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1.
Distributive justice is a crucial aspect of disputes over locally unwanted land uses. This study examines the rise and fall in influence of a particular idea of distributive justice that originated in the 23 wards of Tokyo in the early 1970s – namely, that each of the wards should be required to dispose of its own waste within the ward. This idea – in-ward waste disposal (IWWD) – was adopted as a significant principle in waste facility siting plans, but its influence rose and fell over time until the idea was finally abandoned in 2003. Critically reviewing ideational approaches in political studies, the causes and mechanisms behind the changes in IWWD’s influence are elucidated. The result shows the importance of considering multiple, different types of variables and examining the interaction between them to explain the prominence of an idea and its change over time.  相似文献   
2.
邻避问题激发的群体性事件是当前危险设施选址面临的主要问题,而核设施则是邻避设施中负外部性等级较高的一类设施.通过分析各行业邻避问题的九因素分析框架引入核设施邻避问题的研究,并结合国内外核行业和值得借鉴的非核行业典型案例进行分析,发现了影响邻避问题的核心要素包括程序公正、企业与政府公众形象、行业污名化倾向和补偿不合理等方面内容.核设施运营单位应在这些方面制定针对性策略和措施以减小邻避问题对核行业发展的影响.  相似文献   
3.
Book reviews     
Abstract

The basic aim of this article is to briefly explore the links between socio-economic dynamics and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. The area is characterised by certain socio-economic and development disadvantages, dependence on few productive sectors (mainly on livestock breeding) and by severe problems of land degradation and desertification. The linkages between socio-economic profile, characteristics and development trajectory with the state of environment in the area are identified through a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers (livestock breeders). Research findings reveal the major socio-economic driving forces towards unsustainable productive practices, which contribute to the persistence of the problems of land degradation and desertification.  相似文献   
4.
Deepening understanding of public responses to large-scale renewable energy projects is of academic and practical importance, given policies to lessen fossil fuel use in many countries. Although the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) concept is commonly used to explain public opposition, the concept has been extensively critiqued. This study applies an alternative approach based upon the notion of disruption to place attachment, and the theory of social representations, with a focus upon the symbolic meanings associated with a proposed project and the places affected by it. Empirical data is provided from a case study of a proposed 750 MW offshore wind farm in North Wales, using group discussions and questionnaires distributed to local residents in two coastal towns (n = 488). Results indicate significant differences between each town's residents in their responses to the project, and how opposition arises from nature/industry symbolic contradictions: between a place represented in terms of scenic beauty that provides a restorative environment for residents and visitors, and a wind farm that will industrialise the area and ‘fence’ in the bay. In one of the towns, the data suggests that contradiction between project and place was experienced as a threat to identity for those with strong place attachment, leading to negative attitudes and oppositional behaviour. Levels of trust in key actors moderated the relation between place attachment and negative attitudes to the wind farm. The results provide further evidence of the role of place attachment in shaping so-called ‘NIMBY’ responses to development proposals, and challenge the assumption that offshore wind farms will prove less controversial than those onshore.  相似文献   
5.
环境影响评价中引入公众参与是尊重与保护建设项目周围民众相关权利的程序.民众在参与基建项目的环境影响评价过程中会针对项目的负外部性表现出明显的邻避情结,甚至引发邻避冲突.文章通过对“邻避”概念的梳理,并针对东北沿海A市的环境影响评价公众参与情况进行分析,在邻避的视角下探讨环评公参的现实情况,并以政府、企业与民众这些不同角色为主体探讨化解邻避冲突的方式.  相似文献   
6.
邻避行动的现有研究通常更关注利益分配是否公正,补偿措施是否到位,政府是否失责等.然而,邻避行动的另一诱发因素来自于利益分配过程中的公众参与.基于这一视角,邻避事件中公众与政府的冲突问题被还原为管理问题,矛盾的纠结点被归纳为各利益相关者之间的互动和沟通问题.通过运用参与式评价工具,对K市垃圾焚烧项目各阶段的公众参与情况进行了实地调查,在此基础上,总结了邻避行动的成因与演变逻辑,制定了公众参与策略.  相似文献   
7.
运营模式的科学设计以及居民环境行为的有效管理是邻避型PPP项目能否成功的关键。针对邻避项目存在的低收益和居民环境行为转变难两大问题,本文基于计算实验理论与方法构建邻避型PPP项目的运营模式与居民环境行为模型。通过对利益相关主体的社会属性与行为变化规律分析,进而设计运营商、政府、居民和从业人员等主体的计算实验交互规则。模型与计算实验研究了邻避型PPP项目的运营状态和居民环境行为在自负盈亏与统一价格、最小收益保证与统一价格、固定收益率与统一价格、自负盈亏与阶梯价格、最小收益保证与阶梯价格、最小收益保证与阶梯价格以及固定收益率与阶梯价格等六种情景下的演变规律。研究发现:(1)阶梯价格能在短期内改善邻避型PPP项目的运营状况,统一价格机制更有利于项目长远发展。(2)自负盈亏并不是邻避型PPP项目的一个理想方案,收益担保是一个相对稳妥可行的选择,而固定收益率是一个对政府财政有高要求的优化模式,可优化居民环境行为并降低PPP项目的邻避效应。(3)自负盈亏模式下运营商无心开展环境教育和提高从业人员待遇,固定收益率模式有利于推行环境教育并提高从业人员待遇。(4)邻避型PPP项目的环境投入-环境意愿-环境行为之间存在时滞效应。这意味着,较难通过收益模式与价格机制的调整实现系统的最优化,市场的力量无法协调邻避型PPP项目目前存在的矛盾与冲突,需要政府统一管理价格并保证社会资本的回报。同时,改善居民环境行为和管理邻避项目是一个复杂系统工程,需要有系统的筹划与长期时间的积累。  相似文献   
8.
风险感知是邻避问题研究的一个重要视角.通过对北京市六里屯和高安屯两个垃圾处理场的实地调查,分析了垃圾处理设施周边173个家庭的风险感知、公平认知、受偿意愿与邻避行为倾向之间的关系.研究表明,多数居民认为垃圾处理场的存在对自己的生活造成了一定的负面影响,超过半数的居民有邻避行为倾向,居民的邻避行为倾向与风险感知有正相关关系,与公平认知和货币受偿意愿有负相关关系.因此,加强宣传和沟通,避免风险认知片面夸大也是化解邻避风险的重要手段.  相似文献   
9.
共享发展理念要求全民共享改革发展成果,但当某些利于社会整体发展的项目设施建设将可能损害周边小部分群众个人利益时,政府管理部门如何合理协调处理好整体利益与个人利益的关系显得尤为重要,如果能提前做好相关调查应急预防工作,环境群体性事件的发生是完全可以避免的。本文从邻避冲突视角从微观上分析了环境群体性事件的发生过程、特点和内在机理,论述了邻避冲突引发的环境群体性事件的处理机制和政策措施。结果表明,舆情酝酿是引发环境群体性事件的关键,而解决舆情酝酿的关键则是参与人群边界的确定和恰当的信息公开。因此,建立有效的环境信息公开机制,对解决邻避冲突式的环境群体性事件具有重要的战略意义。同时,围绕邻避类项目的事前评价,提前做好损失预补方案和舆论疏导工作,有助于降低环境群体性事件发生的概率。具体说来主要可以通过建立环境类信息公开机制来了解民众的诉求,确保沟通渠道畅通;在信息公开的基础上,积极拓展并完善舆情监测与舆论引导机制,避免舆论因缺乏引导而持续发酵,引导舆论走向正面;建立环境类项目损害评估机制,本着公平、公正、公开、平等、自愿的原则进行不偏不倚的客观评估,制定科学合理的补偿方案;建立包括直接经济补偿和社会公益补偿等形式多样的环境类损失补偿机制;最后还要建立环境类事件过程监控机制,实行全过程、全方位管控,确保政府管理部门始终处于事件主导地位。在信息化不断发展、公民民主意识不断提升的背景下,努力提升政府治理能力显得尤为重要。在面对可能发生的矛盾焦点突出的环境群体性事件时,政府应当科学分析其产生发展的原因脉络,针对性地提出有效的解决方案。  相似文献   
10.
This paper aims to investigate factors affecting public attitude towards the siting of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs) and to explore the possible strategies to resolve such conflicts. Three questionnaire surveys were undertaken in communities with different siting experiences and socio-economic profiles. Over 750 individuals were successfully interviewed in each study district. The three communities were found to share similar risk beliefs but show variations in the level of awareness of and response to LULUs. In communities with a disproportionate share of LULUs, many residents did not trust the government in handling LULU issues and thought that the siting process was unfair. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis show that people are likely to oppose the siting of a LULU in their community if they have a negative siting experience, do not perceive the need, accord a high risk to the facility and have a low level of trust in government. The resolution strategies preferred by the public are greater public participation and effective mitigation of risks and impacts, rather than provision of compensation and incentives. All these call for policy-makers to be sensitive to local concerns, engage the public in the process, communicate risks effectively and foster trust building.  相似文献   
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