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This paper considers a two-echelon closed-loop supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a remanufacturer at the upper echelon and a retailer at the lower echelon. The retailer faces a constant demand from customers, which is satisfied through recovered and new products received from the remanufacturer and the manufacturer, respectively. The manufacturer produces the product with finite rate, whereas the recovery of returned product is instantaneous at the remanufacturer. We develop three models to determine the optimal production-inventory policy of the players for minimizing the joint total cost of the system. In the first model, the retailer receives the product in batches from the manufacturer and the remanufacture simultaneously, whereas in the second and third models, the batches are received alternatively. In the third model, however, the procurement of raw material at the manufacturer is also considered. Numerical illustration is presented to examine the impact of certain key parameters.  相似文献   

The two competitive closed-loop supply chains under our study include three members: two manufacturers and one retailer. In this paper, we focus on the management of the wholesale prices, the retail prices and the collecting prices for the two competitive closed-loop supply chains. On the assumption that the return rate of the used-products is an increasing function of the collecting price, we obtain the optimal wholesale prices, the optimal retail prices and the optimal collecting prices based on the following models: Model MMC (two manufacturers for collecting), Model MRC (manufacturer one and retailer for collecting) and Model RRC (retailer for collecting). Furthermore, by comparing the optimal results, we find that the retailer for collecting is the best channel for the two competitive closed-loop supply chains if the two manufacturers would like to transfer all of their cost savings from remanufacturing to the retailer. At the end, we illustrate a numerical example to analyse the impacts of the market share ratio and the substitute ratio of the two products on the optimal results.  相似文献   

Human decisions shape patterns of seafood resource use. Consequently, it is also these decisions made by actors within seafood industries which ultimately determine the environmental impact of fisheries resource extraction from marine environments. In this study, we investigated the roles and influences of various actors within the Irish seafood industry. Our objectives were to learn more about the working dynamics of the industry and identify possibilities for improvements towards industry sustainability. We employed qualitative research methods including semi-structured interviews, focus groups and participant observation to access information from Irish consumers, retailers, wholesalers, scientists and key industry informants. The diversity of seafood products available within the Irish market is generally low. However, consumers who experiment with trying new varieties of seafood are influenced by dining experiences at restaurants or while travelling abroad as well as through cooking shows or cookbooks. Potential for influence on factors including consumer choice, stocking and sourcing decisions, business management and fisheries policy was found within all levels of the seafood industry, though a sense of responsibility in the context of seafood sustainability was less common. In addition, the absence of shortages within the Irish market due to imports, aquaculture and mislabelling appears to be preventing widespread acceptance about claims of overfishing. It is clear that ultimately, responsible policy decisions and effective enforcement will be needed to improve the overall sustainability of the industry. However, pressure for positive change can come from all actors that prioritise sustainability as the most important objective for future industry operation.  相似文献   

生产者市场信任缺失将导致绿色农产品供给严重不足,并由供给缺位引致食品供给侧结构性失衡。基于湖北省804份水稻种植户的微观调研数据,探讨了市场信任、制度环境对农户生物农药施用行为的影响。研究发现:(1)农户不仅对市场上售卖的农产品缺乏消费信任,而且缺乏绿色农产品生产信任,67.79%的样本农户对绿色农产品的市场销售表露担忧;(2)市场信任对农户施用生物农药行为具有显著的促进作用,与激励制度相比,市场约束制度对农户施用生物农药的影响更显著,且市场激励与约束制度能有效弥补农户市场信任不足;(3)政府和企业对农户生物农药施用行为的影响存在差异,企业和政府监管都能显著促进农户的生物农药施用,但企业对农户生产行为的约束效果要优于政府。因此,要提升农户的绿色农产品市场信任,加强激励与约束制度环境的建设,倡导多元共治以弥补政府职能的有限性。  相似文献   

Return items received from end customers for remanufacturing is uncertain in nature. In this paper, we considered that return demand function is uncertain and sensitive to the acquisition price and the availability of used products in the market. A mathematical model was developed to investigate the impact of the availability of return items in the market on acquisition price management. Here, three different methods of collection of return items from the market are considered: direct method, indirect method and coordinated method. A numerical study was conducted to illustrate the mathematical model, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was carried out for the three different methods of collection to examine the impact of market size and the available dependency factor on acquisition price and the channel profit. The results show that the total channel profit increases when the acquisition price increases for the direct method of collection. Furthermore, the results reveal that the total channel profit increases when the market size increases for the coordinated method of collection compared with the other two methods of collection.  相似文献   

The attitudes of the UK milk processing industry to a nuclear incident which resulted in milk supplies being suspected of being contaminated, or actually being contaminated, with radioactivity is examined. The factors influencing these attitudes are discussed, together with their implications. In the event of a nuclear incident in which part of the United Kingdom's milk supply is possibly contaminated, the milk processing industry will want to ensure that consumers and retailers maintain complete confidence in dairy products. As a consequence the industry will require that solutions are not adopted merely to avoid wastage of milk, or awkward milk disposal problems. In the early history of the BSE crisis the government wrongly assured consumers that beef was completely safe to eat. It will be necessary to ensure that any assurances that milk is safe, following a nuclear incident, are well founded.  相似文献   

Global forest product value chains are increasingly subject to regulatory requirements, such as legality and sustainability certification. For African forest products, a shift in the export destinations of forest products towards China, the leading timber product manufacturer, has raised concerns that social and environmental product and process standards are declining. Aggregate drivers of this shift have been documented, yet there has been little enterprise-level analysis of Chinese actors in African timber imports based in China. This paper provides an initial analysis, highlighting implications for existing and emerging regulatory initiatives. Data show that although an increasing number of Chinese private enterprises is engaged in African timber imports, import volumes remain concentrated among a small number of geographically clustered private and state-owned firms. Government-led schemes are beginning to address timber legality concerns. But given China’s growing domestic market for finished wood products, sustainability certification requirements driven by the US and EU will not be sufficient to ensure improved sourcing by Chinese firms.  相似文献   


This paper aims to underline the importance of the packaging redesign process and the potential benefits that can be derived from this for both the environment and the community. The research demonstrates that the redesign of paper corrugated packaging has cost savings for most links of the supply chain such as the industrial customers, retailers, wholesalers and final consumers. In addition, an applied case study will be used that aims to provide evidence that the redesign process could further offer weight and transportation benefits, provide better environmental performance and finally offer better protection for the packaged products. The alternative packaging suggestions made in the research refer to the secondary paper corrugated packaging since the objective is to show the value of the redesign process. The research provides the tools for a packaging designer, on how to estimate, analyse, redesign and compare different approaches, finding the way to a more sustainable packaging supply chain.  相似文献   

我国太阳能光伏发电产业发展方向及产业政策   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
随着新世纪的到来,出于对环保和未来能源供应的考虑,可再生能源在世界能源消费中的比重逐渐加大。其中,太阳能光伏发电技术的发展和应用颇为世人所瞩目。本文从国有光伏产品市场特点出发,分析了国产光伏系统在市场竞争中的优势和劣势所在,指出了当前我国太阳能光伏发电系统企业在市场中缺乏竞争力的原因。在此基础上,提出相应的解决方案。  相似文献   

The linear production of consumer goods is characterised by mass manufacture by multinational enterprises and globally dispersed supply chains. The current centralised model has created a distance between the manufacturer and end user, limiting the opportunity for intelligent circular approaches for production and consumption. Through a mixed method approach, opportunities of circularity are explored for the consumer goods sector. The study presents four lenses to analyse three enterprises through a multi-case study approach to explore the potential of digital intelligence and redistributed manufacturing (RDM) as enablers of circular business models. In addition, the study examines whether Discrete Event Simulation can be used to evaluate the circular scenarios identified through quantifying flows of material that determine traditional economic value (cost/tonne). The mixed method approach demonstrates that, a qualitative systemic analysis can reveal opportunities for circularity, gained through implementing ‘digital intelligence’ and distributed models of production and consumption. Furthermore, simulations can provide a quantified evaluation on the effects of introducing circular activities across a supply chain.  相似文献   

An economic model of reuse is developed to analyse the effect of reuse activity on the amount of waste in the economy and the welfare of consumers. The paper adapts the theory of durable goods and second-hand markets. There is only one type of good, a durable good, which last two periods. A durable good is called ‘new’ in the first period and ‘used’ in the second period. Following Kim (Int Econ J 3:53–63, 1989), it is assumed that consumers differ in valuing the service rate of used goods. Their valuations are represented by a parameter θ, with a higher θ denoting consumers with a greater willingness to pay. In this study, high-θ consumers are referred to as reuse-friendly consumers. The new durable good is supplied in a competitive market. After the purchaser has used the good for one period, (s)he can sell it, keep it or throw it away. If a consumer decides to enter the second-hand market, (s)he has to pay a transaction cost. In equilibrium, the price of used goods will be determined endogenously by a second-hand market; it depends on the value of transaction costs. Thus, whether the second-hand market exists or not also depends on the value of transaction costs. It is shown that the amount of durable goods that is wasted is minimal when a second-hand market exists. When a second-hand market does not exist, increase in reuse-friendly consumers leads to decrease in the amount of waste. In the case of the second-hand market, when many consumers begin to reuse, the welfare of consumers who do not buy used goods will be improved.  相似文献   

基于利益相关者理论的企业环境绩效影响因素研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
基于利益相关者理论,通过构建企业环境绩效与企业受到各利益相关者环境压力的计量模型,并在江苏常熟地区展开问卷调查,分析了影响企业环境绩效的利益相关者,结果表明:在该实证区域,以主动性环境管理行为度量企业环境绩效时,投资者、竞争者、消费者和社区居民等外部利益相关者对企业环境绩效的提高有显著的正影响;政府虽然给企业造成了很高的环境压力,但并不是造成企业之间环境绩效差异的原因;媒体和环保非政府组织等外部利益相关者作用尚不明显.结论说明:我国政府通过引入利益相关者参与企业环境治理,已经取得一定成效.建议我国政府继续推动环境政策创新,积极创造更多利益相关者成长的制度空间,为我国企业环境绩效的提高提供更多动力.  相似文献   

China is preparing to establish a nationwide carbon market in 2017, and in order to facilitate this goal, seven pilot carbon markets have been under study for the past few years. This paper summarizes the operation experience and challenges of the seven pilot carbon markets in China. It has been widely accepted that the essence of a carbon market is to solve environmental problems through market mechanisms, with environmental benefit being the fundamental purpose, market mechanism being the key measure, and policies and regulations being an important guarantee for an orderly carbon market. Therefore, this paper constructs an evaluation index system composed of 34 detailed sub-indexes in three dimensions, such as environmental constraint force, market resource allocation ability, and supporting policies and facility completeness. Through analyzing the operation data from 2013 to 2016, the weights of the sub-indexes are obtained. In addition, the study obtains experts’ opinions from over 10 carbon permits exchanges, consultancy firms and research institutions in China, and conducts a comprehensive evaluation on the development degree of the seven pilot carbon markets. Results show that the pilot carbon markets that include private SMEs as the covered entities for emissions control present relatively higher environmental constraint force. But too many covered entities could increase the difficulty of market performance management, while the pilots that include high energy-consuming state-owned enterprises as the entities for emissions control demonstrate a phenomenon of “high market compliance rate with low trading volume”. The resource allocation capability of China’s carbon market has not been effectively brought into play, and low degree of market participation has become an important constraint factor for market development. Due to the lack of laws and regulations at the national macro-level, the legally binding force of the pilot markets construction is obviously insufficient, and the supporting policies are lacking foresights. Generally, the development of China’s pilot carbon markets is still in such a fragmented state as in the aspects of environment, market and policy development, and the market operation has not yet achieved the purpose of solving environmental problems through market mechanisms. Accordingly, policy recommendations pointed out by this study are that tightening the allowance of free quota and progressively increasing the auction proportion, improving legal construction, increasing the services and products of carbon finance and standardizing the order of market transactions, enhancing capacity building of local governments and promoting the participation willingness and capability of emissions control entities, will be necessary.  相似文献   


Waste electrical and electronic equipment have the potential environmental risks and resource value simultaneously. So the product recycling is very important. This paper studies on recycling problems of WEEE under the third-party recycling in a closed-loop supply chain. We take the following measures. Firstly, based on classifying the WEEE, we consider a revenue sharing and cost sharing contract as the coordination mechanism. Secondly, under centralized and decentralized decisions, we use the game analysis technology to determine the optimal pricing and profits, respectively. Finally, we conduct the number simulation to illustrate and validate the proposed models and provide managerial insights. The results show that when retailers sell new and second-hand products simultaneously, consumers become more sensitive to recycling prices, the profits of manufacturers, recyclers and CLSC increase. However, the retailers' profits decline.


This paper investigates optimum production parameters for a reverse supply chain for manufacturing of primary products and remanufacturing of commercial returns (products returned by customers for refund or exchange). The market for the product consists of two categories, the primary and remanufactured products. The demands for these markets are independent and considered to be random variables following a normal distribution function. The approach presented in this work differs from many previously published works because the acceptability of products varies among customers. The interaction between the designed quality and variable customers’ preferences determines the likelihood of a product being returned. Two major decision variables targeted in this study are the production cycle time and the targeted quality for production of parts used in the product. Through an analytical formulation and numerical examples, a relationship between the total profit of the system and the two decision variables is developed and optimised. The analysis demonstrates that the total profit of the hybrid system could be increased significantly by targeting the optimum targeted (not necessarily the highest) values for quality of parts and the optimum cycle length. And this objective could be accomplished with significant gain with respect to sustainability and waste reduction.  相似文献   

中国绿色经济发展中的诸方博弈研究   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
绿色经济是人类经济发展的新方向,是一种新的经济形态和经济模式。发展绿色经济的过程实质上是一个多方博弈过程。本文通过建立"子博弈精炼纳什均衡"模型、精炼贝叶斯博弈模型和一般博弈模型,分析了绿色经济体系构建中的诸方利益博弈关系。不同的博弈主体有不同的利益诉求:中央政府以公共利益长期化为核心的社会整体利益最大化诉求、地方政府政绩导向诉求、企业围绕利润最大化原则和消费者在一定观念指导下的效用最大化原则,诸方利益诉求的交集在于实现社会经济的绿色化,减少污染。研究结果表明,发展绿色经济的政策目标和责任目标与政策执行人员自身利益相挂钩的制度安排是制约污染者的有效路径,制度实施机制对制度实施程度及效率有直接的影响。因此,建议通过建立监管者的奖励机制、引导正确的社会舆论评价、提高执法者的综合素质,强化企业治理污染的约束机制和提高对消费者绿色消费的补贴机制才能妥善处理博弈各方的利益诉求,顺利实现绿色经济发展。  相似文献   

近年来,随着电子商务的迅速崛起,快递废弃物激增所带来的环境污染、资源浪费程度日趋严重,营建快递废弃物回收产业链,促进快递废弃物循环使用的呼声日益急促。快递废弃物的循环使用涉及到多方利益相关者,本文基于利益主体协同演化视角,分别构建未引入政府约束机制和引入政府约束机制的"快递企业-消费者"演化博弈模型,借以探索政府、消费者及快递企业在快递废弃物回收产业链营建过程中所扮演的角色,借助复制动态方程得到利益相关方的演化稳定策略和规律,并进一步应用MATLAB仿真工具进行仿真模拟,研究结果表明:未引入政府约束机制下,博弈系统难以依靠市场调节快速演化到理想状态,快递企业和消费者会反复权衡参与营建快递废弃物回收产业链的收益和成本,根据净收益进行策略选择,当二者净收益大于0时,博弈系统会逐渐演化为理想状态,反之,博弈系统则会逐渐演化为不良状态。引入政府约束机制可以快速的引导快递企业和消费者向理想状态演化,加大对快递企业营建回收产业链的补贴力度以及对营建回收产业链怠工的罚款程度能够促进快递废弃物回收产业链营建的快速高效执行。本文的研究对快递废弃物回收产业链的营建起到一定的启示作用:1从政府的角度出发,快递废弃物回收产业链的成功营建能够带来社会环境资源福利的增加,所以不应仅仅依靠市场行为,政府应当充分发挥其在营建过程中的引导作用;2从快递企业的角度出发,快递企业是回收产业链的实施方,应将环境保护作为企业发展的责任,积极主动参与回收产业链的营建;3从消费者的角度出发,作为回收产业链运行的初始点,消费者应该从自身做起,提高环保意识,责任意识,积极推动回收产业链的营建。  相似文献   

Based on the data of 30 Chinese provinces for the period from 2004 to 2015, this paper expounds the carbon emissions effect of two-way foreign direct investment (FDI) from the perspective of scale effect and factor market distortions. This study uses Kaya identity to decompose carbon emission and construct simultaneous equations model to empirically examine the factor market distortion and the carbon emission scale effect of two-way FDI. The results show that the inward foreign direct investment (IFDI) increase regional carbon emission through scale effect and also exacerbates factor market distortion in China, whereas the outward FDI trends reduce carbon emission and reduces factor market distortions in China. The study also shows that human capital, research and development (R&D), trade openness, and capital accumulation are important determinants of two-way FDI. Therefore, the study proposes that IFDI policies should focus on acquiring green technologies. In addition, the domestic enterprises should be encouraged to participate in global business.  相似文献   

In this paper, we consider a two-period competition model of a remanufacturing supply chain consisting of three members: a new product manufacturer, a recycler and a remanufacturer. The manufacturer supplies new products in the first period and the remanufacturer participates in the competition in the second period. We consider three scenarios in the second period: (1) there is no government subsidy in the competition; (2) there is only government subsidy in the competition; (3) there are both government subsidy and tax in the competition. First, we give the optimal decision-making of the manufacturer, the remanufacturer and the government in the three scenarios; second, we analyse changes in the decision-making of the manufacturer and remanufacturer in the three scenarios and compare their results. We analyse the effects of government subsidy and tax and their asymmetric use on manufacturers’ and remanufacturers’ decision-making variables and competitive performance. We also take consumer awareness of environmental protection into account and examine its impact on subjects’ decisions. Lastly, we operate a numerical example to show the results.  相似文献   

工业企业节能减排对我国节能减排目标的完成具有重要的意义。在深度访谈和文献研究的基础上,通过对江西和江苏两省259家企业问卷调查,利用探索性因素分析,揭示节能减排支持度感知由持续发展支持度、政府支持度、绩效支持度和社会环境支持度4个构成维度,经统计验证,各因子与总分的相关程度明显高于各因子间的相关程度,证实了该问卷构想效度的合理性,建议相关部门制定政策时更注意推进对以上4个方面有所改进的措施  相似文献   

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