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1.
The sorption and desorption of Cu and Cd by two species of brown macroalgae and five species of microalgae were studied. The two brown macroalgae, Laminaria japonica and Sargassum kjellmanianum, were found to have high capacities at pHs between 4.0 and 5.0 while for microalgae, optimum pH lay at 6.7. The presence of other cations in solution was found to reduce the sorption of the target cation, suggesting a competition for sorption sites on organisms. Sorption isotherms obeyed the Freundlich equation, suggesting involvement of a multiplicity of mechanisms and sorption sites. For the microalgae tested, Spirulina platensis had the highest capacity for Cd, followed by Nannochloropsis oculata, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Platymonas cordifolia and Chaetoceros minutissimus. The reversibility of metal sorption by macroalgae was examined and the results show that both HCl and EDTA solutions were very effective in desorbing sorbed metal ions from macroalgae, with up to 99.5% of metals being recovered. The regenerated biomass showed undiminished sorption performance for the two metals studied, suggesting the potential of such material for use in water and wastewater treatment.  相似文献   

2.
The degradation and ecotoxicity of sulfonylurea herbicide rimsulfuron and its major metabolites were examined in batch samples of an alluvial sandy loam and in freshwater. An HPLC-DAD method was adapted to simultaneously identify and quantify rimsulfuron and its metabolites, which was successfully validated by GC-MS analysis. In aqueous solutions, pure rimsulfuron was rapidly hydrolyzed into metabolite 1 (N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N-(3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinylurea)), which itself was transformed into the more stable metabolite 2 (N-((3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)-4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidineamine)), with half-life (t(1/2)) values of 2 and 2.5 days, respectively. Hydrolysis was instantaneous under alkaline conditions (pH = 10). In aqueous suspensions of the alluvial soil (pH = 8), formulated rimsulfuron had a half-life of 7 days, whereas that of metabolite 1 was similar to that in water (about 3.5 days). The degradation of the two major metabolites was also studied in soil suspensions with the pure compounds at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg l(-1). The half-life of metabolite 1 ranged from 3.9 to 5 days, close to the previous values. Metabolite 2 was more persistent and its degradation is strongly dependent on the initial concentration (C0): half-life values ranged from 8.1 to 55 days at 2-10 mg l(-1), respectively. These values are higher than those determined from the kinetics of metabolite 1 transformation into metabolite 2 (t(1/2) = 8-19 days). The ecotoxicity of the three chemicals was evaluated through their effect on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri (Microtox bioassay). No effect was observed on D. magna with 24 and 48 h acute toxicity tests. Similarly, no toxic effect was observed with the Microtox test for the three chemicals in the range of concentrations tested that included the field application dose. Thus, being of low persistence and lacking acute toxicity, these chemicals present a low environmental risk. However, chronic effects should be studied in order to confirm the safety of rimsulfuron and its major metabolites.  相似文献   

3.
PCDD and PCDF were found in urban air particulates from St. Louis and Washington, D.C., and in sediments from the Great Lakes and Siskiwit Lake, Isle Royale. The similarity between the PCDD and PCDF found in air particulates and sediment samples and the presence of PCDD and PCDF in sediment from Siskiwit Lake (a location which can receive only atmospheric inputs) suggest that these compounds are emitted to the atmosphere from combustion sources. The historical input of PCDD and PCDF to dated sediment cores shows a strong increase since 1940, and this suggests that the incineration of chlorinated organic compounds is an important source of PCDD and PCDF to the environment.  相似文献   

4.
The kinetic and structural relationships of eight electrophoretically pure mammalian serum and liver serine carboxylesterases (CE) and cholinesterases (ChE) have been studied. Eight CE's and ChE's, which were fully resolved but only partially purified, provided additional information. Five of the electrophoretically pure esterases were monomeric, and of these, four belonged to a new and widely distributed class. These four monomeric esterases hydrolyzed choline esters, but at widely differing rates. Thus two were termed monomeric butyrylcholinesterases, mBuChE I and II, and two were monomeric CE's (mCE). The rabbit liver mCE was not a subunit of the oligomeric CE (oCE), although the oCE also hydrolyzed choline esters at a very low rate. The complex kinetics of the mCE's, mBuChE's, oCE's, and of the oligomeric BuChE's of horse and human serum could be interpreted according to a single reaction scheme involving an allosteric site and the equation derived from it. Thus activation and inhibition at high substrate concentrations, together with sigmoidal activity versus substrate concentration plots, all of which characterize the reactions of these esterases, could be interpreted by a single scheme and equation. Structural and kinetic comparisons showed a progressive transition of properties from the oCE's through the mCE's to the oBuChE's. One of the purified mCE's was from horse serum, and it exhibited physical and kinetic properties unlike those of the liver mCE's or oCE's.  相似文献   

5.
The bioavailability of pollutants, pesticides and/or their degradation products in soil depends on the strength of their sorption by the different soil components, particularly by the clay minerals. This study reports the sorption-desorption behavior of the environmentally hazardous industrial pollutants and certain pesticides degradation products, 3-chloroaniline, 3,4-dichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on the reference clays kaolinite KGa-1 and Na-montmorillonite SWy-l. In batch studies, 2.0 g of clay were equilibrated with 100.0 mL solutions of each chemical at concentrations ranging from 10.0 to 200.0 mg/L. The uptake of the compounds was deduced from the results of HPLC-UV-Vis analysis. The lipophilic species were best retained by both clay materials. The most lipophilic chemical used in the study, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, was also the most strongly retained, with sorption of up to 8 mg/g. In desorption experiments, which also relied on HPLC-UV-Vis technique, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline was the least desorbed from montmorillonite. However, on kaolinite all of the compounds under study were irreversibly retained. The experimental data have been modelled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. A hypothesis is proposed concerning the sorption mechanism and potential applications of the findings in remediation strategies have been suggested.  相似文献   

6.
This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water.  相似文献   

7.
Several countries have put much effort in dioxin research programmes with the aim to assess the risks of dioxin exposure, to identify dioxin sources and to quantify their contribution to environmental emissions and human exposure. In this review, the accent has been put on: sources of dioxins and their contribution to the total dioxin emissions, sources of human exposure and their contribution to exposure and measures to reduce emission and exposure. The information from countries with existing dioxin regulations is reviewed and compared. Uncertainties which hamper comparability of data are indicated. Results of measures and expectations for the near future are presented.  相似文献   

8.

The bioavailability of pollutants, pesticides and/or their degradation products in soil depends on the strength of their sorption by the different soil components, particularly by the clay minerals. This study reports the sorption-desorption behavior of the environmentally hazardous industrial pollutants and certain pesticides degradation products, 3-chloroaniline, 3,4-dichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on the reference clays kaolinite KGa-1 and Na-montmorillonite SWy-l. In batch studies, 2.0 g of clay were equilibrated with 100.0 mL solutions of each chemical at concentrations ranging from 10.0 to 200.0 mg/L. The uptake of the compounds was deduced from the results of HPLC-UV-Vis analysis. The lipophilic species were best retained by both clay materials. The most lipophilic chemical used in the study, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, was also the most strongly retained, with sorption of up to 8 mg/g. In desorption experiments, which also relied on HPLC-UV-Vis technique, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline was the least desorbed from montmorillonite. However, on kaolinite all of the compounds under study were irreversibly retained. The experimental data have been modelled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. A hypothesis is proposed concerning the sorption mechanism and potential applications of the findings in remediation strategies have been suggested.  相似文献   

9.
A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil.  相似文献   

10.
Toxicity and detoxification of Swedish detergents and softener products   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Pettersson A  Adamsson M  Dave G 《Chemosphere》2000,41(10):1611-1620
Detergents and softeners are used in large quantities and some of their ingredients are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study the acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was determined for 26 detergents and five softener Swedish products. Only one of the detergents had a 48-h EC50 > 100 mg/l. The 48-h EC50 for the other 25 detergents ranged from 4 to 85 mg/l. The 48-h EC50 for the five softeners ranged from 15 to 166 mg/l. Detoxification tests, with and without inoculum of sewage organisms, showed that all tested products were detoxified to some extent after 16 days and that the rate of detoxification was considerably higher with addition of sewage organisms. Toxicity to D. magna of the detergents and softeners, and the biotic detoxification rate was correlated with the concentration of surfactants used in formulating the products (more surfactants increased toxicity and a slower rate of detoxification). These results emphasize the importance of biological purification of domestic wastewater containing detergents and a suggested development of less toxic and more easily degradable surfactants.  相似文献   

11.
Variability refers to real differences in emissions among multiple emission sources at any given time or over time for any individual emission source. Variability in emissions can be attributed to variation in fuel or feedstock composition, ambient temperature, design, maintenance, or operation. Uncertainty refers to lack of knowledge regarding the true value of emissions. Sources of uncertainty include small sample sizes, bias or imprecision in measurements, nonrepresentativeness, or lack of data. Quantitative methods for characterizing both variability and uncertainty are demonstrated and applied to case studies of emission factors for lawn and garden (L&G) equipment engines. Variability was quantified using empirical and parametric distributions. Bootstrap simulation was used to characterize confidence intervals for the fitted distributions. The 95% confidence intervals for the mean grams per brake horsepower/hour (g/hp-hr) emission factors for two-stroke engine total hydrocarbon (THC) and NOx emissions were from -30 to +41% and from -45 to +75%, respectively. The confidence intervals for four-stroke engines were from -33 to +46% for THCs and from -27 to +35% for NOx. These quantitative measures of uncertainty convey information regarding the quality of the emission factors and serve as a basis for calculation of uncertainty in emission inventories (EIs).  相似文献   

12.
The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pentachlorophenol (PCP) that were present in the bile and exposure water of goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to develop methodology to quantify PCP and its metabolites. Reverse phase HPLC with radioactivity detection separated PCP and its metabolites, and was used to verify a method of quantification that used differential extraction and scintillation counting. Extractions of aqueous phase at pH 2 or 8, with butanol, ethyl acetate, or ether indicated that ether at pH 8 best separated PCP from its metabolites. The sulfate conjugate of PCP was the major metabolite produced when goldfish were exposed to 125 micrograms 14C-PCP/l. It was present primarily in the exposure water, but also appeared in the bile.  相似文献   

13.
Abstract

Results from 31 epidemiology studies linking air pollution with premature mortality are compared and synthesized. Consistent positive associations between mortality and various measures of air pollution have been shown within each of two fundamentally different types of regression studies and in many variations within these basic types; this is extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance. In this paper, the measure of risk used is the elasticity, which is a dimensionless regression coefficient defined as the percentage change in the dependent variable associated with a 1% change in an independent variable, evaluated at the means. This metric has the advantage of independence from measurement units and averaging times, and is thus suitable for comparisons within and between studies involving different pollutants. Two basic types of studies are considered: time-series studies involving daily perturbations, and cross-sectional studies involving longer-term spatial gradients. The latter include prospective studies of differences in individual survival rates in different locations and studies of the differences in annual mortality rates for various communities.

For a given data set, time-series regression results will vary according to the seasonal adjustment method used, the covariates included, and the lag structure assumed. The results from both types of cross-sectional regressions are highly dependent on the methods used to control for socioeconomic and personal lifestyle factors and on data quality. Amajor issue for all of these studies is that of partitioning the response among collinear pollution and weather variables. Previous studies showed that the variable with the least exposure measurement error may be favored in multiple regressions; assigning precise numerical results to a single pollutant is not possible under these circumstances. We found that the mean overall elasticity as obtained from timeseries studies for mortality with respect to various air pollutants entered jointly was about 0.048, with a range from 0.01 to 0.12. This implies that about 5% of daily mortality is associated with air pollution, on average. The corresponding values from population-based cross-sectional studies were similar in magnitude, but the results from the three recent prospective studies varied from zero to about five times as much. Long-term responses in excess of short-term responses might be interpreted as showing the existence of chronic effects, but the uncertainties inherent in both types of studies make such an interpretation problematic.  相似文献   

14.
Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ∑TEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines.  相似文献   

15.
In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due to higher preferential flow and lower fraction of equilibrium sorption sites.  相似文献   

16.
Abstract

Variability refers to real differences in emissions among multiple emission sources at any given time or over time for any individual emission source. Variability in emissions can be attributed to variation in fuel or feedstock composition, ambient temperature, design, maintenance, or operation. Uncertainty refers to lack of knowledge regarding the true value of emissions. Sources of uncertainty include small sample sizes, bias or imprecision in measurements, nonrepresentativeness, or lack of data. Quantitative methods for characterizing both variability and uncertainty are demonstrated and applied to case studies of emission factors for lawn and garden (L&G) equipment engines. Variability was quantified using empirical and parametric distributions. Bootstrap simulation was used to characterize confidence intervals for the fitted distributions. The 95% confidence intervals for the mean grams per brake horsepower/hour (g/hp-hr) emission factors for two-stroke engine total hydrocarbon (THC) and NOx emissions were from -30 to +41% and from -45 to +75%, respectively. The confidence intervals for four-stroke engines were from -33 to +46% for THCs and from -27 to +35% for NOx. These quantitative measures of uncertainty convey information regarding the quality of the emission factors and serve as a basis for calculation of uncertainty in emission inventories (Els).  相似文献   

17.
Within the Swedish Dioxin Survey various samples from the pulp and paper industry and the chloralkali process have been analyzed by congener specific analytical methods. In addition to the generally discussed “bleaching pattern” of the tetrachlorinated congeners, these samples also contained higher chlorinated congeners like hexa-CDDs, hepta-CDFs, octa-CDD and octa-CDF. Consequently it is recommended that samples from the pulp industry should be analyzed for all PCDDs and PCDFs (tetra- through octa-). Counted as Nordic Toxic Equivalents (NTEQ), the recycled pulp samples had the highest contamination level followed by TMP, unbleached sulfite and bleached softwood and hardwood. In addition to the bleaching process, various chemicals used in the pulping, bleaching and wastewater treatment can contribute to the contamination.  相似文献   

18.
Residues of cypermethrin and deltamethrin in wheat herbage and grain and deltamethrin in sweetclover herbage were determined. Cypermethrin was applied at 28 g/ha to wheat and the residues on the herbage declined exponentially from 3.74 ppm immediately after spraying to 0.20 ppm 27 days after spraying. No cypermethrin residues were detected in the grain. Deltamethrin was applied at 6 g/ha to wheat and the residues on the herbage declined exponentially from 0.70 ppm immediately after spraying to 0.05 ppm 27 days after spraying. No deltamethrin residues were detected in the grain. Deltamethrin was applied to sweetclover at 3, 4, 5, 10, and 16 g/ha. Residues on the herbage declined exponentially from 0.10, 0.16, 0.22, 0.40 and 0.70 ppm immediately after spraying to 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.15 and 0.18 ppm 5 days after spraying, respectively.  相似文献   

19.
Increasing public participation in environmental assessment is a common goal, North and South. Despite a relative lack of formal education and institutionalised democracy, participatory appraisal has become far more popular in low-income areas in the South, where many advocates claim that it is possible to give local residents a large measure of control over both the research process and its follow-up. In the urban context, the potential for participatory environmental assessment is related to the spatial extent of the environmental challenges. The most critical environmental problems in Southern cities tend to be local, while the most critical environmental problems for Northern cities tend to be global. Using examples from Stockholm and Jakarta, this paper illustrates how such differences alter the comparative advantages of expert and lay knowledge, and the forms of participation that can realistically be aspired to.  相似文献   

20.
A new approach for the identification of suspect trace organic contaminants in drinking and surface waters is presented. Samples were initially analyzed using a target determination method for two contamination tracers, carbamazepine (CBZ) and atrazine (ATZ). This method used offline solid-phase extraction and online solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to accelerate the sample preparation process and improve method performance. CBZ and ATZ were found respectively in 31% and 56% of the samples, and concentrations were usually <20 ng L−1. These samples were re-analyzed with a similar method on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer to identify suspect contaminants by means of exact mass measurements and isotope patterns. A database of 264 common organic contaminants was built and used in conjunction with a Molecular Feature algorithm to identify the presence of these substances in drinking and surface water collected from different sources at various locations across Canada. Several organic contaminants were identified in the samples, but only the presence of caffeine, desethylatrazine, simazine and venlafaxine could be verified by comparison to pure standards. The presence of desethylatrazine was also confirmed by MS/MS experiments. These results suggest that target analysis for tracers of organic contamination may be a helpful tool to prioritize samples which should be further screened for suspect contaminants. This study also shows that the combination of separation techniques (offline and online SPE, LC) contribute to advance the applicability of high-resolution mass spectrometry for the identification of trace organic contaminants by accelerating the preparation step, reducing complexity and increasing analyte concentrations for optimal detection.  相似文献   

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