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1.
Xu N  Christodoulatos C  Braida W 《Chemosphere》2006,62(10):1726-1735
The adsorption of two major molybdenum (Mo) species, molybdate (MoO4(2-)) and tetrathiomolybdate (MoS4(2-)) onto two main iron minerals pyrite (FeS2) and goethite (FeOOH) is addressed to elucidate the possible mechanisms of molybdenum immobilization in anoxic sediments. Suspensions of MoS4(2-) (or MoO4(2-)) and goethite (or pyrite) in 0.1M NaCl solution were equilibrated under anoxic conditions at 25 degrees C in the pH range from 3 to 10. The competitive effects of sulfate, phosphate, and silicate on the adsorption of MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-) by pyrite and goethite are also addressed. Adsorption of MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-) on pyrite and goethite is in general well described by a Langmuir model at low pH; the extent of sorption is a function of pH and the surface loading. Maximum sorption is observed in the acidic pH range (pH<5) at low surface loading. The adsorption of molybdenum (micromol g(-1)) depends upon Mo species and on the type of iron mineral following the order: MoS4(2-)-goethite > MoO4(2-)-goethite > MoS4(2-)-pyrite > MoO4(2-)-pyrite. Phosphate appears to compete strongly with MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-) for the sorption sites of pyrite and goethite. The strength of the phosphate competitive effect follows the sequence of MoO4(2-)-goethite approximately = MoO4(2-)-pyrite > MoS4(2-)-pyrite > MoS4(2-)-goethite. Silicate and sulfate have a negligible effect on the sorption of MoO4(2-) and MoS4(2-). The preferred adsorption by iron mineral of MoS4(2-), as well as its behavior in the presence of competitive anions suggests that tetrathiomolybdate species may be an ultimate reservoir and may control Mo enrichment in the sediments.  相似文献   

2.
The effects of joint action of SO(2) and HF on the yield and quality of wheat and barley were studied by exposing them to combinations of <13,130 or 267 microg m(-3) SO(2) and 0.03 or 0.38 microg m(-3) HF in open top chambers for 90 days. At the concentrations used, SO(2) had greater effects than HF. All responses were marked by compensatory changes. The treatments had no effect on wheat yield, although SO(2) reduced shoot weight. SO(2) increased the growth and yield of barley, and HF or SO(2) increased the grain protein concentration of barley and wheat. The effects of mixtures of SO(2) and HF were complex, but often antagonistic, as the addition of HF counteracted the effect of SO(2) alone.  相似文献   

3.
Abstract

The effect of methomyl and cypermethrin insecticides on the B6‐dependent kynurenine hydrolase(KH) and kynurenine aminotransferase (KATE) was studied. These insecticides induced pronounced inhibition on the (KH) and (KATE) enzymes after single dose treatment. Repeated doses of methomyl induced inhibition on the (KH) and (KATE) activities, whereas repeated treatment with cypermethrin had no effect on the activities of these enzymes. In vitro methomyl inhibited (KH) and (KATE) enzymes at 10 M up to 10‐3 M, through a competitive mechanism. Methomyl and cypermethrin are capable of causing alterations in the kynurenine metabolizing enzymes of mouse liver.  相似文献   

4.
Pea aphids feeding from birth to maturity on pea plants (Pisum sativum) exposed to SO(2) concentrations of 50 nl litre(-1) or 80 nl litre(-1) showed a significant 19% increase in the rate of nymph production during the reproductive period, compared to control aphids feeding on plants in charcoal-filtered air. The higher nymph production resulted in a mean 4.6% increase in the intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). In longer term glasshouse fumigation experiments pea aphid populations were, on average, 1.8 times greater on pea plants in ambient air plus 45 nl litre(-1) SO(2) than in ambient air alone. Aphid infestation in ambient air caused a 42% reduction in pea yield and affected most plant parameters adversely. Ambient air plus SO(2) had no direct effect on yield, but, in combination with aphid infestation, a further 10% reduction in yield was recorded.  相似文献   

5.

Equilibrium sorption studies of anionic species of arsenite, As(III) ions and arsenate As(V) ions onto two biosorbents, namely, chitosan and nanochitosan, have been investigated and compared. The results and trends in the sorption behavior are novel, and we have observed during the sorption process of the As(III) and As(V) on chitosan, a slow process of desorption occurred after an initial maximum adsorption capacity was achieved, before reaching a final but lower equilibrium adsorption capacity. The same desorption trend, however, is not observed on nanochitosan. The gradual desorption of As(III) and As(V) in the equilibrium sorption on chitosan is attributed to the different fractions of the dissociated forms of arsenic on the adsorbent surface and in solution and the extent of protonation of chitosan with the changing of solution pH during sorption. The change of solution pH during the sorption of arsenite ions on chitosan was also influenced by the interaction between the buffering effect of the arsenite species in the aqueous medium and the physical properties of chitosan. The final equilibrium adsorption capacity of chitosan for As(III) and As(V) was found to be around 500 and 8000 μg/g, respectively, whereas the capacities on nanochitosan are 6100 and 13,000 μg/g, respectively.

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6.
The electrochemical oxidative removal of p-chlorophenol and p-nitrophenol was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and constant current electrolysis on commercially available graphite and titanium substrate insoluble anodes (TSIA). The effect of cationic cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and non-ionic polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether (Brij-35) surfactants, which prevent adherent film formation on the electrode surface were also studied. CV experiments indicate that p-chlorophenol exhibits a relatively higher tendency for film formation on graphite and that sodium chloride is a better medium for the destruction of phenols. The electrochemical oxidation of phenols under galvanostatic conditions in chloride medium with CTAB enhanced the detoxification process with significantly lower fouling effects on TSIA. The surfactants, however, did not improve phenol removal on graphite under identical experimental conditions. A charge of 2.5F per mol was found to be sufficient to achieve 44-48% removal of phenol on both the electrodes in the absence of the surfactants. A 55-65% removal was achieved in the presence of the cationic surfactant on the TSIA electrode. Phenol was removed as a low molecular weight polymer (MW approximately 4450).  相似文献   

7.
Potted seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) (BC), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (GA), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) (YP) were exposed to one of the four treatments: (1) charcoal-filtered air (CF) at ambient CO(2) (control); (2) twice ambient O(3) (2 x O(3)); (3) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus CF air (2 x CO(2)); or (4) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus twice ambient O(3) (2 x CO(2) + 2 x O(3)). The treatments were duplicated in eight continuously stirred tank reactors for 10 weeks. Gas exchange was measured during the last 3 weeks of treatment and all seedlings were destructively harvested after 10 weeks. Significant interactive effects of O(3) and CO(2) on the gas exchange of all three species were limited. The effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3), singly and combined, on light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were inconsistent across species. In all three species, elevated O(3) had no effect on g(s). Elevated CO(2) significantly increased A(max) in GA and YP foliage, and decreased g(s) in YP foliage. Maximum carbon exchange rates and quantum efficiencies derived from light-response curves increased, while compensation irradiance and dark respiration decreased in all three species when exposed to 2 x CO(2). Elevated O(3) affected few of these parameters but any change that was observed was opposite to that from exposure to 2 x CO(2)-air. Interactive effects of CO(2) and O(3) on light-response parameters were limited. Carboxylation efficiencies, derived from CO(2)-response curves (A/C(i) curves) decreased only in YP foliage exposed to 2 x CO(2)-air. In general, growth was significantly stimulated by 2 x CO(2) in all three species; though there were few significant growth responses following exposure to 2 x O(3) or the combination of 2 x CO(2) plus 2 x O(3). Results indicate that responses to interacting stressors such as O(3) and CO(2) are species specific.  相似文献   

8.
Pathogenic bacteria attached to the hide or shed in the feces of cattle at slaughter can contaminate carcasses intended to be processed for human consumption. Therefore, new pre-harvest interventions are needed to prevent the carriage and excretion of foodborne pathogens in cattle presented to the processing plant. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodborne pathogens when applied as a hide-intervention and as a feed additive to feedlot cattle. Water (control) or solutions (3 % wt/vol) of chestnut- and mimosa-extract treatments were sprayed (25 mL) at the left costal side of each animal to a 1000 cm2 area, divided in four equal quadrants. Hide-swabs samples obtained at pre-, 2-min, 8-h, and 24-h post-spray application were cultured to enumerate Escherichia coli/total coliforms and total aerobic plate counts. In a second experiment, diets supplemented without (controls) or with (1.5 % of diet dry matter) chestnut- or mimosa-extracts were fed during a 42-day experimental feeding period. Weekly fecal samples starting on day 0, and rumen fluid obtained on days 0, 7, 21 or 42 were cultured to enumerate E.coli/total coliforms and Campylobacter. Tannin spray application showed no effect of treatment or post-application-time (P > 0.05) on measured bacterial populations, averaging 1.7/1.8, 1.5/1.6 and 1.5/1.7 (log??CFU/cm2) for E. coli/total coliforms, and 4.0, 3.4 and 4.2 (log??CFU/cm2) in total aerobes for control, chestnut and mimosa treatments, respectively. Mean (± SEM) ruminal E. coli and total coliform concentrations (log(10) CFU/mL) were reduced (P < 0.01) in steers fed chestnut-tannins (3.6 and 3.8 ± 0.1) in comparison with the controls (4.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1). Fecal E. coli concentrations were affected by treatment (P< 0.01), showing the highest values (log?? CFU/g) in fecal contents from mimosa-fed steers compared to controls (5.9 versus 5.6 ± 0.1 SEM, respectively). Total coliforms (log CFU/g) showed the highest values (P < 0.01) in feces from chestnut- and mimosa-fed steers (6.0 and 6.1 ± 0.1 respectively) in comparison with controls (5.7 ± 0.1). Fecal Campylobacter concentrations (log??CFU/g) were affected by treatment (P < 0.05), day (P < 0.001) and their interaction (P < 0.01) with the controls having lower concentrations than chestnut- and mimosa-fed steers (0.4, 1.0, and 0.8 ± 0.3, respectively). It was concluded that under our research conditions, tannins were not effective in decreasing measured bacterial populations on beef cattle hides. Additionally, chestnut tannin reduced E. coli and total coliforms within the rumen but the antimicrobial effect was not maintained in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Further research is necessary to elucidate the possible antimicrobial effects of tannins at site-specific locations of the gastrointestinal tract in beef cattle fed high-grain and high-forage diets.  相似文献   

9.
Abstract

Levels of acephate (OrtheneR) and its principle metabolite, methamidophos, in/on greenhouse‐grown pepper and cucumber fruits and leaves in relation to the applied methamidophos were monitored. Dislodgeable and total residues of acephate and methamidophos were determined by gas‐liquid chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC‐FID) and were confirmed by nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC‐NPD). The dissipation curves of the residues followed first‐order kinetics (R2> 0.96). Initial residues of acephate on fruits varied between pepper (15.12 ppm) and cucumber (2.16 ppm) . Total residues in fruits and leaves determined at intervals following application revealed the greater persistence of acephate on pepper fruits (half‐life [t1/2] of 6 d) than on cucumber fruits (t1/2 was 3.7 d) . T1/2 values for the applied methamidophos were 4.7 and 5.3 d on pepper and cucumber fruits, respectively. Deacety‐lation of acephate (formation of its metabolite) was detectable 1 d following acephate treatment and reached a maximum of 2.05% of initial acephate residues 3 d after application on pepper fruits. On cucumber fruits, acephate metabolite reached a maximum of 2.12% one wk following application. No acephate residues were detected above the limit of detection of 0.001 ppm in pepper fruits 50 d following acephate application while its metabolite was detectable at that time (detectability limit was 0.0001 ppm).  相似文献   

10.
Goh KH  Lim TT 《Chemosphere》2004,55(6):849-859
Factors that can affect As and Se adsorption by soils influence the bioavailability and mobility of these elements in the subsurface. This research attempted to compare the adsorption capacities of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) on a tropical soil commonly found in Singapore in a single-species system. The effect of reaction time, pH, and competitive anions at different concentrations on the adsorption of both As and Se species were investigated. The As and Se adsorption isotherm were also obtained under different background electrolytes. The batch adsorption experiments showed that the sequence of the As and Se adsorption capacities in the soil was As(V) > Se(IV) > As(III) > Se(VI). The adsorption kinetics could be best described by the Elovich equation. The adsorption of As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) appeared to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces. Phosphate had more profound effect than SO4(2-) on As and Se adsorption in the soil. The competition between PO4(3-) and As or Se oxyanions on adsorption sites was presumably due to the formation of surface complexes and the surface accumulation or precipitation involving PO4(3-). The thermodynamic adsorption data for As(V) and Se(IV) adsorption followed the Langmuir equation, while the As(III) and Se(VI) adsorption data appeared to be best-represented by the Freundlich equation.  相似文献   

11.
A novel composite material, i.e., surfactant-modified hydroxyapatite/zeolite composite, was used as an adsorbent to remove humic acid (HA) and copper(II) from aqueous solution. Hydroxyapatite/zeolite composite (HZC) and surfactant-modified HZC (SMHZC) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope. The adsorption of HA and copper(II) on SMHZC was investigated. For comparison purposes, HA adsorption onto HZC was also investigated. SMHZC exhibited much higher HA adsorption capacity than HZC. The HA adsorption capacity for SMHZC decreased slightly with increasing pH from 3 to 8 but decreased significantly with increasing pH from 8 to 12. The copper(II) adsorption capacity for SMHZC increased with increasing pH from 3 to 6.5. The adsorption kinetic data of HA and copper(II) on SMHZC obeyed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption of HA and copper(II) on SMHZC took place in three different stages: fast external surface adsorption, gradual adsorption controlled by both film and intra-particle diffusions, and final equilibrium stage. The equilibrium adsorption data of HA on SMHZC better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. The equilibrium adsorption data of copper(II) on SMHZC could be described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The presence of copper(II) in solution enhanced HA adsorption onto SMHZC. The presence of HA in solution enhanced copper(II) adsorption onto SMHZC. The mechanisms for the adsorption of HA on SMHZC at pH 7 may include electrostatic attraction, organic partitioning, hydrogen bonding, and Lewis acid–base interaction. The mechanisms for the adsorption of copper(II) on SMHZC at pH 6 may include surface complexation, ion exchange, and dissolution–precipitation. The obtained results indicate that SMHZC can be used as an effective adsorbent to simultaneously remove HA and copper(II) from water.  相似文献   

12.
G. Jean  J.F. Fruget   《Chemosphere》1994,28(12):2249-2267
Bioassays allow the appreciation of the toxicity of complex effluents, which is difficult to characterize by the sole measurement of some physico-chemical parameters. We have developed a macroinvertebrate multi-test (M.M.T.) with species characteristic of different trophic levels in order to appreciate the ecotoxicological impact of various effluents (especially landfill leachates) and chemicals on aquatic environments. Our aim was: (i) to compare the sensitivity of the macroinvertebrates among themselves and with regard to those of three standard bioassays; (ii) to characterize the effluents according to their toxicity on one hand and according to their physico-chemical composition on the other hand; (iii) to search for possible correlations between the physico-chemical composition of an effluent and its toxicity. In order to achieve these objectives we used first a combination of graphical displays of the raw data, and secondly multivariate analyses: clustering techniques and scaling (ordination) techniques (Principal Components Analysis).  相似文献   

13.
Zhou J  Wu Y  Zhang J  Kang Q  Liu Z 《Chemosphere》2006,65(2):310-317
Elemental (TOC, TN, C/N) and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic (delta(13)C, delta(15)N) compositions were measured for surface sediments, three sediment vibrocores, plants, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from salt marsh of the Changjiang Estuary. The purpose of this study is to characterize the sources of organic matter in sediments and to further elucidate the factors influencing the isotope signature in the salt marsh. Our results indicate that organic matter preserved in the sediments is predominantly controlled by the particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary. The in situ contribution of marsh plants carbon to sediment organic matter is clearest in the high marsh, where the low delta(13)C of the plants (-28.1 per thousand) is reflected by a sediment delta(13)C (-24.7 per thousand) lower than values found for the low marsh and bare flat sediments (-23.4 per thousand and -23.0 per thousand, respectively). The effect of grain size on the spatial difference of isotope composition in the marsh sediments is insignificant, based on the observation that similar isotope values are found in different size particles, both for delta(13)C and delta(15)N. Nutrient utilization by plant assimilation, however, shows great impact on the surface sediment delta(15)N composition, due to the isotope fractionation. With extensive plant coverage and the consequent low surface water nitrate concentration, delta(15)N values of the high marsh surface sediments show (15)N enrichment.  相似文献   

14.
The accumulation of substances associated with PM2.5 [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals] on leaves of Pyrus calleryana (pear) and Tiliaxeuchlora (linden) along an urban road was investigated. These species have similar leaf morphology and were exposed to the identical environmental conditions. The accumulation of both PAHs and metals per leaf area was significantly higher on linden leaves than on pear leaves.  相似文献   

15.
Survival of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SP(4)) and Azotobacter chroococcum (CBD-15 and M(4)) was tested on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds treated with fungicides bavistin [methyl N-(1H-benzimidazol-2yl) carbamate] and thiram (tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide), whereas survival of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), Pseudomonas striata (27) and Bacillus polymyxa (H(5)) was examined on two cultivars (Arkel and BV) of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds treated with thiram. Viability of Azotobacter chroococcum (W(5)) was also examined on wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds treated with bavistin, captan (cis-N-trichloromethyl thio-4 cyclohexane-1, 2-dicarboximide) and thiram under laboratory conditions using standard dilution and the plate count technique. All the tested strains of diazotrophs and PSB showed decline in their viable population on prolonged contact with fungicides. However, PSB showed variation in their viable population even with the cultivar. BV cultivar of pea seeds showed better recovery of viable P. striata (10.75 to 10.61 log no. of viable cells with in 0-24 hrs) in the presence of thiram, whereas the Arkel cultivar of pea resulted in better recovery of viable B. polymyxa. Azotobacter chroococcum (W(5)), a potential strain for wheat, showed better survival in the presence of bavistin, compared to thiram and captan. Higher viable population of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SP(4)) and Azotobacter chroococcum (M(4)) was recovered from chickpea seeds treated with bavistin compared to thiram. However, thiram-treated seeds resulted in a greater number of extractable Azotobacter chroococcum (CBD-15). Under field conditions, adverse effect of thiram was reflected on the performance of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SP(4)) and A. chroococcum (M(4)) strains, resulting in reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield, compared to bavistin treated and culture inoculated treatment. CBD-15 showed better performance in the presence of thiram compared to bavistin.  相似文献   

16.
Recent studies have reported on the toxicity and related oxidative stress of selenium and mercury. The present study compares the effects of Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) separately and in combination. Rats received repeated oral doses of Se (0.5 micromol/ml), Hg (0.5 micromol/ml), or Se in combination with Hg (0.5 micromol/ml of each) for 5 consecutive days. Rat serum, brain and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays. The following biochemical alterations occurred in response to Hg treatment: protein content (brain and liver), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (brain and serum), acid and alkaline (AcP and AlP) phosphatases (plasma and liver) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) (plasma and liver) activities were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (plasma, brain and liver), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT) (serum and liver) activities were significantly increased. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased in brain and liver. Effect of Se alone included decreased AcP, AlP and GST (serum and liver) activities. However, LDH (serum, brain and liver) and AST (liver) and TBARS (brain and liver) increased. Selenium in combination with Hg partially or totally alleviated the toxic effects of Hg on different studied enzymes. It is concluded that Se could be able to antagonize the toxic effects of mercury.  相似文献   

17.
Mineralization of aged atrazine and mecoprop in soil and aquifer chalk.   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The effect of ageing on the bioavailability and sorption of the herbicides atrazine and mecoprop was studied in soil and aquifer chalk sampled at an agricultural field near Aalborg, Denmark. The herbicides were incubated in sterile soil or chalk up to 3 months prior to inoculation with 5 x 10(7) cells g(-1) (dry weight) of a mecoprop degrading highly enriched culture (PM) or 1 x 10(9) cells g(-1) (dry weight) of the atrazine degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. As a measure of the bioavailable residues accumulated 14CO2 was measured for 2 months. In both soil and chalk ageing limited the rate of atrazine mineralization, and in chalk the extent of mineralization was reduced as well. The fraction of sorbed atrazine in the soil ranged between 50% and 62%, whereas a maximum of 12% was sorbed in chalk. No impact on the mineralization of aged mecoprop was seen as no sorption of this herbicide on either soil or chalk was measured.  相似文献   

18.
用于水和废水处理的混凝剂和絮凝剂的研究进展   总被引:18,自引:1,他引:17  
分三部分论述了90年代以来国内外混凝剂和絮凝剂研究的主要进展:1)混凝、絮凝的微观机理及春行为的研究成果和实验研究手段;2)混凝剂和絮凝剂的开发;3)混凝和絮凝方法在废水处理中的净化效率的提高、条件优化和在线监控等。  相似文献   

19.

Birnessite not only oxidizes arsenite into arsenate but also interacts with organic matter in various ways. However, effects of organic matter on interaction between As and birnessite remain unclear. This study investigated effects of citrate and EDTA (3.12 and 2.05 mM, respectively) on oxidation of As(III) (1.07 mM) and adsorption of As(V) (0.67 mM) on birnessite (5.19 mM as Mn) at near-neutral pH. We found that As(V) adsorption on birnessite was enhanced by citrate and EDTA, which resulted from the increase in active adsorption sites via dissolution of birnessite. In comparison with citrate batches, more As was adsorbed on birnessite in EDTA batches, where dissolved Mn was mainly presented as Mn(III)-EDTA complex. Citrate or EDTA-induced dissolution of birnessite did not decrease the As(III) oxidation rate in the initial stage where As(III) oxidation rate was rapid. Afterwards, As(III) oxidation was conspicuously suppressed in citrate-amended batches, which was mainly attributed to the decrease in adsorption sites by adsorption of citrate/Mn(II)-citrate complex. This suppression was enhanced by the increase in concentrations of dissolved Mn(II). Citrate inhibited As adsorption after As(III) oxidation due to the strong competitive adsorption of citrate/Mn(II)-citrate complex. However, the As(III) oxidation rate was increased in EDTA-amended batches in the late stage, which mainly derived from the increase in the active sites via birnessite dissolution. The strong complexation ability of EDTA led to formation of Mn(III)-EDTA complex. Arsenic adsorption was not affected due to the limited competitive adsorption of the complex on the solid. This work reveals the critical role of low molecular weight organic acids in geochemical behaviors of As and Mn in aqueous environment.

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20.
Since 1962, the tobacco variety Bel-W3 (Nicotiana tabacum L.), has been used in many countries as an indicator of the presence of phytotoxic concentrations of O(3). It is super-sensitive to O(3) and may produce easily recognizable symptoms for several weeks on the new, fully expanded leaves. Bel-B and Bel-C, tolerant and sensitive to O(3), respectively, are sometimes used along with Bel-W3. Information is provided on the origin and nature of these varieties. This includes their use as indicators of elevated O(3) concentrations, strength and limitations, and the inheritance and nature of resistance to O(3) in Bel-B. The varieties were the product of research initiated in 1957 to determine the cause and to reduce losses from tobacco weather fleck. Bel-C and Bel-B display the classical upper leaf surface injury; whereas, Bel-W3 develops primarily bifacial lesions. Data are provided to show differences in the amounts of acute and chronic injury on each variety when exposed to different O(3) exposure doses in controlled environments and under field conditions. There is discussion of the influence of environmental factors on response to O(3) by the varieties and the possibility of synergistic action of O(3) and SO(3) when tobacco is exposed to mixtures of these gases. The methods and results obtained with Bel-W3 in the Dutch National Monitoring Network for Air Pollution are presented in detail. Use of Bel-W3 world-wide as an indicator of elevated O(3) concentrations has been a significant factor in increasing the awareness of O(3) as a pollutant.  相似文献   

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