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1.
长江口潮滩湿地-大气界面碳通量特征   总被引:13,自引:3,他引:13  
选择长江河口崇明东滩为典型研究区域,使用原位静态箱-气相色谱法,对长江河口潮滩湿地-大气界面碳通量(CH4和CO2)进行了为期一年的现场观测实验.结果表明,观测期内,崇明东滩低潮滩(CM-3)表现为碳的吸收汇,平均碳通量为-13.23 mg·m-2·h-4,且有明显的变化特征,8月为碳吸收的高峰期,2月碳的通量值最低;虽然低潮滩CH4年平均排放通量仅为0.04mg·m-2·h-1,在碳通量中所占比例很小,但却是大气CH4的持续排放源.中潮滩(CM-2)为大气CH4的排放源,在7月达到排放高峰;对CO2而言,光照条件下(明箱)以吸收为主,而无光照时(暗箱)中潮滩是CO2的排放源.中潮滩湿地-大气界面碳的年平均交换通量为51.79 mg·m-2·h-1,显著高于低潮滩,植被和有机质含量的不同是导致两者差异的主要原因.温度和光照是影响碳通量及其季节变化的重要因素.海三棱藨草植株和中、低潮滩藻类的光合作用均显著促进了潮滩对大气碳的吸收.  相似文献   

2.
崇明东滩芦苇湿地温室气体排放通量及其影响因素   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
通过静态箱-气相色谱法对崇明东滩芦苇群落在生长周期内的3种温室气体——CH4、N2O和CO2的排放、吸收特征进行研究.结果表明:芦苇群落湿地CH4排放通量受温度影响较大,夏季排放通量明显高于其他季节,年均排放通量为74.46μg/(m2·h);N2O年均排放通量为2.22μg/(m2·h),冬季排放通量最大;CO2的吸收率季节变化明显,年均排放通量为-101.93mg/(m2·h).温度、芦苇植株光合作用及呼吸作用是影响CH4产生和排放的主要因素;而沉积物氮素不足和限制,则是促使芦苇群落表现出对N2O吸收的原因;芦苇的光合作用及土壤呼吸作用随温度和季节的变化是控制芦苇湿地CO2的排放和吸收的主要因素.芦苇植株发达的通气组织是CH4和N2O由大气向沉积物扩散的通道,同时分子扩散过程也是沉积物产生的CH4、N2O和CO2扩散到大气中的途径和方式.  相似文献   

3.
秋季黄河口滨岸潮滩湿地系统CH4通量特征及影响因素研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
2009年秋季(9、10月),运用静态暗箱-气相色谱法对黄河口滨岸潮滩湿地系统的CH4排放通量进行了观测,并对影响CH4通量特征的关键因子进行了识别.结果表明,在空间上,秋季高潮滩、中潮滩、低潮滩和光滩的CH4通量范围分别为-0.206~1.264、-0.197~0.431、-0.125~0.659、-0.742~1.767 mg.(m2.h)-1,均值为0.089、0.038、0.197和0.169mg.(m2.h)-1,均表现为CH4排放源,但源功能整体表现为低潮滩>光滩>高潮滩>中潮滩;在时间上,9、10月的CH4排放通量范围分别为-0.444~1.767、-0.742~1.264 mg.(m2.h)-1,均值为0.218、0.028 mg.(m2.h)-1,除9月高潮滩表现为CH4弱汇外,其它潮滩的CH4通量均明显高于10月.研究发现,黄河口滨岸潮滩湿地环境因素变化比较复杂,CH4排放通量受多重因素控制.不同潮滩湿地在9、10月CH4排放通量的差异可能主要与温度(特别是气温)以及植被生长状况的差异有关,而水盐条件和潮汐状况对潮滩湿地系统CH4通量特征的影响也不容忽视.  相似文献   

4.
采用通量箱-气相色谱法对三峡水库香溪河库湾秋季水-气界面温室气体(CO2、CH4、N2O)交换通量进行了连续24 h昼夜观测.结果表明,水-气界面CO2、CH4、N2O的释放通量具有明显的日变化特征:水体除去下午17:00及凌晨05:00吸收CH4外,其余时刻均向外界大气排放CH4,且在凌晨01:00达到排放高峰.CO2和N2O通量的变化规律一致,两者全天均表现为向大气释放;且CO2和N2O通量的昼夜差异较大.CO2白天释放通量范围在20.1~97.5 mg.(m2.h)-1之间,夜间释放通量范围在32.7~42.5 mg.(m2.h)-1之间.N2O白天释放通量范围在18.4~133.7μg.(m2.h)-1之间,夜间释放通量范围在42.1~102.6μg.(m2.h)-1之间.通过相关性分析,秋季香溪河水-气界面CO2交换通量与风速呈显著正相关,与pH值显著负相关,与Chl-a有一定相关性;CH4交换通量与气压有一定的相关性;N2O交换通量与pH值显著正相关.  相似文献   

5.
利用静态暗箱-气相色谱法自2002~2004年连续3a观测了三江平原淡水沼泽湿地CO2、CH4和N2O 3种主要温室气体排放特征及外源氮素输入条件下温室气体通量的变化.结果表明,三江平原CO2、CH4和N2O 3种主要温室气体排放具有明显的季节及年际变化规律.其中生态系统呼吸CO1排放的最大值[779.33~965.40 mg·(m·h)-1]出现在7、8月份,CH4通量最大值[19.19~30.52 mg·(m·h)-1]出现在8月,N2O通量最大值[0.072~0.15 mg·(m·h)-1]出现在5月和9月,3种温室气体通量最小值CO2为2.36~18.73 mg·(m·h)-1;CH4为-0.35~0.59 mg·(m·h)-1;N2O为-0.032~-0.009 mg·(m·h)-1大都出现在冬季,且冬季淡水沼泽湿地表现为N2O的吸收.对气候因子的分析发现,温度条件是影响淡水沼泽湿地温室气体排放通量季节性变化的主要因子,而降水和积水水位变化是影响其排放年际变化的关键因素,特别是降水对CH4排放通量的影响较其它2种温室气体更显著,且冬季雪融水对夏季CH4的排放起重要作用.CO2和CH4排放与土壤温度(5cm)呈显著的指数相关关系,而N2O排放通量与土壤温度和水深相关性不显著.氮输入促进了三江平原CO2、CH4和N2O3种主要温室气体的排放,与对照处理相比,其排放通量分别升高了34%,145%和110%.  相似文献   

6.
X14200700045亚热带红壤丘陵区茶园土壤中Al和F的分布特征及其影响因素/吴卫红(杭州电子科技大学环境科学与工程系)…∥环境科学/中科院生态环境研究中心.-2006,27(3).-544~549环图X-5X142200700046长江口潮滩湿地-大气界面碳通量特征/杨红霞(华东师范大学资源与环境科学学院)…∥环境科学学报/中科院生态环境研究中心.-2006,26(4).-667~673环图X-9选择长江河口崇明东滩为典型研究区域,使用原位静态箱-气相色谱法,对长江河口潮滩湿地-大气界面碳通量(CH4和CO2)进行了为期一年的现场观测实验.结果表明,观测期内,崇明东滩低潮滩(CM-3)表…  相似文献   

7.
稻田CO2、CH4和N2O排放及其影响因素   总被引:71,自引:5,他引:71  
采用静态箱(暗箱)-气相色谱法对稻田CO2、CH4和N2O排放进行田间原位测量.植株参与的稻田CO2排放季节变化与温度的季节变化一致,气温(土温)是主要驱动因子;而土壤水分状况是稻田CH4、N2O排放和无植株参与的稻田CO2排放季节变化的主要驱动因子.稻田非淹水期N2O和CO2排放与土温、气温呈极显著指数正相关(p<0.001),两气体之间亦呈极显著线性正相关关系(p<0.001).水稻植株自养呼吸和土壤呼吸的温度系数(Q10)分别为2.17和1.68.稻田CO2排放与水层深度呈弱的负相关关系(p<0.05).无植株参与的稻田CO2、CH4和N2O季节平均排放速率分别为198.35±34.00mg/(m2·h),0.63±0.29mg/(m2·h)和169.57±75.30μg/(m2·h),而在植株参与下3者季节平均排放速率分别为1133.51±51.16 mg/(m2·h),1.39±0.20mg/(m2·h)和231.48±35.09μg/(m2·h).碳收支模拟计算结果表明,稻田生态系统表现为对大气中碳的净吸收.  相似文献   

8.
采用静态箱/气相色谱法对一座典型简易生活垃圾填埋场的CH4、N2O和CO2释放通量进行了为期1a的监测,讨论了相关影响因素和通量的季节变化。研究发现:该填埋场CH4、N2O和CO2年平均释放通量分别为(43.93±129.99)mgC/(m2·h)、(622.68±1215.54)μgN/(m2·h)和(132.57±158.90)mgC/(m2·h),即19.64kgCO2-eq/(m2·a)。CH4和N2O占温室气体年排放总量的比例分别为65.31%和13.01%,而在夏季和秋季N2O可占到当季温室气体排放量的20.23%和27.30%。统计分析显示:CO2释放通量与CH4(p0.01)和N2O释放通量(p0.05)显著正相关;N2O释放通量与气温显著正相关(p0.05);CH4和CO2释放通量呈现一定的季节差异,而N2O释放通量四季无显著差异。  相似文献   

9.
为了探讨黄河三角洲潮滩湿地系统二甲基硫(dimethylsulfide,DMS)排放的时空变化和主要影响因子,利用静态箱法监测了黄河三角洲高潮滩、中潮滩和低潮滩DMS通量和环境因子的年际变化.结果表明,从全年来看,黄河三角洲潮滩湿地系统是DMS的释放源,高潮滩、中潮滩和低潮滩释放DMS的通量范围依次为0.043~0.59μg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)、0.18~1.90μg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)和0.88~5.80μg·m~(-2)·h~(-1),均值依次为0.33μg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)、0.95μg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)和2.18μg·m~(-2)·h~(-1).黄河三角洲潮滩湿地DMS的释放通量具有明显的时空变化,其排放主要集中在植物生长季.潮滩湿地间DMS的排放通量差异显著(p0.05),表现为低潮滩中潮滩高潮滩,这种时空变化可能与季节、植被、环境因子、土壤基质等的空间变化有关.DMS的排放受到多种因素的影响,在高潮滩,0 cm地温对DMS排放通量影响显著;在低潮滩,0~5 cm土壤体积含水量对DMS排放通量影响显著,而在中潮滩则没有发现显著的影响因子.该研究成果可以为进一步研究黄河三角洲湿地硫循环及其对大气环境的影响提供基础数据.  相似文献   

10.
崇明东滩芦苇湿地氧化亚氮排放   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
李勇  刘敏  陆敏  侯立军  林啸 《环境科学学报》2010,30(12):2526-2534
采用静态箱-气相色谱法,研究了崇明东滩芦苇带氧化亚氮(N2O)的排放通量.结果表明,在生长季,高潮滩无植被覆盖沉积物与芦苇根际土中NO3--N的含量变化趋势基本一致,而两者的NH4+-N的含量变化趋势则有所不同;芦苇对高潮滩沉积物N2O排放有较强的促进作用,特别是7月份,使高潮滩沉积物的排放量由0.71μg·m-·2h-1增加到566.28μg·m-·2h-1.而在1月份,芦苇根际土N2O的通量也存在小幅排放,由-4.02mg·m-·2h-1增加到67.54μg·m-·2h-1.对于芦苇根际沉积物而言,除NO3--N、NH4+-N、温度和水分以外,植物的生理过程也是控制N2O排放通量的主要因子.  相似文献   

11.
Toxic effects of two agrochemicals on nifH gene in agricultural black soil were investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing approaches in a microcosm experiment. Changes of soil nifH gene diversity and composition were examined following the application of acetochlor, methamidophos and their combination. Acetochlor reduced the nifH gene diversity (both in gene richness and diversity index values) and caused changes in the nifH gene composition. The effects of acetochlor on nifH gene were strengthened as the concentration of acetochlor increased. Cluster analysis of DGGE banding patterns showed that nifH gene composition which had been affected by low concentration of acetochlor (50 mg/kg) recovered firstly. Methamidophos reduced nifH gene richness that except at 4 weeks. The medium concentration of methamidophos (150 mg/kg) caused the most apparent changes in nifH gene diversity at the first week while the high concentration of methamidophos (250 mg/kg) produced prominent effects on nifH gene diversity in the following weeks. Cluster analysis showed that minimal changes of nifH gene composition were found at 1 week and maximal changes at 4 weeks. Toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos combination on nifH gene were also apparent. Different nifH genes (bands) responded differently to the impact of agrochemicals: four individual bands were eliminated by the application of the agrochemicals, five bands became predominant by the stimulation of the agrochemicals, and four bands showed strong resistance to the influence of the agrochemicals. Fifteen prominent bands were partially sequenced, yielding 15 different nifH sequences, which were used for phylogenetic reconstructions. All sequences were affiliated with the alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, showing higher similarity to eight different diazotrophic genera.  相似文献   

12.
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) and phosphorus (P) addition (100 mg/kg soil) on arsenic (As) uptake by maize plants (Zea mays L.) from an As-contaminated soil were examined in a glasshouse experiment.Non-mycorrhizal and zero-P addition controls were included.Plant biomass and concentrations and uptake of As,P,and other nutrients,AM colonization,root lengths,and hyphal length densities were determined.The results indicated that addition of P significantly inhibited root colonization and development of extraradical mycelium.Root length and dry weight both increased markedly with mycorrhizal colonization under the zero-P treatments,but shoot and root biomass of AM plants was depressed by P application.AM fungal inoculation decreased shoot As concentrations when no P was added,and shoot and root As concentrations of AM plants increased 2.6 and 1.4 times with P addition,respectively.Shoot and root uptake of P,Mn,Cu,and Zn increased,but shoot Fe uptake decreased by 44.6%,with inoculation, when P was added.P addition reduced shoot P,Fe,Mn,Cu,and Zn uptake of AM plants,but increased root Fe and Mn uptake of the nonmycorrhizal ones.AM colonization therefore appeared to enhance plant tolerance to As in low P soil,and have some potential for the phytostabilization of As-contaminated soil,however,P application may introduce additional environmental risk by increasing soil As mobility.  相似文献   

13.
In this study an effort has been made to use plant polyphenol oxidases; potato (Solanum tuberosum) and brinjal (Solanum melongena), for the treatment of various important dyes used in textile and other industries. The ammonium sulphate fractionated enzyme preparations were used to treat a number of dyes under various experimental conditions. Majority of the treated dyes were maximally decolorized at pH 3.0. Some of the dyes were quickly decolorized whereas others were marginally decolorized. The initial first hour was sufficient for the maximum decolorization of dyes. The rate of decolorization was quite slow on long treatment of dyes. Enhancement in the dye decolorization was noticed on increasing the concentration of enzymes. The complex mixtures of dyes were treated with both preparations of polyphenol oxidases in the buffers of varying pH values. Potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes to higher extent as compared to the enzyme obtained from brinjal polyphenol oxidase. Decolorization of dyes and their mixtures, followed by the formation of an insoluble precipitate, which could be easily removed simply by centrifugation.  相似文献   

14.
RemovalofheavymetalsfromsewagesludgebylowcostingchemicalmethodandrecyclinginagricultureWuQitang,NyirandegePascasie,MoCehuiF...  相似文献   

15.
Single and joint effects of pesticides and mercury on soil urease   总被引:6,自引:3,他引:3  
The influence of two pesticides including chlorimuron-ethyl and furadan and mercury (Hg) on urease activity in 4 soils (meadow burozem and phaeozem) was investigated. The soils were exposed to various concentrations of the two pesticides and Hg individually and simultaneously. Results showed that there was a close relationship between urease activity and organic matter content in soil. Chlorimuron-ethyl and furadan could both activate urease in the 4 soils. The maximum increment of urease activity by chlorimuronethyl was up to 14%-18%. There was almost an equal increase (up to 13%-21%) in the urease activity by furadan. On the contrary, Hg markedly inhibited soil urease activity. A logarithmic equation was used to describe the relationship (P〈0.05) between the concentration of Hg and the activity of soil urease in the 4 tested soils. Semi-effect dose (ED50) values by the stress of Hg based on the inhibition of soil urease in the 4 soils were 88, 5.5, 24 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, according to the calculation of the corresponding equations. The interactive effect of chlorimuron-ethyl or furadan with metal Hg on soil urease was mainly synergic at the highest tested concentrations.  相似文献   

16.
A study was conducted to compare the diversity of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobenzoate degraders in two pristine soils and one contaminated sewage sludge. These samples contained strikingly different populations of mono-chlorobenzoate degraders. Although fewer cultures were isolated in the uncontaminated soils than contaminated one, the ability of microbial populations to mineralize chlorobenzoate was widespread. The 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate degraders were more diverse than the 2-chlorobenzoate degraders. One of the strains isolated from the sewage sludge was obtained. Based on its phenotype, chemotaxonomic properties and 16S rRNA gene, the organism S-7 was classified as Rhodococcus erythropolis. The strain can grow at temperature from 4 to 37℃. It can utilize several (halo)aromatic compounds. Moreover, strain S-7 can grow and use 3-chlorobenzoate as sole carbon source in a temperatures range of 10-30℃ with stoichiometric release of chloride ions. The psychrotolerant ability was significant for bioremediation in low temperature regions. Catechol and chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities were present in cell free extracts of the strain, but no (chloro)catechol 2,3- dioxygenase activities was detected. Spectral conversion assays with extracts from R. erythropolis S-7 showed accumulation of a compound with a similar UV spectrum as chloro-cis,cis-muconate from 3-chlorobenzoate. On the basis of these results, we proposed that S-7 degraded 3-chlorobenzoate through the modified ortho-cleave pathway.  相似文献   

17.
A field study was conducted in the Taihu Lake region, China in 2004 to reveal the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in soils after the ban of these substances in the year 1983. Thirteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in soils from paddy field, tree land and fallow land. Total organochlorine pesticide residues were higher in agricultural soils than in uncultivated fallow land soils. Among all the pesticides, ΣDDX (DDD, DDE and DDT) had the highest concentration for all the soil samples, ranging from 3.10 ng/g to 166.55 ng/g with a mean value of 57.04 ng/g and followed by ΣHCH, ranging from 0.73 ng/g to 60.97 ng/g with a mean value of 24.06 ng/g. Dieldrin, endrin, HCB and α-endosulfan were also found in soils with less than 15 ng/g. Ratios of p,p'-(DDD DDE)/DDT in soils under three land usages were: paddy field > tree land > fallow land, indicating that land usage inlfuenced the degradation of DDT in soils. Ratios of p,p'-(DDD DDE)/DDT >1, showing aged residues of DDTs in soils of the Taihu Lake region. The results were discussed with data from a former study that showed very low actual concentrations of HCH and DDT in soils in the Taihu Lake region, but according to the chemical half-lives and their concentrations in soils in 1980s, the concentration of DDT in soils seemed to be underestimated. In any case our data show that the ban on the use of HCH and DDT resulted in a tremendous reduction of these pesticide residues in soils, but there are still high amounts of pesticide residues in soils, which need more remediation processes.  相似文献   

18.
The contribution of aliphatic-rich plant biopolymer to sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds is significantly important because of their preservation and accumulation in the soil environment,but sorption mechanism is still not fully understood.In this study, sorption of 1-naphthol by plant cuticular fractions was examined to better understand the contributions of respective fraction.Toward this end,cuticular materials were isolated from the fruits of tomato by chemical method.The tomato cuticle sheet consisted of waxes (6.5 wt%),cuticular monomer (69.5 wt%),and polysaccharide (24.0 wt%).Isotherms of l-naphthol to the cuticular fractions were nonlinear (N value (0.82-0.90)) at the whole tested concentration ranges.The KodKow ratios for bulk cuticle (TC1),dewaxed cuticle (TC2),cutin (TC4),and desugared cuticle (TC5) were larger than unity,suggested that tomato bulk cuticle and cutin are much powerful solption medium.Sorption capability of cutin (TC4) was 2.4 times higher than the nonsaponifiable fraction (TC3).The 1-naphthol interactions with tomato cuticular materials were governed by both hydrophobic-type interactions and polar (H-bonding) interactions. Removal of the wax and polysaccharide materials from the bulk tomato cuticle caused a significant increase in the sorption ability of the cuticular material.There was a linear negative trend between K_(oc) values and the amount of polysaccharides or fraction's polarities ((N O)/C);while a linear positive relationship between K_(oc) values and the content of cutin monomer (linear R~2=0.993) was observed for present in the cuticular fractions.Predominant sorbent of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in the plant cuticular fraction was the cutin monomer,contributing to 91.7% of the total sorption of tomato bulk cuticle.  相似文献   

19.
Common silver barb,Puntius gonionotus,exposed to the nominal concentration of 0.06 mg/L Cd for 60 d,were assessed for histopathological alterations(gills,liver and kidney),metal accumulation,and metallothionein(MT)mRNA expression.Fish exhibited pathological symptoms such as hypertrophy and hyperplasia of primary and secondary gill lamellae,vacuolization in hepatocytes,and prominent tubular and glomerular damage in the kidney.In addition,kidney accumulated the highest content of cadmium,more than gills and liver.Expression of MT mRNA was increased in both liver and kidney of treated fish.Hepatic MT levels remained high after fish were removed to Cd-free water.In contrast,MT expression in kidney was peaked after 28 d of treatment and drastically dropped when fish were removed to Cd-free water.The high concentrations of Cd in hepatic tissues indicated an accumulation site or permanent damage on this tissue.  相似文献   

20.
Seed induces and promotes the crystallization of calcium phosphate, and acts as carrier of the recovered phosphorus (P). In order to select suitable seed for P recovery from wastewater, three seeds including Apatite (AP), Juraperle (JP) and phosphate-modified Juraperle (M-JP) were tested and compared. Batch and fixed-bed column experiments of seeded crystallization of calcium phosphate were undertaken by using synthetic wastewater with 10 mg/L P phosphate. It shows that AP has bad enduring property in the crystallization process, while JP has better performance for multiple uses, and M-JP is a hopeful seed for P recovery by crystallization of calcium phosphate.  相似文献   

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