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1.
In emerging economies, recycling provides an opportunity for cities to increase the lifespan of sanitary landfills, to reduce the costs of solid waste management, to decrease environmental problems from waste treatment by reincorporating waste into the productive cycle and to protect and develop the livelihoods of citizens who work as informal waste pickers. However, few studies have analysed the possibilities of and strategies for integrating the formal and informal sectors in solid waste management for the benefit of both. This integration is the key, especially in developing countries, to understanding how the recycling population can develop a business despite their social and economic limitations. The aim of this study was to perform a strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis of three recycling associations in Bogotá with the aim of examining and understanding the recycling situation from the perspective of members of the informal sector in their transition to becoming authorised waste providers. This issue has rarely been studied in the context of developing countries. The data used in the analysis are derived from multiple sources, including a literature review, Bogota’s recycling database, focus group meetings, governmental reports, national laws and regulations and interviews with key stakeholders. The results of this study show that as the primary stakeholders, the formal and informal waste management sectors can identify the internal and external conditions of recycling in Bogotá. Several strategies were designed based on the SWOT analysis. The participation of recycling associations is important in the design and application of waste policy, the consolidation of recycling through an effective business model, promotional programmes for social inclusion and the development of new transformation processes and technologies to valorise recycling materials. In conclusion, recycling associations can become authorised waste providers through a profitable business that increases recycling rates to create a productive process from waste during the generation of new materials and to decrease environmental problems while improving the welfare and living conditions of recyclers. These findings are important for Bogotá to advance and promote recycling as a key strategy for integrated sustainable waste management in the city.  相似文献   

2.
Abstract

In order to achieve sustainable utilization of natural resources, save energy and protect environment and ecosystem, it is important for a region or a nation to develop and implement a viable waste recycling model from both theoretical and practical point of view. Some packaging recycling models operated in developed countries are introduced in this article. Aluminium can recovery and recycling is emphasized. Cost effective, economic and environmental benefit of different models are compared and analyzed. The result shows that all recycling models have their characteristics due to the initial purpose of recovery and the situation of the implementing country. However, all the models contribute to the reduction of municipal solid waste disposal and resources conservation.  相似文献   

3.
A sustainable national policy on waste electronic and electrical equipment reuse has to ensure an integrated environmental economic and social approach. In this paper, a quantitative model is developed that permits a comparative analysis of re-use and non-re-use scenarios from an environmental and economic perspective. The model demonstrates the importance of considering user consumption profiles and the changing national electricity generation portfolio in determining the best end-of-life strategy, whether it should be reuse or recycling. A case study of Ireland is used to demonstrate the model. From a social perspective, qualitative aspects of reuse, such as the job creation potential and the impact on prosperity for low income families, are also considered. Reuse of white goods, if conducted through social enterprises, will create more employment than an equivalent amount of recycling for those most vulnerable to unemployment. Any environmental and social dividends from re-use can be realized only in the context of an economically sustainable system. This would include such factors as a secure supply of suitable equipment, a competitive cost base and sufficient revenues from sales and other sources in order for the business to survive. In an attempt to examine whether a white goods re-use program could possibly operate in a competitive manner with new appliances, this study has examined examples of comparable businesses operating in the EU as well as interpreting data on consumer demand.  相似文献   

4.

Understanding how cities can transform organic waste into a valuable resource is critical to urban sustainability. The capture and recycling of phosphorus (P), and other essential nutrients, from human excreta is particularly important as an alternative organic fertilizer source for agriculture. However, the complex set of socio-environmental factors influencing urban human excreta management is not yet sufficiently integrated into sustainable P research. Here, we synthesize information about the pathways P can take through urban sanitation systems along with barriers and facilitators to P recycling across cities. We examine five case study cities by using a sanitation chains approach: Accra, Ghana; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Beijing, China; Baltimore, USA; and London, England. Our cross-city comparison shows that London and Baltimore recycle a larger percentage of P from human excreta back to agricultural lands than other cities, and that there is a large diversity in socio-environmental factors that affect the patterns of recycling observed across cities. Our research highlights conditions that may be “necessary but not sufficient” for P recycling, including access to capital resources. Path dependencies of large sanitation infrastructure investments in the Global North contrast with rapidly urbanizing cities in the Global South, which present opportunities for alternative sanitation development pathways. Understanding such city-specific social and environmental barriers to P recycling options could help address multiple interacting societal objectives related to sanitation and provide options for satisfying global agricultural nutrient demand.

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5.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a popular tool used to evaluate the environmental performance of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Although reviews of LCAs of MSW have been undertaken to assess the validity of the ‘waste hierarchy,’ a recent review of the goal, scope and results of LCAs of mixed-material MSW management systems has yet to be performed. This paper is a comparative analysis of 20 process-based LCAs of MSW published between 2002 and 2008 in a total of 11 English-language peer-reviewed journals. It quantifies the methodological transparency of the studies and the frequency of use of particular system boundaries, types of data sources, environmental impact categories, impact weightings, economic valuations, sensitivity analyses, and LCA computer models. Net energy use (NEU), global warming potential (GWP), and acidification potential (AP) values for various types of MSW management systems are also compared using statistical indicators.The reviewed LCAs differ substantially in their system boundaries. Half or more of the LCAs either do not mention or are unclear in whether or not life cycle emissions from energy inputs or capital equipment are included in the calculation of results. Only four impact categories are common to more than half of the reviewed LCAs. The human and ecological toxicity impact categories are much less common than global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication.A financial life cycle costing is present in eight of the reviewed LCAs, while an economic valuation of the environmental impacts is observed in five. Explicit sensitivity analyses are present in 4/20 of the studies, although many more LCAs evaluate the effects of varying model parameters by increasing the number of waste management scenarios. There is no consensus on whether or not to use the marginal or average source of electricity in calculating environmental impacts. Eight out of the 20 do not mention this source while the remaining LCAs are evenly split between the marginal and average electricity source. One quarter of the reviewed LCAs supply weighted results for the overall environmental performance of MSW management scenarios. All but one of these concurred with the ‘hierarchy of waste’ that the environmental performance of landfilling is lower than that of all the other treatment methods, and that thermal treatments are inferior to recycling.The comparative analyses of the NEU, GWP and AP results are based on 37, 45, and 42 MSW management scenarios, respectively. As measures of statistical dispersion, the interquartile ranges of the NEU, GWP and AP values are lowest for the landfilling (AP, NEU) and thermal treatment (GWP) scenarios. The results of the statistical analysis of the NEU, AP and GWP values appear to indicate that thermal treatment scenarios have a better environmental performance than landfilling, while the results for mixed treatment scenarios are less obvious. A comparison of the relative environmental performances of MSW treatment scenario types within each study did not provide a clear confirmation or repudiation of the waste hierarchy.This paper concludes that many recently published LCAs do not ensure that the methodological assumptions are made clear to the reader. Lack of transparency makes the results difficult to interpret, and hampers meaningful comparisons between the LCA results. A convergence in the adoption of particular assumptions that are more representative of MSW management systems would facilitate the comparison of the results.  相似文献   

6.
城市生活垃圾的生命周期管理   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
根据国际标准化组织1997 年颁布的ISO14000 环境管理体系“生命周期评价—原则与框架”,本文对可持续城市生活垃圾生命周期管理进行研究,指出城市生活垃圾应在环境可持续性、经济可负担性及社会可接受性的原则基础上,通过垃圾的减量化、无害化、资源化和社会化管理,实现城市可持续发展的管理目标  相似文献   

7.
In order to achieve sustainable utilization of natural resources, save energy and protect environment and ecosystem, it is important for a region or a nation to develop and implement a viable waste recycling model from both theoretical and practical point of view. Some packaging recycling models operated in developed countries are introduced in this article. Aluminium can recovery and recycling is emphasized. Cost effective, economic and environmental benefit of different models are compared and analyzed. The result shows that all recycling models have their characteristics due to the initial purpose of recovery and the situation of the implementing country. However, all the models contribute to the reduction of municipal solid waste disposal and resources conservation.  相似文献   

8.
基于农户兼业视角,利用湖北省农村地区的微观调查数据,运用Logistic回归模型比较了不同兼业类型农户农业废弃物资源循环利用意愿及其影响因素。研究结果显示:(1)大部分农户具有农业废弃物资源循环利用意愿,其中纯农户和一兼农户的利用意愿相当,且高出二兼农户;(2)农户对农业废弃物资源价值的感知是影响不同兼业类型农户利用意愿的共同因素,农户感知农业废弃物资源的价值越高,其利用意愿也越强;(3)影响不同兼业类型农户利用意愿的因素有明显差异,性别对农户尤其是二兼农户的利用意愿有显著的正向作用;年龄对纯农户和二兼农户利用意愿的影响均为负,尤其是对纯农户影响更大;土地经营规模对农户尤其是一兼农户的利用意愿有显著的正向影响;对获取经济收益的感知正向作用于一兼农户和二兼农户的利用意愿,尤其是对一兼农户有更大程度影响;对纯农户而言,对自身经济条件的感知也显著影响其利用意愿  相似文献   

9.
Reverse logistics play a significantly increased role in supply chains. Producers are incorporating reverse logistics into their supply chain design because of governmental legislation, economic benefits from product recovery, and customers' demands for better environmental practices. Motivated producers face two main challenges in reverse logistics network design: (1) how do you build product recovery activities into traditional forward logistics networks? and (2) how do you manage the impact of uncertainty in the reverse logistics supply chain? Moreover, producers need to consider many tradeoffs leading to efficient network design. Published case studies have discussed these tradeoffs, and we describe a framework to evaluate these tradeoff considerations. We then apply the framework to three new case studies: medical device refurbishing, municipal e‐waste recycling, and carpet fibre recycling.  相似文献   

10.

Millions of tons of plastic are consumed annually in the world due to its significant characteristics such as durability, flexibility, and low weight. High consumption has made plastic one of the most important municipal solid waste compounds, the quantity of which has increased in recent decades. Plastic solid wastes are known as a threat to the environment, and its efficient management in various aspects such as cost–benefit requires decision-making tools. This study was assessing the cost–benefit of plastic solid waste management by development of an economic model, and definition of different scenarios to change plastic solid waste management status. The results showed that 8971 tons of plastic solid waste were generated annually in the studied city. The plastic solid wastes were finally transferred to either recycling or landfilling site through 5 identified routes. 83 percent of the total recycled plastic solid waste was due to post-separation routes, and only 7.7 percent of the total plastic solid waste was recycled from the source separation route. The economic comparison of scenarios showed that with the aggregation of post-separation routes, the net revenue of plastic solid waste management increases by 334,000 euro per year while increasing the public participation and the ratio of source separation route raises net revenue by 875,000 euro per year, which was the best economic condition among the scenarios. Using life cycle cost method and it’s respected developed economic model truly satisfied the conditions of both, the current plastic solid waste management and the alternative scenarios, and hence can be adopted as a tool for decision-making.

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11.
This research proposes for the introduction of a recycling system in the Gambia to enhance sustainable municipal solid waste management. Poor infrastructures, coupled with inadequate resources and lack of funding, work against the optimization of a MSW disposal service. In the authors’ view, authorities in charge of waste management need to change not only behaviors, but modernize their processes. Recycling technology is a key part of the solution. A model has been developed which suggest the involvement of stakeholders to achieve meaningful sustainable MSWM. This can be achieved by recognizing the role of the informal sector through community-based organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. The open dump approach is leading to severe environmental consequences as the groundwater and soil within the dump is been contaminated. In this study, an integrated municipal solid waste management approach was developed with a model to help achieve sustainable municipal solid waste management. Resource recovery, not waste disposal, must be the ultimate goal with clearly defined end user markets so that the recovery loop is complete. Mandatory sorting of waste at household level would help greatly in making recycling activity successful.  相似文献   

12.
Reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) for agriculture is in practice in many countries. TWW reuse requires wastewater collection, treatment and recycling, which is associated with cost as well as risk to human and ecological systems. In contrast, it can increase agricultural production and reduce environmental risks by reducing wastewater discharge into the natural environment. In Saudi Arabia, where available water resources are extremely limited, TWW reuse can save significant amount of non-renewable groundwater used in agricultural development, which is a strategic goal for the country. In this paper, a multicriteria decision-making approach was developed where cost, risk, benefits and social acceptance of TWW reuse were considered to be the main criteria. A multistage hierarchy risk management model was constructed for this evaluation. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique was incorporated where fuzzy triangular membership functions were developed to capture uncertainties of the basic criteria. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the relative importance of various criteria at different hierarchy levels. This study indicated that TWW reuse could have positive impact on agriculture, risk reduction and groundwater conservation.  相似文献   

13.
本文从生产要素投入端将环境污染引至索洛增长模型,理论考察工业经济结构、经济增长对环境污染的非线性影响机制,基于1999—2014年我国30个省份的面板数据,以SO_2排放量作为环境污染水平的代理变量,采用面板平滑迁移回归(PSTR)模型检验全国及分区域工业经济结构、经济增长对环境污染的非线性影响效应及区域差异性。研究结果表明:随着工业化进程的不断加快,工业产出及污染排放均呈现不断上升的趋势,但由于资本边际收益递减规律使得这种增长趋势逐渐减弱,最终导致经济增长和环境污染增长趋于稳态,当污染排放增长率降低为负时,经济增长对环境污染的影响作用由正向转变为负向。实证表明我国工业经济结构、经济增长与SO_2排放具有显著的产出水平门槛效应,随着经济产出水平由低区制平滑的过渡到高区制,经济增长对SO_2排放的影响由正向促进作用转变为负向减排效应,但工业经济结构对SO_2排放呈现逐渐增强正向促进作用,可见工业经济结构、经济增长对SO_2排放具有显著的非线性影响。此外,研究发现工业经济结构、经济增长对SO_2排放的非线性影响存在显著的区域差异性,东部地区经济增长与SO_2排放呈现显著的倒"U"型曲线关系,而在中西部地区表现出逐渐增强的促进作用,中部地区的工业经济结构对SO_2排放的促进作用最大,西部其次,东部最弱,研究还表明,减排技术水平以及环境治理投资增加对SO_2污染排放具有遏制作用,能源投资的增加加速了SO_2的排放。在未来经济发展中,应摒弃传统"高投入、高消耗"的工业化模式,政府应实施创新管理,完善环境保护立法,鼓励企业发展环境污染治理方面的技术,避免以环境容量过渡为代价,追求工业经济高质量、可持续发展模式。  相似文献   

14.
This article outlines problems related to the location of facilities designed to treat the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities are investigated as a treatment option, while taking into account the aspects of renewable energy generation. This research has been spurred on by the relationship between waste management, energy generation issues and spatial planning procedures. The analysis is focused on urban and semi-urban areas of medium and large cities. One of the most difficult issues associated with siting of waste processing plants is its integration with local infrastructures, avoiding conflicts and negative environmental impacts at the same time. This research aims to analyse possible locations for AD plants fuelled by OFMSW in Poland. Based on the experience gained from other countries and lessons learnt from the analysis of existing facilities in Europe, conditions for the location of this type of waste treatment plants have been defined, with the focus on economic, environmental and social issues. Most likely, the results of the multicriteria decision analysis for siting of municipal solid waste AD plants (M-BIST tool) could be transferred to other countries, especially those with a comparable GDP level and a similar framework for a waste management system.  相似文献   

15.
近年来,随着电子商务的迅速崛起,快递废弃物激增所带来的环境污染、资源浪费程度日趋严重,营建快递废弃物回收产业链,促进快递废弃物循环使用的呼声日益急促。快递废弃物的循环使用涉及到多方利益相关者,本文基于利益主体协同演化视角,分别构建未引入政府约束机制和引入政府约束机制的"快递企业-消费者"演化博弈模型,借以探索政府、消费者及快递企业在快递废弃物回收产业链营建过程中所扮演的角色,借助复制动态方程得到利益相关方的演化稳定策略和规律,并进一步应用MATLAB仿真工具进行仿真模拟,研究结果表明:未引入政府约束机制下,博弈系统难以依靠市场调节快速演化到理想状态,快递企业和消费者会反复权衡参与营建快递废弃物回收产业链的收益和成本,根据净收益进行策略选择,当二者净收益大于0时,博弈系统会逐渐演化为理想状态,反之,博弈系统则会逐渐演化为不良状态。引入政府约束机制可以快速的引导快递企业和消费者向理想状态演化,加大对快递企业营建回收产业链的补贴力度以及对营建回收产业链怠工的罚款程度能够促进快递废弃物回收产业链营建的快速高效执行。本文的研究对快递废弃物回收产业链的营建起到一定的启示作用:1从政府的角度出发,快递废弃物回收产业链的成功营建能够带来社会环境资源福利的增加,所以不应仅仅依靠市场行为,政府应当充分发挥其在营建过程中的引导作用;2从快递企业的角度出发,快递企业是回收产业链的实施方,应将环境保护作为企业发展的责任,积极主动参与回收产业链的营建;3从消费者的角度出发,作为回收产业链运行的初始点,消费者应该从自身做起,提高环保意识,责任意识,积极推动回收产业链的营建。  相似文献   

16.
Recycling of post-consumer waste materials is gaining increased interest due to public awareness, legislative promotion and imposition, economic benefits and appropriate technologies being available. The present paper does not deal with municipal solid waste as such, but only with the recyclable constituents. The paper does not aim at presenting recycling process details and/or fundamental research results, but reviews the major recyclables with their reuse potential, recycling technologies used, problems, solutions and potential areas of future research and development. These target recyclables include paper and cardboard, aluminium cans, glass beverage bottles, scrap metal and steel cans, scrap tyres, batteries and household hazardous waste. The present paper sets the overall picture and deals with paper, cardboard and aluminium cans only. A second part of the paper assesses the other target recyclables. The assessment of the waste availability, the existing and currently developed recovery and recycling technologies, and the economically rewarding markets while recycling, stress the technical, economic and environmental importance of this waste management sector. The activities associated with the recovery and recycling of post-consumer wastes require a strong sustainable engineering input at all phases of the treatment, from input quality control, to the selection of the most appropriate technology and the delivery of the recyclables as readily reusable feedstock.  相似文献   

17.
Energy transitions are a complex technological-economic and social process. Currently, this involves the impact that innovation in technology and information as well as social practices can have on the way the energy is used. Therefore, business becomes much more complex and risky. In the particular case of the European Union, recent years were also marked by multiple changes at the political, economic, social and environmental context. Changes are already in course posing new challenges to European Electricity Utilities. The question that arises is how these subjects impact the structure, consolidation and governance of the electricity utilities and which drivers have the greatest impact on the speeding up the change. It is also our aim to understand how companies are responding to transition challenges in order to ensure the sustainability of their activities and their healthy stay in the market. In this article we present an insight of this issue through the analysis of thirteen indicators on the seven largest European energy utilities. Results allowed comprising the effects of the different economic and financial contexts on the variables under study.  相似文献   

18.
可持续发展与产业结构创新   总被引:20,自引:2,他引:18  
人类发展的历史表明,文明的演替与社会的进步从来都是产业结构的创新密切相连与互动的。可持续发展概念的提出源于对过去传统发展模式的反思,因此它要求重新审视传统的产业结构。面向可持续发展,本文认为应补充以维护与改善环境为目的的第零产业,和以减少废排放为目的的第四产业,并在此基础上的构建新的产业结构体系。与传统产业的形成比较,现阶段第零产业与第四产业的培育更需要观念创新与制度创新。  相似文献   

19.
The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large quantities of wastewater, solid waste/by-products and air pollution. Current industrial wastes and recoverable materials are empty fruit bunches, fibers, shells and ash. It is estimated that in 2003, a total of 2.1 million ton of solid wastes/by-products and 2.5 million m3 of wastewater were generated. The concept of the industrial ecosystem points at the potential of industrial waste recycling resembling food chains, food webs and nutrient cycles of nature. Following the notion of industrial ecology crude palm oil mills can develop a number of waste recycling and reuse systems. This paper analyzes the nature of these industrial ecosystems, divided in in-plant ecosystems (clean technology options) and external waste exchange between crude palm oil industries and other economic activities in Thailand.  相似文献   

20.
With the aim being to have an integrated and efficient management system, Malaysia is currently facing a remarkable waste issue with a massive increase in waste generated per day. This study collected 400 survey responses to assess the satisfaction and awareness of households about various issues of solid waste management. This study revealed that the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their waste management services. However, there was concern about providing a more diverse waste management facility. This study found a strong positive relationship between age and waste reduction behaviours. The majority of the respondents agreed that their lifestyle affected waste minimisation. Almost half of the respondents indicated that they lacked knowledge to practise waste sorting. Age and education were positively correlated to reuse and recycling behaviours. Overall, a holistic waste management education is vital for Malaysia to build an efficient waste management system.  相似文献   

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