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1.
The CO2 absorption capacities of potassium glycinate, potassium sarcosinate (choline, proline), mono-ethanolamine (MEA), and tri-ethanolamine were evaluated to find the optimal absorbent for separating CO2 from gaseous products by a CO2 purification process. The absorption loading, desorption efficiency, cost, and environmental tolerance were assessed to select the optimal absorbent. MEA was found to be the optimum absorbent for separating the CO2 and H2 mixture in gaseous product. The maximum absorption loading rate was 0.77 mol CO2 per mol MEA at temperature of 20°C and absorbent concentration of 2.5 mol/L, whereas desorption efficiency was 90% by heating for 3 h at 130°C. MEA was found to be an optimal absorbent for the purification process of CO2 during gaseous production.  相似文献   
2.
Carbon coated monolith was prepared by sucrose solution 65 wt.% via dip-coating method. Sulfonation of incomplete carbonized carbon coated monolith was carried out in order to synthesize solid acid catalyst. The textural structure characteristics of the solid acid catalyst demonstrated a low surface area and pore volume. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a by-product of palm oil refineries, was utilized as oil source in biodiesel production. The esterification reaction subjected to different reaction conditions was performed by using the sulfonated carbon coated monolith as heterogeneous catalyst. The sulfonation process had been performed by using vapour of concentrated H2SO4 that was much easier and efficient than liquid phase sulfonation. Total acidity value of carbon coated monolith was measured for unsulfonated sample (0.5 mmol/g) and sulfonated sample (4.2 mmol/g). The effect of methanol/oil ratio, catalyst amount and reaction time were examined. The maximum methyl ester content was 89% at the optimum condition, i.e. methanol/oil molar ratio (15:1), catalyst amount (2.5 wt.% with respect to PFAD), reaction time (240 min) and temperature 80 °C. The sugar catalyst supported on the honeycomb monolith showed comparable reactivity compared with the sugar catalyst powder. However, the catalyst reusability studies showed decrease in FFA% conversion from 95.3% to 68.8% after four cycles as well as the total acidity of catalyst dropped from the value 4.2 to 3.1 mmol/g during these cycles. This might be likely due to the leaching out of SO3H group from the sulfonated carbon coated monolith surface. The leaching of active species reached a plateau state after fourth cycle.  相似文献   
3.
Biomethane production through biogas upgrading is a promising renewable energy for some industries which could be part of the equilibrium needed with fossil fuels consumption to achieve a sustainable society. This paper presents a comprehensive list of biogas upgrading technologies focused on carbon dioxide removal as well as recent advances reported by researcher with wide expertise in this topic. Additionally, an extensive costs–performance comparison among the technologies studied is discussed. Among the different alternatives, chemical scrubbing stood out to achieve high biomethane purities while cryogenic technologies proved to be effective against methane losses. Regarding the different costs, water scrubbing and membrane separation seem to be the most affordable techniques.  相似文献   
4.
The performance of Ce-OMS-2 catalysts was improved by tuning the fill percentage in the hydrothermal synthesis process to increase the oxygen vacancy density. The Ce-OMS-2 samples were prepared with different fill percentages by means of a hydrothermal approach (i.e. 80%, 70%, 50% and 30%). Ce-OMS-2 with 80% fill percentage (Ce-OMS-2-80%) showed ozone conversion of 97%, and a lifetime experiment carried out for more than 20?days showed that the activity of the catalyst still remained satisfactorily high (91%). For Ce-OMS-2-80%, Mn ions in the framework as well as K ions in the tunnel sites were replaced by Ce4+, while for the others only Mn ions were replaced. O2-TPD and H2-TPR measurements proved that the Ce-OMS-2-80% catalyst possessed the greatest number of mobile surface oxygen species. XPS and XAFS showed that increasing the fill percentage can reduce the AOS of Mn and augment the amount of oxygen vacancies. The active sites, which accelerate the elimination of O3, can be enriched by increasing the oxygen vacancies. These findings indicate that increasing ozone removal can be achieved by tuning the fill percentage in the hydrothermal synthesis process.  相似文献   
5.
TiO_2 nanoparticles(NPs) could adversely impact aquatic ecosystems. However, the aggregation of these NPs could attenuate this effect. In this work, the biological effects of TiO_2 NPs on a marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana were investigated. The aggregation kinetics of TiO_2 NPs under different conditions was also investigated to determine and understand these effects. Results showed that, though TiO_2 NPs had no obvious impact on the size and reproducibility of algal cells under testing conditions, they caused a negative effect on algal chlorophyll, which led to a reduction in photosynthesis. Furthermore, fast aggregation of TiO_2 NPs occurred under all conditions, especially at the pH close to the p Hzpc. Increasing ionic strength and NP concentration also enhanced the aggregation rate.The aggregation and the following sedimentation of TiO_2 NPs reduced their adverse effects on I. galbana.  相似文献   
6.
Photocatalytic degradation of phenol   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
In this study photocatalytic degradation of phenol in thepresence of UV irradiated TiO2 catalyst andH2O2was investigated. Effects of TiO2 andH2O2concentrations and pH on photocatalytic degradation were examined. The rate constants for photocatalytic degradation wereevaluated as a function of TiO2 and H2O2 concentrations and pH of the solution. It was found thatphotodegradation is an effective method for the removal of phenoland disappearance of phenol obeyed first order kinetics. The amount of CO2h produced during photocatalytic degradation wascorresponding to the complete mineralization. Photodegradationcan be an alternative method for the treatment of phenol containing wastewaters.  相似文献   
7.
As the health impact of air pollutants existing in ambient addresses much attention in recent years, forecasting of airpollutant parameters becomes an important and popular topic inenvironmental science. Airborne pollution is a serious, and willbe a major problem in Hong Kong within the next few years. InHong Kong, Respirable Suspended Particulate (RSP) and NitrogenOxides NOx and NO2 are major air pollutants due to thedominant diesel fuel usage by public transportation and heavyvehicles. Hence, the investigation and prediction of the influence and the tendency of these pollutants are ofsignificance to public and the city image. The multi-layerperceptron (MLP) neural network is regarded as a reliable andcost-effective method to achieve such tasks. The works presentedhere involve developing an improved neural network model, whichcombines the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and theradial basis function (RBF) network, and forecasting thepollutant levels and tendencies based in the recorded data. Inthe study, the PCA is firstly used to reduce and orthogonalizethe original input variables (data), these treated variables arethen used as new input vectors in RBF neural network modelestablished for forecasting the pollutant tendencies. Comparingwith the general neural network models, the proposed modelpossesses simpler network architecture, faster training speed,and more satisfactory predicting performance. This improvedmodel is evaluated by using hourly time series of RSP, NOx and NO2 concentrations collected at Mong Kok Roadside Gaseous Monitory Station in Hong Kong during the year 2000. By comparing the predicted RSP, NOx and NO2 concentrationswith the actual data of these pollutants recorded at the monitorystation, the effectiveness of the proposed model has been proven.Therefore, in authors' opinion, the model presented in the paper is a potential tool in forecasting air quality parameters and hasadvantages over the traditional neural network methods.  相似文献   
8.
The evaluation of certain vascular plants that grow in the city of Madrid as biomonitors of SO2 air pollution in urban environments has been carried out. Total concentration of sulphur in leaves of the chosen higher plants as well as other parameters in close relation to this contaminant (visible injury symptoms, chlorophyll a- and b-content and peroxidase activity) have been determined in order to study the spatial distribution and temporal changes in SO2 deposition. Results obtained show that coniferous species such as Pinus pinea, were more sensitive to SO2 atmospheric concentration than leafy species as Quercux ilex subspecies ballota and, in the same way, bush species, such asPyracantha coccinea and Nerium oleander, were more sensitive than wooded species, such as Cedrus deodaraandPinus pinea, respectively. There is a higher accumulation of sulphur in vegetable species located near highways and dense traffic incidence roads and near areas with high density of population. The minimum values for accumulation of SO2 were registered in winter and spring seasons (from January to April) due to the vegetative stop; while maximum values are obtained during the summer season (from June to September), due to the stoma opening. The highest increments in sulphur concentration, calculated as the difference between two consecutive months, are obtained in May and June for all considered species except forCedrus deodara and Pyracantha coccinea, both species have few seasonal changes during the whole year. Some species are more sensitive to natural washing than others, showing a decrease in sulphur concentration after rainfall periods.  相似文献   
9.
This article presents and discusses SO2 (ppbv) concentration measurements combined with meteorological data (mainly wind speed and direction) for a five-year campaign (1996 to 2000), in a site near an oil refinery plant close to the city of La Plata and surroundings (aprox. 740.000 inh.), considered one of the six most affected cities by air pollution in the country. Since there is no monitoring network in the area, the obtained results should be considered as medium term accumulated data that enables to determine trends by analyzing together gas concentrations and meteorological parameters. Preliminary characterization of the behaviour of the predominant winds of the region in relation with potential atmospheric gas pollutants from seasonal wind roses is possible to carry out from the data. These results are complemented with monthly averaged SO2 measurements. In particular, for year 2000, pollutant roses were determined which enable predictions about contamination emission sources. As a general result we can state that there is a clear increase in annual SO2 concentration and that the selected site should be considered as a key site for future survey monitoring network deployment. Annual SO2 average concentration and prevailing seasonal winds determined in this work, together with the potential health impact of SO2 reveals the need for a comprehensive and systematic study involving particulate matter an other basic pollutant gases.  相似文献   
10.
本文通过对影响街道空气中一氧化碳污染的因素进行了大量的监测及综合分析,找出乌鲁木齐市主要街道空气中一氧化碳的污染规律,为控制我市汽车污染提供科学依据.  相似文献   
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