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1.
A fuel cell hybrid (FCH) mid-size car is modeled and simulated in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), the results are compared with 2017 Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) to examine the capability of hybridization and compare the fuel economy of the modeled vehicle. The aim of this analysis is to understand the energy interactions of the fuel cell and batteries and to identify an optimal energy management. In the current modeling, the fuel cell power is downsized by 30% with a corresponding increase in the number of battery modules by 50% to compensate the fuel cell power by maintaining the same motor power demand. The Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and mountain driving cycle (NREL2VAIL) test cycles are considered to estimate the fuel economy for urban and hill road driving conditions. The FCH mid-size car achieves better performance in terms of acceleration and equivalent fuel economy in comparison with 2017 Toyota Mirai FCEV. The effectiveness of the optimal energy management of the hybrid FC/battery powertrain performance is better and validated with the 2017 Toyota Mirai FCEV.  相似文献   

2.
This paper describes a methodology used for designing louvered fins. Louvered fins are commonly used in many compact heat exchangers to increase the surface area and initiate new boundary layer growth. Detailed measurements can be accomplished with computational models of these louvered fins to gain a better understanding of the flow field and heat distribution. The particular louver geometry studies for this work have a louver angle of 23° and fin count of 17 fpi.

The flow and heat transfer characteristics for three-dimensional mixed convection flows in a radiator flat tube with louvered fins are analyzed numerically. A three-dimensional model is developed to investigate flow and conjugate heat transfer in the copper-based car radiator. The model was produced with the commercial program FLUENT. The theoretical model has been developed and validated by comparing the predictions of the model with available experimental data. The thermal performance and temperature distribution for the louvered fins were analyzed and a procedure for optimizing the geometrical design parameter is presented.

One fin specification among the various flat tube exchangers is recommended by first considering the heat transfer and pressure drop. The effects of variation of coolant flow conditions and external air conditions on the flow and the thermal characteristics for the selected radiator are investigated also. The results will be used as fundamental data for tube design by suggesting specifications for car radiator tubes.  相似文献   

3.
One of the important components of a car to control the temperature of a car's engine is the radiator. To increase the heat absorption capacity of the coolant/fluid used in the radiator with minimum pumping power, innovative fluids called nanofluids have become the main area of research these days. Therefore, with the development of new technologies in the field of “nano-materials” and “nano-fluids,” the physical and chemical properties of coolant/fluid can be improved which in turn improves the radiator and engine efficiency, and reduces radiator weight and size. In this article, the heat transfer by forced convection in nanofluids based on Al2O3 and SiC was studied experimentally and compared to that of base fluid in an automotive radiator. The nanofluid is mixed with ethylene glycol and the fluid is prepared by the sonication method. The nanofluids were prepared by varying the nanomaterials and the amounts of nanomaterials in the base fluid and their heat transfer performance in the radiator was analyzed using ANSYS FLUENT software. Approximately 15% and 12% increase in radiator efficiency by using Al2O3 mixed nanofluid and SiC mixed nanofluid, respectively.  相似文献   

4.
Abstract

In this work, gas flow and heat transfer have been numerically investigated and analyzed for both cathode/anode ducts of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The simulation is conducted by solving a set of conservation equations for the whole domain consisting of a porous medium, solid structure, and flow duct. A generalized extended Darcy model is employed to investigate the flow inside the porous layer. This model accounts for the boundary-layer development, shear stress, and microscopic inertial force as well. Effects of inertial coefficient, together with permeability, effective thermal conductivity, and thickness of the porous layer on gas flow and heat transfer are investigated.  相似文献   

5.
ABSTRACT

In this study, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack composed of five cells in series is numerically investigated to study the impact of the nonuniform reactant flow rate on the performance of the stack. A comparison of the water concentration, temperature, reaction heat source, and current density of change rule of two groups of fuel cell stacks with uniform and nonuniform reactant flow rate reveals the performance degradation mechanism caused by nonuniform reactant flow. The results indicate that while operating under low-voltage conditions, the nonuniform reactant flow rate will cause the accumulation of excess liquid water near the PEM that is near the cathode exhaust outlet, and the local area reacts strongly on the catalyst, whereas the local area reacts slowly. When the average voltage of the stack is 0.55 V, the current density under the nonuniform reactant flow rate condition is 12.9% lower than that of the uniform reactant flow rate condition. In the case of uniform and nonuniform reactant flow rate at low current densities, the performance difference is not evident, but it is expected to be pronounced with the increase in current density. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data reported in the literature through a polarization curve, and they turn out to be well correlated with the experimental results.  相似文献   

6.
Abstract

This article summarizes the results of a study for a 100 kWe DC electrical power PEM fuel cell system. The system consists of a pre-steam reformer, a steam reformer, high and low temperature shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor, a PEM fuel cell, a combustor, and an expander. Acceptable net electrical efficiency levels can be achieved via intensive heat integration within the PEM fuel cell system. The calculations take into account the auxiliary equipment such as pumps, com pressors, heaters, coolers, heat exchangers and pipes. The process simulation package “Aspen-HYSYS 3.1’’ has been used. The operation parameters of the reactors have been determined considering all the technical limitations involved. A gasoline type hydrocarbon fuel has been studied as hydrogen rich gas source. Thermal efficiencies have been calculated for all of the major system components for selected operation conditions. The fuel cell stack efficiency has been calculated as a function of cell numbers (500, 750, 1000, and 1250 cells). Efficiencies of all of the major system components along with auxiliary unit efficiencies determine the net electrical efficiency of the PEM fuel cell system. The obtained net electrical efficiency levels are between 34 (500 cells) to 41% (1250 cells).  相似文献   

7.
ABSTRACT

Aquaculture raceway temperature has a direct impact on the aquatic specie being reared. In regions that undergo significant seasonal temperature variations, the thermal management of the raceway temperature becomes a challenge, directly impacting the production yield. This study investigates a novel approach to regulate the raceway temperature in a sustainable way by utilizing geothermal energy. A numerical energy model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a geothermal system encompassing both the individual borehole heat exchangers and their thermal interactions. Simulations were conducted for different configurations of the geothermal system over a complete seasonal cycle. Results show that flow rate, number of boreholes and the borehole spacing influence the temperature of the fluid at the raceway inlet. An increase in the number of boreholes provided better thermal regulation but an increase in the flow rate through the boreholes provided less thermal regulation. A borehole spacing of 6 m was found to be appropriate to reduce thermal interference. It was also observed that an increase in the fraction of the fluid passed through the geothermal system enhances the overall thermal regulation, with higher thermal regulation at lower flow rates. Results show that when 100% of the fluid passed through a 64 boreholes geothermal system, the average regulated raceway inlet temperature was 23% higher in winter months and 16% lower in summer months at the flow rate of 21.5 L/s compared to than at 43 L/s.  相似文献   

8.
Chemical-looping combustion, CLC, is a technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The technique uses an oxygen carrier made up of particulate metal oxide to transfer oxygen from combustion air to fuel. In this work, an oxygen carrier consisting of 60% NiO and 40% NiAl2O4 was used in a 10 kW CLC reactor system for 160 h of operation with fuel. The first 3 h of fuel operation excepted, the test series was accomplished with the same batch of oxygen carrier particles. The fuel used in the experiments was natural gas, and a fuel conversion to CO2 of approximately 99% was accomplished. Combustion conditions were very stable during the test period, except for the operation at sub-stoichiometric conditions. It was shown that the methane fraction in the fuel reactor exit gas was dependent upon the rate of solids circulation, with higher circulation leading to more unconverted methane. The carbon monoxide fraction was found to follow the thermodynamical equilibrium for all investigated fuel reactor temperatures, 660–950 °C. Thermal analysis of the fuel reactor at stable conditions enabled calculation of the particle circulation which was found to be approximately 4 kg/s, MW. The loss of fines, i.e. the amount of elutriated oxygen carrier particles with diameter <45 μm, decreased during the entire test period. After 160 h of operation the fractional loss of fines was 0.00022 h−1, corresponding to a particle life time of 4500 h.  相似文献   

9.
ABSTRACT

Al2O3/water nanofluid has been numerically examined for the first time with different nanoparticle shapes including, cylindrical, blade, brick, platelet and spherical, on the flat and triangular-corrugated impinging surfaces. The volume fractions of 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% nanoparticles have been used. The Reynolds number is between 100–500 depending on the slot diameter. The finite volume method is utilized to determine the governing equations. The study is analyzed to determine how the flow features, heat transfer features and entropy production were affected by the diversity of nanoparticle shape, nanoparticle volume fraction, and shape of impinging surface. Darcy friction factor and Nusselt number are studied in detail for different conditions. The temperature contours are presented in the case of different nanoparticle volume fractions, nanoparticle shapes and both impinging surfaces. The results of the study suggest that the nanoparticle shape of the platelet shows the highest heat transfer development due to the thinner thermal boundary layer. Heat transfer augments with increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, the study is consistent with the results of the literature on heat transfer and flow properties.  相似文献   

10.
The effect of heat resistance and heat leakage on the optimal performance of finite time heat engines is investigated in this paperbased on a generalized heat transfer law q ∞ Δ(Tn). The analytical relation between optimal power output and efficiency for steady-state flow irreversible heat engines is derived. The analysis includes the optimal performance characteristics of several types of heat engines with different loss item and different heat transfer laws. A numerical example is provided for illustrating the power output versus efficiency characteristics. Results shown that the heat transfer law does affect the performance of these heat engines.  相似文献   

11.
In the recent decades, the energy demand for transport and industrial sector has increased considerably. Fossil fuels which were the major fuel source for decades are no more sustainable. Biodiesel is an efficient alternative compared to depleting fossil fuels. The prospect of biodiesel as the best alternative fuel is a reliable source compared to depleting fossil fuels. Hydrogen is also considered as an attractive alternative fuel producing low emission with improved engine performance. This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition engine using hydrogen as an inducted fuel and biodiesel, aka Pongamia pinnata as injected fuel. The experiments are conducted for different quantities of hydrogen induction through the intake manifold in order to improve the performance of the engine. The performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and emission quantities like HC, NOX, CO, CO2 of biodiesel fueled CI engine with variable mass flow rate of hydrogen are investigated. The performances of biodiesel combined with hydrogen at varying mass flow rates are also compared. The 10 LPM hydrogen induction with biodiesel provided 0.33% increase of brake thermal efficiency compared with diesel and increase of 3.24% to biodiesel at 80% loading conditions. The emission of HC decreased by 13 ppm, CO decreased by 0.02% by volume and CO2 decreased by 3.8% by volume for biodiesel with induction of hydrogen at 10 LPM to that of neat biodiesel for 80% load conditions.  相似文献   

12.
In this paper Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) are considered for their potential application in carbon dioxide separation when integrated into natural gas fired combined cycles. The MCFC performs on the anode side an electrochemical oxidation of natural gas by means of CO32? ions which, as far as carbon capture is concerned, results in a twofold advantage: the cell removes CO2 fed at the cathode to promote carbonate ion transport across the electrolyte and any dilution of the oxidized products is avoided.The MCFC can be “retrofitted” into a combined cycle, giving the opportunity to remove most of the CO2 contained in the gas turbine exhaust gases before they enter the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and allowing to exploit the heat recovery steam cycle in an efficient “hybrid” fuel cell + steam turbine configuration. The carbon dioxide can be easily recovered from the cell anode exhaust after combustion with pure oxygen (supplied by an air separation unit) of the residual fuel, cooling of the combustion products in the HRSG and water separation. The resulting power cycle has the potential to keep the overall cycle electrical efficiency approximately unchanged with respect to the original combined cycle, while separating 80% of the CO2 otherwise vented and limiting the size of the fuel cell, which contributes to about 17% of the total power output so that most of the power capacity relies on conventional low cost turbo-machinery. The calculated specific energy for CO2 avoided is about 4 times lower than average values for conventional post-combustion capture technology. A sensitivity analysis shows that positive results hold also changing significantly a number of MCFC and plant design parameters.  相似文献   

13.
ABSTRACT

This paper discusses about the effect of feeder height and heat flux on the heat transfer characteristics of horizontal tube falling film evaporation in the thermal regimes. In order to investigate this, a two- dimensional CFD model was developed to perform simulation and results were compared and validated with published data available in the literature. Heat transfer co-efficients in the thermal regimes were determined from the CFD simulation and the results were recorded, analyzed and validated with the mathematical models available in the literature. The novelty of the current study is to predict the commencement of the fully developed thermal region over the tube from the simulation model under varying feeder height and heat flux. An effort was also made to measure the liquid film thickness around the tube from the CFD model in the thermal regimes. It is observed that angle of thermally developing region contracts and fully developed thermal region extends with the increase of the feeder height and heat flux. It is observed from the study that increase of heat flux by 10 kW/m2 resulted in increase of heat transfer co-efficient value by 10–12% average in thermally developing region and 12–15% average in fully developed region. Thinnest liquid film thickness observed between 85 and 127°angle. Shifting of thinnest region of liquid film upward from the mid tube with the increase of the feeder height and heat flux is noted.  相似文献   

14.
An experimental investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of an integrated hotbox in a 1-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system fed by natural gas. The integrated hotbox comprises all the main balance of plant components of an SOFC system, i.e. afterburner, reformer, and heat exchanger, and it not only reduces the physical size of the system but also yields improved system efficiency. The experimental results show that under optimal operating conditions, the combined H2 and CO content of the reformate gas is approximately 70%, while both anode and cathode in-gas temperatures are around approximately 750°C.  相似文献   

15.
The performance of an intermediate-temperature proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) hybrid system is investigated in this work. The hybrid system consists of a 20-kW pSOFC, a micro gas turbine (MGT), and heat exchangers. Heat exchangers are used to recover waste heat from pSOFC and MGT. The performance of the system is analyzed by using Matlab/Simulink/Thermolib. Flow rates of air and hydrogen are controlled by assigning different stoichiometric ratio (St). St considered in this study is between 2 and 3.5 for air, and between 1.25 and 1.45 for hydrogen. Results show that the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency increases as the fuel St decreases or air St increases. This is because lowering fuel St means fewer fuel will be wasted from the fuel cell stack, so the CHP efficiency increases. On the other hand, as air St increases, the amount of recovered waste heat increases, so does the CHP efficiency.  相似文献   

16.
ABSTRACT

When the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) works in the mode of dead-ended anode (DA), the water and the nitrogen in the cathode flow channel will diffuse, and accumulate, to the anode flow channel resulting in fuel starvation on the anode side as well as the performance degradation of PEMFC, which has an important impact on the durability and working state of PEMFC. Because the PEMFC performance is closely related to the cathode working parameters, in order to study the influence of the cathode working parameters on the performance of the PEMFC with DA, a two-dimensional analytical model of PEMFC with DA is established in this article, and the parameters in the model are corrected by experiments. The effects of humidity, stoichiometric ratio and working pressure of cathode gas on the performance of PEMFC with DA are studied by model and experiment, as well as the effects of these working parameters on the accumulation process and distribution of water vapor and nitrogen on the anode side, and the relative performance of PEMFC with DA under different cathode working parameters is obtained. This model is of great significance to guide the practical work of the PEMFC with DA.  相似文献   

17.
This study used Programmable System-on-Chip to make a fuel cell controller to manage the fuel cell operating environment. When a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is reacting, its performance is closely related to the operating conditions, such as temperature, water management, etc. This article investigates purge time interval control and the related characteristics. The controller developed in this study is free from additional power requirements, using only the power provided by the fuel cell.  相似文献   

18.
燃料电池因具有高效、节能、环保等优点,在电动汽车、分布式电站、便携式备用电源等方面具有广泛的应用前景,而燃料电池的安全标准是燃料电池产品市场准入的重要保证。燃料电池发电系统的安全涉及机械危险、电气危险、热危险、化学危害、物理危险、设备故障危险、因不适当的人机工程学原理而导致的危险及人机界面危险、合理预见的误用、环境条件危险、污染等方面。本文介绍了国内外燃料电池发电系统安全技术以及标准化的现状。  相似文献   

19.
ABSTRACT: The widely available USGS 7.5‐minute Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has a cell size of approximately 30 m × 30 m. This high resolution topographic information is impractical for many applications of distributed hydrologic and water quality models. In this study, cells were aggregated into coarse‐resolution areal units, termed grids, and a method to approximate flow direction for coarse‐resolution grids from 30 m DEM cells was developed. The method considers the flow path defined from the fine‐resolution DEM in determining a grid's flow direction and makes flow directions for grids closely follow the flow pattern suggested by the DEM. The aggregation method was applied to a DEM of Goodwater Creek, a nearly flat watershed that is located in central Missouri. The drainage networks derived for different levels of cell aggregations showed that grid aggregates of the Goodwater Creek watershed provided an adequate representation of the landscape topography.  相似文献   

20.
Safe and reliable metal hydride canisters (MHCs) for the use of hydrogen storage at low pressure can be applied to supply small fuel cell vehicles or scooters with hydrogen fuel. However, greater cost-effectiveness of hydrogen gas is obviously necessary to the successful promotion of hydrogen fuel cell scooters in the market. In this study, we use the net present value (NPV) method to evaluate the feasibility of an investment project on the supply of purified hydrogen in a pulp company at Hualien, Taiwan. The purified hydrogen can be separated from waste hydrogen by using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology and then be stored in MHCs. Under some assumptions of improved parameters about hydrogen production cost and hydrogen gas price, the discounted payback period of hydrogen purification and storage project in our study can be less than 10 years and the unit cost of hydrogen gas can be close to the price of gasoline. Moreover, the unit cost of hydrogen gas in our study can be lower than the cost from other sources of hydrogen.  相似文献   

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