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1.
Conservation conflicts are gaining importance in contemporary conservation scholarship such that conservation may have entered a conflict hype. We attempted to uncover and deconstruct the normative assumptions behind such studies by raising several questions: what are conservation conflicts, what justifies the attention they receive, do conservation-conflict studies limit wildlife conservation, is scientific knowledge stacked against wildlife in conservation conflicts, do conservation-conflict studies adopt a specific view of democracy, can laws be used to force conservation outcomes, why is flexibility needed in managing conservation conflicts, can conservation conflicts be managed by promoting tolerance, and who needs to compromise in conservation conflicts? We suggest that many of the intellectual premises in the field may defang conservation and prevent it from truly addressing the current conservation crisis as it accelerates. By framing conservation conflicts as conflicts between people about wildlife or nature, the field insidiously transfers guilt, whereby human activities are no longer blamed for causing species decline and extinctions but conservation is instead blamed for causing social conflicts. When the focus is on mitigating social conflicts without limiting in any powerful way human activities damaging to nature, conservation-conflict studies risk keeping conservation within the limits of human activities, instead of keeping human activities within the limits of nature. For conservation to successfully stop the biodiversity crisis, we suggest the alternative goal of recognizing nature's right to existence to maintenance of ecological functions and evolutionary processes. Nature being a rights bearer or legal person would imply its needs must be explicitly taken into account in conflict adjudication. If, even in conservation, nature's interests come second to human interests, it may be no surprise that conservation cannot succeed.  相似文献   
2.
Achieving coexistence between large carnivores and humans in human-dominated landscapes (HDLs) is a key challenge for societies globally. This challenge cannot be adequately met with the current sectoral approaches to HDL governance and an academic community largely dominated by disciplinary sectors. Academia (universities and other research institutions and organizations) should take a more active role in embracing societal challenges around conservation of large carnivores in HDLs by facilitating cross-sectoral cooperation to mainstream coexistence of humans and large carnivores. Drawing on lessons from populated regions of Europe, Asia, and South America with substantial densities of large carnivores, we suggest academia should better embrace the principles and methods of sustainability sciences and create institutional spaces for the implementation of transdisciplinary curricula and projects; reflect on research approaches (i.e., disciplinary, interdisciplinary, or transdisciplinary) they apply and how their outcomes could aid leveraging institutional transformations for mainstreaming; and engage with various institutions and stakeholder groups to create novel institutional structures that can respond to multiple challenges of HDL management and human–large carnivore coexistence. Success in mainstreaming this coexistence in HDL will rest on the ability to think and act cooperatively. Such a conservation achievement, if realized, stands to have far-reaching benefits for people and biodiversity.  相似文献   
3.
基于复杂系统建模的水管理政策研究进展   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
基于Agent的建模方法(ABSS)通过自下而上的方式,考察系统中主体的不同状态和行为特征、主体与环境的作用、主体之间的作用,来表征系统的宏观特征,是进行复杂社会环境系统分析和政策研究的重要手段,在水资源、水环境管理系统中得到了有效的应用。本文在大量文献调研的基础上,讨论了ABSS建模方法的基本原理、主要特征、系统构成、分类方法和开发工具等特征,总结了其供水系统发展、水资源分配和流域水资源管理、农业土地和水资源利用、居民用水行为、农业污染控制及人类活动的水环境影响等方面的应用,分析了其在研究内容、研究方法、研究结果等方面的发展趋势,讨论了利用该方法研究我国水资源管理和水污染控制政策的必要性和重要性。  相似文献   
4.
日本国土开发利用及对我国的启示   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
日本在战后经历了经济高速增长,工业化和城市化快速推进的发展历程,其间土地利用在结构、规模、价格、集约利用等方面发生了巨大变动。本文全面分析了二战之后,日本在经济高速增长、产业结构巨大变动、城市化迅速推进的发展过程中.农业用地、工业用地和城市用地在结构、规模、价格、集约利用程度等方面的特征;日本政府针对经济发展和土地利用的变动和影响。制订的一系列规划调整措施和政策法规体系。通过以上分析,探讨日本在有限的土地资源条件下实现经济高速增长的原因、途径和措施,以及对我国的启示。  相似文献   
5.
人口流动规律及其政策含义   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
人口流动是人力资源配轩优化的根本创新路径,人口流动的一般规律是:如果流动人口为理性行为选择者,在社会制度安排许可的发展环境下,当不同区域和不同产业间形成比较收益差异,存在着流动收益大于流动成本的潜在和现实的各种获利机会时,就必定驱使人们由低收益领域向高必益领域流动,而且比较收益差异量与流动人口的流速、流量正相关,并必然导致产生收益率及人口分布走向平均化的趋势,社会发展也将获得最优化的人力资源配置结果.其相关政策含义:一是人口流动是流动人口的理性选择;二是切实保障公民的自由流动权利;三是利用比较利益差别促进人口流动;四是降低各种不必要的流动成本和流动风险;五是建构人口流动的有效率社会发展框架.  相似文献   
6.
Green RH 《Disasters》1986,10(4):288-302
Frustrations and failures will continue to mount if we do not immediately summon the courage to revise the ways we think and take action-as well as maintaining essential services to support life and health … Saving hundreds of thousands … who are at risk of dying from malnutrition or infection is an immediate imperative. But it must be only one stage in the progress toward other activities, and one element in the truly comprehensive approach… The main intent of this paper is to explore aspects of the nature and evolution of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa with special reference to food and hunger and their interaction with macro-economic policy. An attempt is made to outline the overall context within which food aid needs to be used in order to have a greater developmental impact. Following an Introductory Section I, Section II provides a sketch map of how recession and lagging food production - with cyclical weather crises superimposed - affect the human condition of poor people. Section III reviews die interaction between "standard" IMF stabilization and World Bank structural adjustment strategies and poverty/hunger. Improvements in the design of stabilization and adjustment programmes, and of the inter-relationship with them of emergency programmes, can be identified. A number turn on the broadened and more innovative or catalytic use of food aid. Section IV reviews aspects of facing a continuing series of emergencies and of designing life support programmes to facilitate rehabilitation of the households directly affected as well as of the national economies. From this base it explores a series of elements in achieving renewed development. The concluding Section seeks to explore the strengths, limitations and potentials of food aid in the context set by the previous sections. The standard criticisms of food aid appear to be overstated and/or to relate to particular modalities or approaches rather than to anything intrinsic. A number of criteria for improving the effectiveness of food aid - especially in respect to rehabilitation, recovery and renewed development - are set out.  相似文献   
7.
为研究京津冀机动车污染控制政策对CO、HC、NOx、PM2.5、PM10等污染物的减排效果,建立了2014年高精度机动车排放清单,选取过去已经实施,未来规划实施及优化/劣化后的若干政策,设置4类共13种政策情景,与实际清单基准情景进行对比,识别各政策情景的排放变化,并对其中由政府给予补贴的政策进行成本收益核算.结果显示,淘汰低排放标准机动车带来的污染减排效果最好,在天津和河北对CO和HC的排放削减分别为53.19%,49.75%和51.28%,50.87%,达半数及以上;升级机动车发动机和燃油标准也能显著削减排放,在天津和河北对PM2.5、PM10的削减分别为17.01%,17.00%和21.95%,21.93%.政府补贴政策存在明显边际效应特征,排放标准高,重污染车少的北京单位成本的减排收益明显低于天津和河北,.河北和天津在考虑成本因素的基础上,应当逐步采纳北京的高标准减排政策;北京则可在一定条件下,将一部分低效的政府补贴通过合理方式转移支付给天津和河北,以提高政府投入的减排效率.  相似文献   
8.
In this paper, the problem of optimal timing, when to adopt an environmental policy in a strategic framework is considered. Using real options theory and some basic tools of game theory, we show that, under certain assumptions, a country behaving strategically should wait longer before adopting such a policy than if it behaves unstrategically or within a larger entity. Such a postponed decision is sub-optimal as regards to the environment protection.  相似文献   
9.
“入世”对我国环境监测工作的影响及对策初探   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
加入 WTO后 ,我国环境监测工作将面临重大的挑战和机遇 ,文章初步分析了入世对我国环境监测工作的正负面影响以及现存的若干问题 ,积极探索了环境监测工作的新战略和新思路 ,提出了创建新体制和适应新形势的对策。  相似文献   
10.
土地复垦投资的政策法规建议   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
土地复垦投资的政策法规是为了克服市场经济本身的缺陷和不足,规范生产建设者(当事者)的行为以及强化其社会意识和责任,确保土地复垦投资机制的形成和运作。本文分析了我国土地复垦投资的相关政策和法规的现状和问题,有针对性地提出了一些政策和法规建议,且对《土地复垦规定》提出了具体的修改建议。  相似文献   
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