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1.
改性PES膜在MBR中膜阻力分析及膜污染机理研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以聚醚砜(PES)、醋酸纤维素(CA)和纳米二氧化钛(TiO2)为膜材料,采用L-S相转化法制备共混改性PES膜。在24℃、0.2 MPa的操作条件下,制得的PES膜纯水通量为300 L/(m2.h)左右,CA改性PES膜为660 L/(m2.h)左右,TiO2改性PES膜为840 L/(m2.h)左右。通过膜生物反应器中膜阻力的测定,表明膜污染主要由浓差极化层及凝胶层引起的;通过活性污泥对膜污染机理的研究,判断出污泥的过滤过程基本符合沉积过滤定律。在MBR中运行时,改性PES膜稳定通量高于未改性膜,总阻力低于未改性膜;TiO2改性膜稳定通量高于CA改性膜,总阻力低于CA改性膜;通过扫描电镜分析,改性PES膜沉积层的厚度均比未改性膜薄,TiO2改性膜沉积层厚度小于CA改性膜,表明改性膜的抗污染性能提高了,TiO改性膜抗污染性能更优。  相似文献   

2.
研究了使用氯化镁改性蛭石,利用磷酸铵镁沉淀的原理,在垃圾渗滤液中按比例加入PO43-,处理垃圾渗滤液中氨氮的同时,在蛭石上生成磷酸铵镁沉淀,以便于磷酸铵镁沉淀的回收利用。结果表明,筛取蛭石粒径为60~80目,配制浓度20%的氯化镁溶液浸泡改性蛭石20 min,取25 g改性蛭石,100 mL垃圾渗滤液调节pH为9,按n(NH4+)∶n(PO34-)=1∶1.2的比例加入PO43-离子,垃圾渗滤液中氨氮去除率为85.06%,实验并对磷酸铵镁沉淀进行了结构成分分析,为垃圾渗滤液中氨氮的处理及磷酸铵镁沉淀的回收提供了一种新的方法。  相似文献   

3.
Yang L  Jiang L  Zhou Z  Chen Y  Wang X 《Chemosphere》2002,48(4):461-466
Natural montmorillonite was modified with a quaternary ammonium compound, hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA). The sedimentation capabilities of unmodified and modified montmorillonites were then investigated. The sedimentation velocity of modified montmorillonites increased if the amounts of adsorbed HDTMA were from 0.3 to 1.0 times the cation exchange capacitity (CEC). It also emerged that the sedimentation capability of modified montmorillonites was improved and that the variously CEC-modified montmorillonites had similar sedimentation capabilities after they had sorbed organic matter from oily wastewater. Thus, modified montmorillonites (especially 0.5 CEC treatment) had good sedimentation capabilities for sorbing organic substance and can act as carriers in wastewater biotreatment.  相似文献   

4.
改性甘蔗渣吸附废水中低浓度Cu2+的研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
利用离子液氯化-1-己基-3-甲基咪唑对甘蔗渣进行改性,利用改性甘蔗渣吸附去除模拟废水中低浓度的Cu2+,并对比了较优条件下甘蔗渣改性前后的Cu2+吸附性能.结果表明,溶液pH、改性甘蔗渣投加量、吸附时间对改性甘蔗渣吸附Cu2+均有一定的影响,较佳的溶液pH为5.41、改性甘蔗渣投加量为0.30 g、吸附时间为130 min;吸附温度升高Cu2+吸附率反而降低,因此选择在室温下进行吸附反应为宜;在以上较优条件下,改性甘蔗渣和甘蔗渣的Cu2+吸附率分别为83.20%和53.83%,前者的Cu2+吸附率提高了30.35%.  相似文献   

5.
制备了4种改性铁覆膜砂,并对其吸附性能进行了全面的实验,分析比较了4种改性剂的作用和效果.实验中发现,添加改性剂对铁覆膜砂吸附性能的促进作用各不相同,改性剂和铁氧化物的性质共同决定了改性铁覆膜砂的性质.吸附等温线和连续动态过滤实验结果表明,活性炭和硅藻土对提高铁覆膜砂吸附性能有促进作用,但膨润土和粉煤灰的作用不明显,甚至还可能降低吸附容量.活性炭改性铁覆膜砂的吸附等温式符合Langmuir模型,硅藻土改性铁覆膜砂、膨润土改性铁覆膜砂和粉煤灰改性铁覆膜砂对Langmuir模型和Freundlich模型都有较好的相关性.改性铁覆膜砂对天然有机物(NOM)的吸附属于单分子层吸附,吸附的主要机理为静电相互作用、配位交换-表面络合作用和疏水/憎水作用等.溶液pH值对改性铁覆膜砂吸附NOM有很大的影响,表现为低"pH值去除效率高,高pH值去除效率低"的特点,其变化规律取决于添加物质的性质.磷酸盐会和腐殖酸在改性铁覆膜砂表面产生竞争吸附,磷酸盐对粉煤灰改性铁覆膜砂的吸附能力影响最大.  相似文献   

6.
考察了改性砾石分别与氢氧化钙沉淀法、电凝聚法协同除去高浓度磷的效果。结果表明,酸改性砾石对高浓度磷去除率达76.92%,与氢氧化钙协同作用,pH为9时,磷的去除率为99.57%。改性砾石协同电凝聚法去除高浓度磷,在pH为7时磷的去除率达到99.75%,残留磷浓度仅为0.25 mg/L,与单一砾石或砾石协同氢氧化钙方法的除磷的结果相比较,改性砾石协同电凝聚法除磷方法具有明显优势。  相似文献   

7.
通过钡盐沉积改性制备改性硅藻土,并将其应用于吸附模拟废水中pb2+,分析了钡盐浓度、pH、改性硅藻土投加量、水样中pb2+初始浓度以及振荡时间对改性硅藻土吸附pb2+的影响,并对硅藻土的沉降性能和改性机制进行了初步的探讨.结果表明,选择0.20 mol/L钡盐改性硅藻土,在pH为7.0、投加量为2 g、水样中pb2+初...  相似文献   

8.
Gao B  Yang L  Wang X  Zhao J  Sheng G 《Chemosphere》2000,41(3):419-426
Three soils were modified with two kinds of cationic surfactants in order to increase their sorptive capabilities for organic contaminants. Sorption of diesel fuel oil in water by these modified soils had been investigated. Modified soils can effectively sorb diesel fuel oil from water. The sorption capability of modified soils is: HDTMA-black soil > HDTMA-yellow brown soil > HDTMA-red soil > TMA-black soil > TMA-yellow brown soil > TMA-red soil. Sorption of diesel fuel oil by natural soils and HDTMA modified soils is via partition, the sorption isotherms can be expressed by Henry equation, and logK(SOM) is 2.42-2.80, logK(HDTMA) is 3.37-3.60. Sorption isotherms of TMA modified soils can be expressed by Langmuir equation, the saturation sorption capacities are 1150 (TMA-black soil), 750 (TMA-yellow-brown soil), 171 mg/kg (TMA-red soil), respectively. A diesel fuel oil degradation micro-organism (Pseudomonas sp.) was isolated in the lab. To test the influence of the modified soils on the micro-organism, various growth curves of Pseudomonas in different conditions were drawn. Pseudomonas can grow very well with natural soils and TMA modified soils. The acclimation period of Pseudomonas is reduced. As to HDTMA modified soils, HDTMA loading amount is very important. When HDTMA loading amount is no higher than 0.5 CEC, the micro-organism can grow very well after a long acclimation period.  相似文献   

9.
采用前驱体改性的方法,以CuCl2、FeCl2和MgCl2为改性剂,制备出改性酚醛泡沫,经炭化/活化得到改性酚醛基炭泡沫。研究了不同金属对酚醛基炭泡沫表面物理与化学特性的影响,并进行同时脱硫脱硝实验研究。通过研究发现,添加CuCl2的样品比添加FeCl2、MgCl2的样品的中孔孔容大接近10倍;比表面积和孔容是CFCu>CF0>CFFe>CFMg;金属改性剂主要以金属和金属氧化物的形式存在于酚醛基炭泡沫中,而表面其他官能团大体结构不变。经CuCl2、FeCl2和MgCl2改性后,脱硫效率分别提高了39%、11%和13%,脱硝效率分别提高了19%、10%和4%,其中以CuCl2改性的酚醛基炭泡沫的效率最高。  相似文献   

10.
利用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵对天然蒙脱土进行改性,并用聚乙烯醇对改性蒙脱土进行固定化处理,然后进行柱状吸附和振荡条件的吸附试验。研究结果表明,HDTMA改性蒙脱土固定化后能有效吸附苯酚,不同环境条件对苯酚的柱状吸附能力产生不同的影响。在pH4~8的范围内,固定化改性蒙脱土对苯酚的吸附效果无显著性差异,pH在10以上,其吸附能力明显下降;温度对吸附效果影响不大;进水苯酚浓度越高,改性蒙脱土对苯酚的吸附量越大,但出水苯酚浓度也高;苯酚的流速越小,吸附容量越高,吸附效果越好。  相似文献   

11.
Jiang JQ  Zeng Z 《Chemosphere》2003,53(1):53-62
This paper builds on the preceding researches to study the effects of the type of clays (montmorillonites K10, KSF) and modifying conditions on the structure and adsorption behavior of resulting clay adsorbents. The raw clays were modified by polymeric Al/Fe species, hexadecyl-trimethylammonium (HDTMA) surfactant and a complex of polymeric Al/Fe-HDTMA. X-ray diffraction spectra was applied to analyze the structure of the raw and modified clays. After modification, the basal spacing of the clays varied, depending on the types of raw clay and modification conditions. Copper and phenol were selected as adsorbates for evaluating the adsorption performance of various clays, which was affected significantly by the types of raw clay and modification conditions. In general the inorganic contaminant (e.g., Cu) tend to be adsorbed by the polymeric Al/Fe modified clay and the organic impurities (e.g., phenol) will be preferably captured by the surfactant modified clay; both due to the specific surface properties resulting from introducing the modifiers. The complex modified clays possessed the ability of adsorbing both inorganic and organic contaminants. In addition, the d 0 0 1 spacing of modified KSF was greater than that of K10; the adsorption performance with modified KSF was thus greater than that with the modified K10. Finally, the ratio of modifiers to the clay (metal:surfactant:clay) has been observed to affect the adsorption performance; the optimal conditions have been defined.  相似文献   

12.
通过室内土壤培养实验,研究改性沸石对污染土壤中Pb、Zn赋存形态的影响。结果表明,土壤中的Pb主要是以Fe—Mn氧化物结合态存在,土壤zn主要以残渣态存在。添加天然沸石和改性沸石不同程度地降低土壤酸提取态Pb、zn的含量,提高土壤残渣态Pb、zn的含量。与CK处理相比,添加4种沸石导致土壤酸提取态Pb含量降低8.7%-40.3%,土壤酸提取态zn含量降低10.5%-49.8%(培养1个月)。硝酸钾改性沸石比天然沸石更能显著地降低土壤酸提取态Pb、zn的含量,而氢氧化钠改性沸石和硝酸钾改性沸石比天然沸石更能显著地降低土壤酸提取态的zn含量。培养1、2和3月后,不同沸石处理导致土壤残渣态zn比率分别比CK处理提高14.4%~23.5%、19.6%~23.7%和1.9%-11.1%。研究结果表明,天然沸石经过一定方法改性后,是固定污染土壤Pb、zn的潜在改良剂。  相似文献   

13.
CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附-解吸性能研究   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
采用溴化十六烷基吡啶(CPB)对天然沸石进行改性,并考察了CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附-解吸性能。结果表明,CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐具备一定的吸附能力,且吸附行为满足Langmuir等温吸附模型;粒径、改性剂投加量、反应温度、pH值及共存阴离子等因素均会影响CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附能力;减小粒径和降低反应温度均有利于CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附去除;粒径≤0.18 mm CPB改性沸石吸附磷酸盐较优的改性剂投加量为250 mmol/kg;当溶液的初始pH值位于4~10之间时CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附能力随pH值的增加而增强;SO42-的存在会明显降低CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附效率,而提高溶液的pH值有助于消除SO42-存在对CPB改性沸石吸附磷酸盐的负面影响;HCO3-的存在会一定程度上抑制CPB改性沸石对磷酸盐的吸附去除,而提高溶液的pH值无法消除HCO3-存在对CPB改性沸石吸附磷酸盐的负面影响;CPB改性沸石吸附磷酸盐后一定条件下可以重新解吸出来,且随着解吸液SO42-浓度的增加解吸率明显增大。  相似文献   

14.
改性沸石对土壤铅、锌赋存形态的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过室内土壤培养实验,研究改性沸石对污染土壤中Pb、Zn赋存形态的影响。结果表明,土壤中的Pb主要是以Fe-Mn氧化物结合态存在,土壤Zn主要以残渣态存在。添加天然沸石和改性沸石不同程度地降低土壤酸提取态Pb、Zn的含量,提高土壤残渣态Pb、Zn的含量。与CK处理相比,添加4种沸石导致土壤酸提取态Pb含量降低8.7%~40.3%,土壤酸提取态Zn含量降低10.5%~49.8%(培养1个月)。硝酸钾改性沸石比天然沸石更能显著地降低土壤酸提取态Pb、Zn的含量,而氢氧化钠改性沸石和硝酸钾改性沸石比天然沸石更能显著地降低土壤酸提取态的Zn含量。培养1、2和3月后,不同沸石处理导致土壤残渣态Zn比率分别比CK处理提高14.4%~23.5%、19.6%~23.7%和1.9%~11.1%。研究结果表明,天然沸石经过一定方法改性后,是固定污染土壤Pb、Zn的潜在改良剂。  相似文献   

15.
磷石膏的改性及其在水泥生产中的应用   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
研究了磷石膏的改性方法及改性磷石膏在水泥生产中的应用,结果表明,通过改性,可将磷石膏中对水泥有害的杂质转化为难溶性,并能改善磷石膏中硫酸钙的溶解性能,改性磷石膏可以替代天然石膏用于水泥生产。  相似文献   

16.
The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe3O4 particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g?1 by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q m) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g?1, respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment.  相似文献   

17.
海水改性沸石处理氨氮废水   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
沸石因具有独特的架状结构而表现出良好的选择吸附和离子交换性能,在废水处理中被广泛应用,但吸附容量偏低,需要进行改性。针对天然沸石的局限性,研究了不同改性方法对氨氮吸附的影响,确定了最佳的沸石改性方法,并进行了吸附等温模型,吸附动力学研究。结果表明,采用高温300℃焙烧后再用预处理后的海水浸泡24 h改性沸石去除氨氮效果最佳。当活化沸石投配量为10 g/L,接触时间为150 min,进水氨氮浓度为37.91 mg/L时,沸石对氨氮吸附容量为4.08 mg/g,氨氮去除率为90.45%;沸石及改性沸石对氨氮的吸附等温线符合Langmuir方程和准一级动力学方程。用海水来改性沸石的方法,不仅可提高沸石对氨氮的吸附容量和吸附速度,而且无任何添加药剂,具有简单易行、费用低廉的优点,为沸石在水处理工程中的应用提供技术支撑。  相似文献   

18.
以表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)对沸石进行改性,改性后的沸石对结晶紫溶液进行吸附,以紫外可见分光光度计分析最佳吸附条件。实验结果表明,在30℃,SDS改性沸石投入量为0.25 g;吸附平衡时间为1 h;pH为8的条件下,对含50 mg/L结晶紫染料的去除率可达到92.6%,吸附量达到4.63 mg/g。SDS改性沸石吸附结晶紫的等温吸附曲线与Henry型和Freundlich型均拟合较好。热力学参数计算结果表明,吸附符合自发吸热过程。  相似文献   

19.
水热改性棉铃壳对水中氟的吸附   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用水热法制备了改性棉铃壳吸附剂,通过比表面积分析仪、扫描电镜和红外光谱仪表征了棉铃壳改性前后表面结构和官能团变化,并通过批实验分析了改性棉铃壳对水中F-吸附动力学及热力学特征,考察了温度、pH对吸附性能的影响。结果表明,磷酸水热改性后棉铃壳比表面积为121.7 m2/g,是改性前的18.5倍;通过水热改性可以减少酸性基团数量,有利于吸附阴离子。氟离子吸附实验结果显示,吸附反应符合准二级动力学模型,Langmuir模型能更好地描述反应的单分子层吸附特征,分离因子R L在0~0.5之间。改性棉铃壳对F-的吸附属于自发进行的吸热反应。  相似文献   

20.
为探讨活性炭纤维(ACF)去除恶臭气体H2S的性能,采用过渡金属浸渍改性ACF吸附H2S,揭示出改性ACF前后吸附H2S的性能差异及浸渍剂的浓度和种类对ACF吸附性能的影响。结果表明,通过过渡金属改性后的ACF吸附性能有显著提高,对H2S吸附是物理吸附和化学吸附共同作用的结果,改性后的ACF硫容量大小依次为:5%硝酸铜改性ACF〉5%硝酸钴改性ACF〉5%硝酸锰改性ACF。不同浓度浸渍剂改性后的ACF吸附H2S性能有所不同,硫容量呈现出随着浓度升高先增大后减小的趋势。不同浸渍剂改性后的ACF吸附穿透曲线也不同,穿透时间依次为:TCu-ACF〉TCo-ACF〉TMn-ACF。混合金属溶液改性ACF吸附H2S,5%硝酸铜-3%硝酸钴溶液改性ACF吸附性能最佳,硫容量可达166.7 mg/g;而5%硝酸铜-3%硝酸钴-1%硝酸锰溶液改性的ACF效果最差,硫容量仅为83.3 mg/g。  相似文献   

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