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1.
The last 20 years have been the fastest economic developing period of China,and China has made great economic achievements through undertaking international industrial transfer.However,undertaking international industrial transfer has brought about severe environmental problems to China and the process of undertaking international industry transfer is also a process of undertaking international transfer of natural resource consumption and environmental pollution.Nowadays,China has the heaviest ecological burden and highest environmental risk in the world,and is gradually losing international competitive advantages among traditional industries.China is facing unprecedented pressure of economic transformation.Besides the advantages like huge domestic demands and abundant civil capital,China faces more challenges in its green economy development.First,China is still in the middle of industrialization and urbanization processes,hence the huge demands for traditional industries will only last 10-15 more years.Meanwhile,China lacks core technologies for transforming traditional industries,which means these industries will have high shut-down risks.Second,the domestic market share for new green industries is limited,since the market is dominated by traditional energy industries.Third,the value of land,water,mineral,and other natural resources is extremely underestimated because the environmental cost is excluded from the enterprises’cost-benefit calculation.China should foster and expand green industries based on domestic demands,and then strive for competitive advantages in the international market in the future.Therefore,China should focus on the following four points in order to promote green industry development:establishing a forced-upgrading-mechanism for traditional industries,an incentive-development-mechanism for new green industries and a TFP-based(total factor productivity based)economic development evaluation system;promoting the integration of new-type urbanization,new emerging industries,and new employments;taking the model of"technology innovating-patent formulating-standard establishing-market guiding"to enhance the global competitiveness of China’s new emerging industries;and building green consumption patterns in the whole society.  相似文献   

2.
用期货市场思路建立南水北调水市场设想   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
南水北调是缓解北方水资源危机而实施的大规模调水工程 ,适应社会主义市场经济的要求 ,该工程中水资源配置将采用市场机制运作 ,但由于水价波动决定了价格风险的存在 ,而水价过高将给企业带来成本的提高或利润的下降。为此 ,针对南水北调中的水市场建设 ,尤其是对于城市工业用水 ,本文提出利用期货市场的基本功能来规避水价波动给企业带来的风险 ,有利于增强企业的国际竞争力  相似文献   

3.
本文介绍了碳金融的定义以及中国构建完善碳金融体系的背景,指出我国的CDM市场虽然是全球最大的CDM市场,但碳金融还处于起步阶段,缺乏国际CERs定价权,CDM项目存在巨大的风险,这些问题亟需解决。中国的银行业作为中国金融机构的主要组成部分,在构建完善的碳金融市场上起到了十分关键的作用。分析了目前中国银行业参与碳金融的现状及存在的问题,提出了中央银行和中国商业银行介入碳金融的方法。中央银行应与商业银行相互配合使中国的碳金融市场尽快发展和完善。  相似文献   

4.
论科技产业与协调发展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
加快中国经济的可持续发展 ,不仅需要加大知识资本的动作 ,增强科技产业的投入 ,而且需要通过科技、经济与社会的协调发展 ,形成一种新的竞争战略资源和发展格局。本文认为 :①对于实现可持续发展的中国经济增长战略来说 ,科技产业发展对于GDP的贡献率 ,以及在制造业中的主体比重 ,将必然纳入经济增长方式转变以及新经济增长体系。②面向知识经济时代的全球化科技产业竞争 ,实质上是稀缺资源和存量结构调整的战略竞争。在这一竞争发展的过程中 ,显性竞争表现在科技产业在市场领域的竞争 ,隐性竞争则表现在人才竞争、科技创新竞争以及科技产业化竞争。③进入 2 1世纪 ,面向全球化竞争 ,各国在维护国家利益 ,加快科技产业化发展等方面 ,将会逐渐扩大为影响全球性竞争。为调动国内竞争资源和力量 ,协调发展将成为一种新的发展趋势  相似文献   

5.
石化行业作为中国八大典型高碳排放产业之一,也是碳市场参与的重要行业.在国家2020年碳排放强度目标的约束下,客观评价其行业减碳的压力,对于政府部门科学制定各个行业碳排放配额的分配方案具有重要支撑作用.同时,亦对于通过低碳转型升级实现行业的可持续发展和支撑国家的工业减排目标具有理论和现实意义.本文针对石化行业9个子部门,结合我国经济发展的总体背景和趋势以及石化行业的相关数据,以2010年为基准情景,在2020年国家碳排放强度分别下降45%和50%的减排约束目标下,构建了一个动态CGE模型——PCCGE,借助GAMS软件模拟分析,预测了到2020年国家和石化行业经济总量、能源消费结构和碳排放量及碳强度等的变化趋势.研究结果表明,相比基准情景,在45%、50%的碳强度减排目标下,国家和石化行业的经济增长、能源消费结构和碳排放强度等指标分别受到一定程度影响,其中,50%的减排目标对国家整体经济增速影响更为明显;对煤炭、石油这两种高碳能源的需求产生了较显著的约束效应;相比国家45%-50%的低碳发展目标,石化行业减碳承受压力达到60.63%至64.78%,面临着艰巨的减排任务与挑战.最后,文章结合低碳市场化背景提出了如下建议:科学预测典型离碳行业的减碳潜力,谨慎应对石化等行业企业参与碳市场交易过程中碳配额指标的制定与分配;充分利用技术创新和能源结构调整等战略,提高可再生能源的使用规模,促进能源消耗结构的优化和调整;构建石化行业节能低碳技术产学研协同创新体系,解决共性节能技术瓶颈;实施石化行业企业低碳发展战略,建设完善碳排放管理体系是行业节能减碳的重要手段.  相似文献   

6.
Currently, the global carbon trading systems are fragmented and belong to different governments or are under the jurisdiction of different regions, resulting in a series of new problems, such as how to link dispersed trading systems, how to compare the emission reduction of various markets and other issues. Since the development of the international carbon market is relatively immature with uncertain life expectancy and volatility during its short history, and there is a lack of quantitative data on the long-term record, the market could provide few risk management tools. Meanwhile, with the launches of China’s regional carbon trading pilots in seven provinces since 2013 and combined with the national voluntary emission trading system, carbon trading will become an important mechanism for China in achieving its emission reduction target. In the first stage, the carbon finance market is at least faced with mechanism design risks, market supply risks and compliance risks. Therefore, to secure the development of the carbon market and for public interest, relevant government departments of China should identify the risks facing the market and should make the basic principles and goals, such as ensuring effective trading and pricing mechanisms to avoid fraud and price manipulation, and balancing transparency and confidentiality of information. Consequently, the governments should develop a comprehensive carbon finance regulatory system covering regulatory legislation, regulatory institutions and their authorities, regulatory scope as well as regulatory objects.  相似文献   

7.
The global carbon market has developed rapidly with two significant trends of globalization and financialization.Deriving economic interest is a nation driven-force behind the international climate negotiation and carbon market.According to deeply analyzed relationships between the carbon market and the key subjects of the climate negotiation,this article reveals that promoting the development of the global carbon market is one of the core interests of developed nations.Based on the background of international carbon market development and domestic carbon market pilots,four suggestions to the key issues of China’s carbon market are provided.The first is that the goal of China’s carbon market should be in line with and contribute to the national objectives and policies addressing climate change.The second is that the Chinese carbon market should mainly target the emission reduction of production-sectors,and contribute to their upgradation and transformation.The third is mat the development of the nation-wide carbon market in China should first take the principle of unbalanced regional development into consideration.The fourth is that linking China’s carbon market to the international market should keep steps in line with international opening-up of China’s financing system.  相似文献   

8.
本文从价格视角将我国稀土市场结构的变化历程划分为不同阶段,分别从理论和现实视角上探讨了在国际、国内都是完全竞争市场,国际市场垄断、国内市场完全竞争,国际市场完全竞争、国内市场垄断,国际、国内都是垄断市场条件下稀土最优开采路径及最优耗竭时间,并通过设定参数判断其相对大小关系。发现在一定的假设条件下,开采前期当国内和国际市场都是完全竞争时,稀土最优开采量是最大的;当国内和国际市场都是垄断时,稀土最优开采量是最小的;其他两种市场情况下稀土最优开采量居于中间,当国际市场是稀土的主要消费地时,国际竞争-国内垄断市场情况下稀土最优开采量大于国际垄断-国内竞争市场情况下稀土最优开采量,反之,国际垄断-国内竞争市场情况下稀土最优开采量大于国际竞争-国内垄断市场情况下稀土最优开采量。  相似文献   

9.
“一带一路”战略背景下金属产业国际产能合作研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
随着全球经济发展放缓,金属资源国内需求结构变化,资源约束压力、产能过剩等问题更加突出。如何通过国际产能合作化解金属产业难题是亟待解决的一个现实问题。本文从中国金属产业的现状出发,借鉴美、日产能转移的成功经验,在"一带一路"战略的大背景下探索适合中国金属产业开展产能合作的新模式并提出相应的政策建议。研究认为,中国已成为世界金属生产和消费大国且工业化进入中后期,具有进行国际产能合作的现实需求,"一带一路"战略为中国金属产能国际转移带来了历史契机。这种契机主要表现在沿线国家的基础设施建设热潮带来全球金属资源消费新的增长点,中国主导的"一带一路"战略构建了一种新型地缘政治格局,既能增强中国在沿线国家中的贸易话语权,也为中国开展国际产能合作提供了条件。研究指出,在"一带一路"战略下,中国金属产业的产能转移应以"互利共赢"为基础创新产能合作模式:即以产能合作推动产能转移,达到产业互补经济互惠的目的;以产能输出取代产品输出,有效回避西方国家针对中国的"双反"政策;以基础设施援建消化部分产能,在帮助沿线国家发展基础设施建设的同时消化自身部分富余产能。在合作策略上,应注重六个方面:一是充分利用"一带一路"的战略合作关系;二是实施低端转移高端做强的策略方针;三是全方位开放和深化产能合作;四是开展境外产业园区建设和有色金属精深加工工程;五是大力鼓励民营资本参与;六是创新金属矿业投资模式。  相似文献   

10.
中亚热带红壤丘陵集水区不同开发利用模式   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以湖南省桃源县3个地貌完整且地理条件基本一致的集水区为代表,设置耕地集约型、土地半集约型和土地全面集约型3种垦殖模式。11年的定位观测与研究表明:(1)3种模式耕地的产、投水平基本相同,但非耕地的产、投差异甚大,形成了显著不同的土壤肥力演变特点、生物产量和经济效益,即土地集约经营的集水区,土壤侵蚀模数已接近或低于土壤允许流失值(500 t/km\+2·a),土壤有机质、N等的养分含量稳步提高(增幅>10%),坡地和旱地的土壤贮水量在少雨季节增加20%以上,农作物大幅增产(增幅>20%),林、果、茶、鱼等的产量以及土地生产率成倍增长;(2)不同垦殖模式代表了红壤丘陵集水区开发利用的三个发展阶段,即集水区的开发利用将由耕地集约型向土地半集约型、土地全面集约型方向发展,发展进程的快慢主要取决于主导产业或项目的生产要素容量大小、比较利益高低以及科技进步推动等的作用机制;(3)集水区土地开发利用的潜力是水面 >坡地 >旱地 > 稻田,合理开发与利用非耕地土地资源的效益巨大。  相似文献   

11.
The article used general equilibrium model to analyze the change of gross domestic product and industry output affected by water resources policies in Beijing City by using GEMPACK soft tool.The article researches on rules of water supply and demand,evaluating water resources,building water resources input and output table,establishing water computable general equilibrium model and stimulating water policy.The stimulation gives a scenario that increases water price by 10%.The result shows the following aspects.First,water resources policy infects gross domestic product and industry output in different ways.There are different behaviors in different industries as to the water policy.Agriculture industry has the same tendency as water price change and it has more sensitive to water quantity than to water price.For basic energy industries such as oil and chemistry and gas,they show diversity tendency.As to some high water consumer industry such as paper and textile etc.,water resource economic policy can infect them greatly and can promote them to accomplish more water-saving technology.Waste water and construction and service industries show the same tendency as to water policy.Second,government should pay more attention to water resource policy by macro economic administration.The simulation also shows that the output and supply and consumer price change more than expect as to water policy in a free market economic in water industry.So as to a government policy maker,one should be more carefully and prepare suitable forecast and plan to water policy and its negative impact.  相似文献   

12.
Under the globalization, the coastal China becomes a hot area of the international manufacturing investment due to its priority location, excellent environment, lower labor and land costs, etc. However, the fast industrialization has aroused the great demolishment to the local ecological environment. For example, the heavy water eutrophication in Taihu Lake has affected the source of drinking water for the cities around the lake. Anyway, in order to keep the economic increase and reduce the resource ex- pense and pollution at the same time, it is necessary to encourage the greening of industrial enterprises actively for sustainable de- velopment. On the basis of the investigation of industrial enter- prises in Wuxi city within Taihu Basin, the relatively developed region in coastal China, this paper analyzed the development process of green industry. This article concluded that governmen- tal principal is the main pressure for enterprises to protect envi- ronment while the market factor plays a part role. Moreover, en- terprises in the high technology development zone work better in environmental protection than those in the villages and towns, while the large enterprises work better than those small enterprises.  相似文献   

13.
攀西地区果树资源开发研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
攀西地区光热资源丰富,集南北果树于一地。从商品化、规模化的要求出发,规划,构建该区果树树种的合理布局和良种结构,培养发展果品市场和技术市场是攀西地区果品上新台阶的重要途径。  相似文献   

14.
Abstract

As an important traditional labor-intensive industry of both India and China, the cocoon silk industry has long made great contributions to the ecological environment protection, rural economic development and the increase in export income of both countries. India is not only a very important cocoon silk trading partner, but an important production competitor of China. In recent years, there has been a large increase in the production and trade of the cocoon silk between China and India; however, China relies heavily on Indian market, which leads to a tendency of further deterioration in the silk trade environment between both countries. The present article makes an empirical study of the cocoon silk resources of the two countries and the scale, product mix and market structure of China–Indian silk trade from 2001 to 2007. Overall silk trading volumes from China to India and market concentration rate are on the increase because of the superiority of Chinese cocoon silk production over that of India. Owing to scattered market share and export that mainly focused on raw materials product, there has been a phenomenon of price reduction and quantity increase. India carries out fierce competition with China in the international market and even imposes antidumping sanction on Chinese silk, which are key factors restricting further increase between China–India trade. Based on the abovementioned facts, the authors aim to put forward suggestions for steadily developing the production and trade of China’s silk.  相似文献   

15.
碳减排是减缓气候变暖的必由之路,国际社会正在积极推动全球碳减排。我国已向国际社会承诺了碳减排目标,并正在大力开展相关政策的研究和制定。碳税和碳交易是多年来各国激励碳减排最主要的两大机制。这两种机制各有优缺点,它们适当的混合机制可扬长避短,创造出更优越的机制。我们认为,碳税和碳交易机制之间最大的差别在于碳税机制有较低的制度成本(包括建立者一机制所需要的人力物力的投入,以及监管成本等),在操作性上更简便;而在对市场条件和信息的变化上没有碳交易机制的灵活性强,但从另一方面,这种灵活性也恰恰是风险产生的根源之一,它增加了企业在碳排放决策方面的风险和难度;此外,碳税相对于碳交易是间接的碳减排激励机制,碳交易机制的减排效果更直接。基于这些观察,我们设计出一种混合碳减排机制,它是碳税和碳交易机制的有机结合。该混合机制包含两个部分:首先是累进制碳税制度,小企业只缴纳碳税;其次,碳交易制度,建立碳交易市场并对于大企业确定初始碳排放权,对于大企业的超排,将按照高起点的碳税税率加以惩罚。这一混合机制,既考虑了不同企业之间在碳排放权上的公平性,又考虑了机制的效率,并在保障机制效率的条件下尽可能降低企业在碳排放决策上的风险。这些正是这一混合机制的优越性所在。我们还探讨了这一混合机制在我国实施的可行性,并提出了在具体实施过程中所应注意的若干重要事项,并给出了相关的政策建议。本文的探讨可以为政府碳排放政策制定部门提供参考。  相似文献   

16.
通过可持续认证推动农林牧渔领域自然资源保护   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
1992年里约环境发展大会后可持续发展成为各国和各界的共识,但经历了二十年的发展,自然资源保护与可持续发展之间的矛盾仍然存在,特别是农林牧渔等领域自然资源的合理开发利用仍待进一步发展。我国作为国际农林牧渔产品的重要消费国和贸易国,在积极推动国内资源的可持续利用同时,也可以通过国际贸易在全球自然资源可持续利用中发挥积极作用。可持续认证作为应对资源保护与经济发展这一矛盾的较为有效的市场手段,经过近二十年的发展已经涵盖了农林牧渔领域的多个产品,在国际上的发展势头强劲,对于自然资源的保护和可持续利用发挥了对政府政策的补充作用。但可持续性认证在我国国内的企业和消费者中还没有得到广泛认识,其通过市场机制引导企业实践可持续经营、落实企业社会责任的作用在国内还没有得到有效的发挥。因此,本研究的目的是通过对可持续认证的分析,为在我国农林牧渔领域更好地发挥其市场推动力提出政策建议。本研究首先综述了可持续认证在国际上的发展历程、产生的影响,详细论述了森林、棕榈油、野生海产品等可持续认证已经在全球贸易中占有一席之地,并在欧美等较发达国家和地区获得了消费者的支持;其次,本研究对可持续认证在农林牧渔领域的进一步发展所面临的挑战进行了剖析,肯定了可持续认证在调动企业和消费者的积极性、推动农林牧渔领域资源保护方面的正面作用,也指出认证对资源保护的预期效果没有完全达到、同一产业内认证体系可靠性参差不齐,着重强调了可持续认证在发展中国家的发展面临的困难,使其对自然资源保护的应有效果受到影响。在此基础上,本研究分析了我国农林牧渔领域在资源利用方面面临的国际和国内压力,尤其是我国在国际贸易中举足轻重的地位和进口大宗产品产地的生态脆弱性使中国在全球资源的可持续利用和保护中可以发挥重要作用,论证了可持续认证在我国的推广有利于提升中国企业的国际形象、促进贸易杠杆发挥资源保护的撬动作用、保障企业在海外开发中的长期效益,同时也有利于我国国内自然资源的可持续利用,明确得出在我国农林牧渔领域推动可持续认证的必要性。本研究建议我国政府部门应关注农林牧渔领域可持续认证在国际和国内的发展,收集相关的信息和案例可用于相关的国际谈判和对企业的指导。同时政府应鼓励国内外认证体系在中国开展认证工作,并为同一产业中的不同体系创造公平的竞争环境。另外,政府应积极支持国内农林牧渔产业的企业、专家、协会等参与到国际认证体系的建立过程中,将中国可持续发展的良好操作范例或规范国际化。政府自身的消费行为对全社会有明确的引导作用,所以在政府采购中应优选可持续认证产品,引导企业加入可持续经营的实践。  相似文献   

17.
我国环保产业发展与产业组织理论   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文就我国环保产业发展的现状,运用产业组织理论分析了环保产业的特殊性,探讨了环保产业的市场结构、市场行为和市场绩效三个基本范畴,针对我国产业市场结构存在的问题,提出了我国的环保产业组织政策  相似文献   

18.
Multi-stakeholder partnerships emerged from the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) as a new vehicle for progressing toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by aligning the interests of businesses, governments and civil society to leverage the impact of their interventions. The water and sanitation sector boasts the largest number of such partnerships, including the demand-driven capacity-building partnership Partners for Water and Sanitation (PAWS), a product of the WSSD and a premier UK partnership for sustainable development. Through its partnership network, PAWS has access to the entire UK water industry, which they assign to capacity-building projects in Africa on a demand-driven basis. Though the supply of partners is generally strong, the demand for their assistance is variable. This paper examines the efficacy of demand-driven capacity building partnerships at achieving the water and sanitation MDGs, presenting a case study of the PAWS partnership and using it as a framework for discussion of the supply–demand dynamics that influence the scope, scale and ultimate impact of such partnerships.  相似文献   

19.
全球产业结构“服务经济”形态转向宏观背景下,生产性服务业作为服务业重要构成正成为我国经济中低增速“新常态”下城市与区域重构竞合格局、提升位序-规模、参与新国际分工的重要“利器”。以浙江65个县域空间单元为研究对象,基于“定量测度-时空辨识-因素剖析”逻辑脉络,运用数理统计模型方法和GIS空间分析技术,揭示2003~2015年其演变特征、空间效应与影响机理,以期为浙江“县域经济”向“都市区经济”转型发展背景下统筹推进生产性服务业布局与发展实践提供科学依据。研究表明:生产性服务业时空格局表现为低水平均质空间向市辖区首位型城市特别是杭州、宁波等“多中心”的非均衡空间极化演进;其次,体系结构符合Zipf位序-规模分布规律,内部六大行业空间集聚呈现以信息服务业为龙头的“三大梯度”层级分异形态;再则,全局空间存在自相关性但溢出效应微弱且渗透不均衡;最后,其地理过程、格局实践表征被验证为是信息技术水平、人力资本丰裕度、市场发育成熟度等多重因子非线性共轭影响的结果。 关键词: 生产性服务业;探索性空间数据分析;地理加权回归;时空演变;浙江  相似文献   

20.
我国太阳能光伏发电产业发展方向及产业政策   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
随着新世纪的到来,出于对环保和未来能源供应的考虑,可再生能源在世界能源消费中的比重逐渐加大。其中,太阳能光伏发电技术的发展和应用颇为世人所瞩目。本文从国有光伏产品市场特点出发,分析了国产光伏系统在市场竞争中的优势和劣势所在,指出了当前我国太阳能光伏发电系统企业在市场中缺乏竞争力的原因。在此基础上,提出相应的解决方案。  相似文献   

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