reduce the toxicity. Data comparisons to theoretical models showed a good prediction of mixture toxicity by Concentration Addition concept. Results seemed to exclude any synergistic effects on V. fischeri for the tested herbicide mixtures. Additional work coupling these bioassay data to ecosystemic level studies (aquatic and soil compartments) and data on additives and degradation products toxicity, will help to fill the gap in our knowledge of the environmental impact of these xenobiotics and in the choice of a more sustainable use of pesticides.  相似文献   

3.
As little is known about the potential risks associated with the use of microbiologically contaminated river water for recreation, irrigation, or domestic purposes, the Msunduzi River in Pietermaritzburg (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) was evaluated. In addition to pH, temperature, and chemical oxygen demand, quantitative and qualitative microbiological analyses were performed monthly for 13 months. These included aerobic plate counts, counts of aerobic and anaerobic sporeformers, most probable numbers for total and faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli and the detection of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and intestinal enterococci. Presumptive E. coli and S. aureus from river water samples were confirmed using PCR and additionally matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for E. coli. Aerobic plate counts were above the South African Department of Water Affairs recommended guideline level for domestic use of 100 cfu/ml for all 13 months assessed. Faecal coliform (up to 63,000 MPN/100 ml) and E. coli (up to 7,900 MPN/100 ml) levels regularly exceeded stipulated limits for safe irrigation, domestic and recreational use. The presence of Salmonella spp., S. aureus, and intestinal enterococci frequently coincided with faecal coliform and E. coli levels above 1,000 MPN/100 ml. This illustrates the value of using guideline values for faecal coliforms and E. coli as indicators for the presence of potential pathogens. PCR and MALDI-TOF MS confirmation of E. coli were in agreement, thereby demonstrating the potential of MALDI-TOF MS as a suitable alternative. These data demonstrate that potential health risks are associated with using Msunduzi River water for irrigation and recreational or domestic purposes.  相似文献   

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6.
East Lake resides in the urban area of Wuhan City and is the largest urban lake in China. The concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in 108 surface water samples collected from the East Lake. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from not detected to 120 ng L?1 with predominance of δ-HCH, heptachlor, and α-HCH. The mean values of HCHs and DDTs were 7.40 and 5.70 ng L?1, respectively, accounting for 40 and 31 % of the total OCPs. For the five lakelets in East Lake, Houhu Lake exhibited the highest concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, and total OCPs, which has been used actively for fisheries and surrounded by suburban rural areas and farmlands. Historical lindane or technical HCH input was probably the source of HCH, while technical DDTs might be the source of DDT in the East Lake. The ratio between heptachlor and its metabolic products indicated recent input of heptachlor. Although the combining ecological risks for all aquatic species in the East Lake calculated by species sensitivity distribution reached approximately 10?5, the OCPs in the East Lake had slight effects on aquatic organisms. The carcinogenic risks and non-carcinogenic hazard indices of DDTs and HCHs indicated that water in the East Lake was not suitable as water sources for human. However, the results indicated the water quality was safe for people to swim in the urban lake.  相似文献   

7.
A fully automated twin ECD gas chromatograph system with sample enriching adsorption–desorption primary stage was deployed on two field campaigns – Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Arctic Norway (July–September 1997), and the RRS Discovery CHAOS cruise of the northeast Atlantic (April–May 1998). Concentrations of an extensive set of halocarbons were detected at hourly intervals at pptv levels. We present here the results obtained for the chlorinated solvents, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Average baseline PCE and TCE concentrations of 1.77 and 0.12 pptv, respectively, were recorded in Ny-Ålesund. During pollution incidences, concentrations rose to 5.61 (PCE) and 3.18 pptv (TCE). The cruise data showed average concentrations ranging from 4.26 (PCE) and 1.66 pptv (TCE) for air masses originating over the North Atlantic and Arctic open oceans, to maxima of 15.59 (PCE) and 17.51 pptv (TCE) for polluted air masses from Northern Europe. The data sets emphasise the difficulties in defining remote sites for background tropospheric halocarbon measurements, as Ny-Ålesund research station proved to be a source of tetrachloroethene. The data also suggest possible oceanic emissions of trichloroethene in the sub-tropical ocean.  相似文献   

8.
This study examined residual concentrations and associated ecological risks of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexa- chlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) in water, sediment, and fish of the Songhua River in Zhaoyuan County, China. In June 2012, 10 water, 10 sediment, and 20 fish samples were collected. Residual concentrations of ΣHCH and ΣDDT ranged from 10.0–35.59 ng L?1 (mean 28.03 ± 11.66 ng L?1) and 5.12–39.66 ng L?1 (mean 32.36 ± 11.58 ng L?1) for water. Residual concentrations of ΣHCH and ΣDDT ranged from 0.52–3.00 ng g?1 (mean 2.04 ± 0.73 ng g?1) and 0.34–3.41 ng g?1 (mean 2.38 ± 0.92 ng g?1) for sediment. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH were close to 1 at the majority of sampling points, indicating considerable new pollution from the use of lindane. The ratios of p,p′-DDE + p,p′-DDD/ΣDDT were less than 0.5, indicating recent inputs from DDT impurities in dicofol. All HCH and DDT isomers except for p,p′-DDD were detected in fish tissue samples, but the associated ecological risks were estimated to be below levels of concern. The study revealed a historical usage of OCPs in the Zhaoyuan section of the Songhua River and new OCP from the use of lindane and dicofol.  相似文献   

9.
The average total (wet plus dry) nitrogen deposition to the Tampa Bay Estuary was 7.3 (±1.3) kg-N ha−1 yr−1 or 760 (±140) metric tons-N yr−1 for August 1996–July 1999, estimated as a direct deposition rate to the 104,000-ha water surface. This nitrogen flux estimate accounted for ammonia exchange at the air–sea interface. The uncertainty estimate was based on measurement error. Wet deposition was 56% of the total nitrogen deposition over this period, with an average 0.78 ratio of dry-to-wet deposition. Wet nitrogen deposition rates varied considerably, from near zero to 1.3 kg-N ha−1 month−1. About 40% of the total nitrogen flux occurred during the summer months of June, July and August when rainfall was the highest, except for 1997–1998 when the El Niño phenomenon brought unseasonal rainfall. Ammonia/ammonium contributed to 58%, and nitric acid/nitrate 42%, of the total nitrogen deposition over the 3-yr period. In one summer as waters of Tampa Bay warmed above 28°C and ammonium concentrations reached 0.03 mg l−1, the estimated net flux of ammonia was from the Bay waters to the atmosphere.  相似文献   

10.

In order to study the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn and the stress response, the floating aquatic plant Limnobium laevigatum was exposed to increasing concentrations of a mixture of these metals for 28 days, and its potential use in the treatment of wastewater was evaluated. The metal concentrations of the treatment 1 (T1) were Pb 1 μg L−1, Cr 4 μg L−1, Ni 25 μg L−1, and Zn 30 μg L−1; of treatment 2 (T2) were Pb 70 μg L−1, Cr 70 μg L−1, Ni 70 μg L−1, and Zn 70 μg L−1; and of treatment 3 (T3) were Pb 1000 μg L−1, Cr 1000 μg L−1, Ni 500 μg L−1, and Zn 100 μg L−1, and there was also a control group (without added metal). The accumulation of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn in roots was higher than in leaves of L. laevigatum, and the bioconcentration factor revealed that the concentrations of Ni and Zn in the leaf and root exceeded by over a thousand times the concentrations of those in the culture medium (2000 in leaf and 6800 in root for Ni; 3300 in leaf and 11,500 in root for Zn). Thus, this species can be considered as a hyperaccumulator of these metals. In general, the changes observed in the morphological and physiological parameters and the formation of products of lipid peroxidation of membranes during the exposure to moderate concentrations (T2) of the mixture of metals did not cause harmful effects to the survival of the species within the first 14 days of exposure. Taking into account the accumulation capacity and tolerance to heavy metals, L. laevigatum is suitable for phytoremediation in aquatic environments contaminated with moderated concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the early stages of exposure.

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11.
A nitronaphthalene kinetics mechanism has been implemented and added to the photochemical smog mechanism, Carbon Bond-4. This mechanism was used to simulate the formation, decay, and partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and compare it to outdoor smog chamber data. The results suggest that these types of mechanisms can be used to model nitronaphthalene formation and decay in regional airmasses. The partitioning experiments were conducted at night. The sampling system consisted of two Teflon impregnated glass fiber filters followed by a gas-phase denuder. Evidence is provided that partitioning equilibrium is maintained even when the gas-phase components are decaying rapidly under sunlight. The photolysis rate constants were determined relative to kNO2 to be 0.07×kNO2 and 0.005×kNO2 for 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene, respectively. Our results confirm that gas-phase photolysis is the major degradation pathway for 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas for 2-nitronaphthalene other pathways may also be important. The photochemical formation of nitronaphthalenes was studied using a mixture of naphthalene, propylene, NOx, and diesel particles. 2-nitronaphthalene was observed to build up to higher levels than 1-nitronaphthalene, as the photodegradation of the latter was faster. Additionally, as a part of this study 1-nitronaphthalene has been identified and quantified in diesel exhaust.  相似文献   

12.
Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and gobies (Neogobius gymnotrachelus, Neogobius melanostomus) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section), and samples of liver, muscle, or whole-body composites (in the case of gobies) were analyzed for As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn with inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry to find out if there was a correlation between accumulation of these elements in predatory and prey species, as well as in pairs of species with overlapping diets. Concentrations of all analyzed elements were either higher (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in liver than in muscle, or equal (As, Hg), except for Hg in carp, which was higher in muscle. Mercury concentration in liver and muscle of predators (catfish, pikeperch) was significantly (<10?4) higher than in prey fishes (carp and gobies). The results indicate that Hg concentration was biomagnified through the food chain. Concentrations of As, Fe, and Hg in carp liver and gobies whole-body composite were similar, but carp had significantly (<10?4) higher values of Zn and Cu in liver. The regression analysis and trendline equations indicate that the concentrations of all tested elements, except for As in liver, and Mn and Fe in muscle, were similar in predatory fish (pikeperch and catfish), on one hand, and in prey fish (carp and gobies), on the other hand. Distinctly high Zn concentration in carp is very common in this species due to its physiology. Concentrations of Hg and Zn were higher than the maximum acceptable concentration due to the high pollution level in this section of the Danube River, accordingly posing a risk for the human consumption of these fish species.  相似文献   

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14.
Jiang L  Hu X  Yin D  Zhang H  Yu Z 《Chemosphere》2011,82(6):822-828
Water samples were collected from 19 sampling sites along the Huangpu River in June and December 2009. The occurrence, distribution and seasonal variation of 22 antibiotics, including four tetracyclines, three chloramphenicols, two macrolides, six fluoroquinolones, six sulfonamides and trimethoprim were investigated. It was found that all 19 sampling sites were contaminated by antibiotics. Four antibiotics (sulfamerazine, norfloxacin, fleroxacin and sarafloxacin) were not detected. The detection frequencies of the other 18 antibiotics were in the range of 5.3-100%. The median concentrations of the detected antibiotics ranged from quantification limits to 36.71 ng L−1 (tetracycline) in June and to 313.44 ng L−1 (sulfamethazine) in December. The number of detected antibiotics and the overall antibiotic concentrations were higher in December than in June due to the different river flow conditions. Different dominant antibiotics were observed for each group of antibiotics between June and December. Higher total concentrations of veterinary antibiotics such as tetracyclines were observed in suburban sampling sites than in unban sites, indicating the role of livestock and agricultural activities as an important source of antibiotic contamination.  相似文献   

15.
Exposure to specific metallic compounds can cause severe deleterious modifications in organisms. Fishes are particularly prone to toxic effects from exposure to metallic compounds via their environment. Species that inhabit estuaries or freshwater environments can be chronically affected by persistent exposure to a large number of metallic compounds, particularly those released by industrial activities. In this study, we exposed yellow eels (European eel, Anguilla anguilla) for 28 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of four specific metals; lead (300, 600, and 1,200 μg/l), copper (40, 120, and 360 μg/l), zinc (30, 60, and 120 μg/l) and cadmium (50, 150, and 450 μg/l). The selected endpoints to assess the toxicological effects were neurotransmission (cholinesterasic activity in nervous tissue), antioxidant defense, and phase II metabolism (glutathione-S-transferase [GST] activity, in both gills and liver tissues), and peroxidative damage. The results showed an overall lack of effects on acetylcholinesterase for all tested metals. Lead, copper, and cadmium exposure caused a significant, dose-dependent, increase in GST activity in gill tissue. However, liver GST only significantly increased following zinc exposure. No statistically significant effects were observed for the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, indicating the absence of peroxidative damage. These findings suggest that, despite the occurrence of an oxidative-based response after exposure to lead, copper, and cadmium, this had no consequence in terms of peroxidative membrane damage; furthermore, cholinergic neurotoxicity caused by lead, copper, and cadmium did not occur. The implications of these results are further discussed.  相似文献   

16.
Measurements of ethene and other non-methane hydrocarbons are reported from intensive measurements campaigns in spring 1998 and 2000. It is argued that the observed levels and the scatter in the data records that have been seen before, are real and not due to canister or other sampling related artifacts. It is then shown that these observations imply that there are local sources for alkenes in the Arctic. Gradient and flux measurements are reported that suggest that this source is in the snow-pack. The flux of ethene out of the snow-pack is estimated to be of the order of 1×107 molecules cm−2 s1 and may be photochemically induced. While small, it is shown that this rate could explain a significant fraction of the observed ethene levels during a typical O3 depletion episode at Alert.  相似文献   

17.
Biofiltration is a method of biological treatment belonging to cleaner technologies because it does not produce secondary air pollutants, but helps to integrate natural processes in microorganisms for decomposing volatile air pollutants and solving odor problems. The birch wood biochar has been chosen as a principal material for biofilter bed medium. The experiments were conducted at the temperatures of 24, 28, and 32 °C, while the concentration of acetone, xylene, and ammonium reached 300 mg/m3 and the flow rate was 100 m3/hr. Before passing through the stage of the experimental research into the packing material inside biofilters, microorganisms were introduced. Four strains of microorganisms (including micromycetes Aspergillus versicolor BF-4 and Cladosporium herbarum 7KA, as well as yeast Exophiala sp. BF1 and bacterium Bacillus subtilis B20) were selected. At the inlet loading rate of 120 g/m3/hr, the highest elimination capacity of xylene in the biochar-based biofilter with the inoculated medium was 103 g/m3/hr, whereas that of ammonia was 102 g/m3/hr and that of acetone was 97 g/m3/hr, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency reached 86%, 85%, and 81%, respectively. The temperature condition (though characterized by some rapid changes) can hardly have a considerable influence on the biological effect (i.e., microbiological activity) of biofiltration; however, it can cause the changes in physical properties (e.g., solubility) of the investigated compounds.

Implications: The birch biochar can be successfully used in the biofiltration system for propagation of inoculated microorganisms, biodegrading acetone, xylene, and ammonia. At the inlet loading rate of 120 g/m3/hr, the highest elimination capacity of xylene was 103 g/m3/hr, that of ammonia was 102 g/m3/hr, and that of acetone was 97 g/m3/hr, respectively. The morphological structure of biochar can be affected by the aggressive air contaminants, causing the change in the medium specific surface area, which is one of the factors controlling the biofilter performance. Although biological effects in biofiltration are typically considered to be more important than physical effects, the former may be more important for compounds with high Henry’s Law coefficient values, and the biofilter design should thus provide conditions for better compound absorption.  相似文献   


18.
The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, plays a large role in the marine ecosystem, serving as a vital link in the food web between many other species. Marine parasites such as the bopyrid isopod, Probopyrus pandalicola, reduce shrimp growth and reproductive output and may also cause P. pugio to be more vulnerable to the lethal effects of contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of resmethrin and bifenthrin on the grass shrimp, P. pugio, infected with the bopyrid isopod, Probopyrus pandalicola. A 96-h static renewal test was conducted to determine the toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticides resmethrin and bifenthrin to grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, parasitized with the bopyrid isopod, Probopyrus pandalicola. The results were then compared to similar tests utilizing unparasitized P. pugio. Parasitized P. pugio had lower 24-h LC50 (1.08 μg/L) and 96-h LC50 (0.43 μg/L) values for resmethrin than unparasitized P. pugio. However, LC50 ratio tests found that there was no significant difference between parasitized and unparasitized shrimp when affected by resmethrin (p = 0.1751 and 0.1108, respectively). In contrast, an LC10 ratio test indicated that there was a significant difference between parasitized and unparasitized P. pugio after 96 h (p < 0.0001). When subjected to bifenthrin, parasitized P. pugio had a higher 24-h LC50 (0.049 μg/L6) than unparasitized P. pugio. The LC50 ratio test established that the effects of bifenthrin on parasitized P. pugio when compared to unparasitized P. pugio were significantly different at 24 h (p = 0.0065). However, there were no significant differences between parasitized and unparasitized after 96 h (p = 0.4229). In conclusion, both resmethrin and bifenthrin are toxic to the grass shrimp, P. pugio, regardless of parasite presence, and parasitized shrimp may be more susceptible to lower doses of resmethrin (when exposed in the field).  相似文献   

19.
Chloroform in the environment: occurrence,sources, sinks and effects   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
McCulloch A 《Chemosphere》2003,50(10):1291-1308
The chloroform flux through the environment is apparently constant at some 660±220 Gg yr−1 (±1σ) and about 90% of the emissions are natural in origin: the largest single source being in offshore sea water (contributing 360±90 Gg yr−1), with soil processes the next most important (220±100 Gg yr−1). Other natural sources, mainly volcanic and geological, account for less than 20 Gg yr−1. The non-natural sources total 66±23 Gg yr−1 and are much better characterised than the natural sources. They are predominantly the result of using strong oxidising agent on organic material in the presence of chloride ion, a direct parallel with the natural processes occurring in soils.

Chloroform partitions preferentially into the atmosphere; the equilibrium distribution is greater than 99% and the average global atmospheric concentration has been calculated to be 18.5 pmol mol−1. Atmospheric oxidation, the principal removal process, is approximately in balance with the identified source fluxes. Chloroform is widely dispersed in the aquatic environment (even naturally present in some mineral waters). Consequently, it is also widely dispersed in the tissue of living creatures and in foodstuffs but there is little evidence of bioaccumulation and the quantities in foodstuffs and drinking water are not problematical for human ingestion at the highest concentrations found. Definitive studies have shown that current environmental concentrations of chloroform do not present an ecotoxicological risk, even to fish at the embryonic and larval stages when they are most susceptible.

By virtue of the very small amounts that actually become transported to the stratosphere, chloroform does not deplete ozone materially, nor is it a photochemically active volatile organic compound (VOC). It has a global warming potential that is less than that of the photochemically active VOCs and is not classed as a greenhouse gas.  相似文献   


20.
Asaluyeh is one of the most heavily industrialised areas in the world where gas, petrochemical, and many downstream industries are located. This study aims to survey the biomonitoring of four metals and one metalloid in children living in the vicinity of Asaluyeh area. To do this, we analysed the creatinine-adjusted urinary levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in 184 elementary schoolchildren (99 boys and 85 girls) living in Asaluyeh and compared them with a reference population. The comparisons were done for two seasons (spring and fall). The results showed that in the case area (Asaluyeh), the levels of As, V, Mn, and Ni were significantly higher and that of Cd was not significantly higher than the reference city for both seasons. The mean concentration of metal(loid)s in Asaluyeh (case) and Sadabad (reference) area as μg g?1 creatinine was As 2.90 and 2.24, V 0.06 and 0.03, Mn 0.28 and 0.25, Ni 0.54 and 0.29, and Cd 0.31 and 0.28 in spring and As 3.08 and 2.28, V 0.07 and 0.03, Mn 0.30 and 0.26, Ni 0.91 and 0.30, and Cd 0.36 and 0.31 in the fall. Seasonal variations played a key role in determining urinary metal(loid) concentration, as we saw the significant level of As, Cd, V, and Ni in fall than in spring. With regard to the impact of gender on the absorption and accumulation of urinary metal(loid)s, boys showed higher levels of the studied elements, especially for As, than girls as outdoor activities are more popular among boys. Due to the values being lower than those reported in literature, more research is needed on various population groups and other exposure sources in order to judge whether living in the vicinity of the gas and petrochemical industries in Asaluyeh is a threat to nearby residents.  相似文献   

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