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1.
Maritime shipping has two vectors of spreading marine invasive species: ballast water inside the ship and biofouling on the hulls outside the ship. While some attention has focused on ballast water, virtually none is focused on biofouling. This paper offers a quantitative analysis of economic incentives for shippers and regulating ports to address both pollution vectors. The strategies to address the vectors are induced by incentive mechanisms involving liability, subsidies and taxes. Results show these offer ample incentives in order to truly foster abatement of both vectors. Data from North America's Pacific coast is included in the analysis.  相似文献   
2.
Product-oriented Environmental Management Systems (P-EMS) are a logical extension of current, often primarily process- of facility-oriented Environmental Management Systems. The Dutch government promotes P-EMS as part of its product-oriented environmental policies. The idea of P-EMS is to enable producers to make environmentally responsible decisions on product development and product strategies, in collaboration with suppliers and customers. This paper summarises example P-EMS projects in The Netherlands for two segments of industry, namely retail and manufacturing industry. Moreover two other initiatives will be covered that deal with the development of tools to facilitate P-EMS in two other industry sectors (food processing and building). Success factors that emerge from these initial experiences are: focus on partners that have a strong incentive to act, application of screening Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) or user-shells for LCA, and focus on improvements that can be implemented on the short term.  相似文献   
3.
西藏生态经济系统的能值分析与可持续发展研究   总被引:93,自引:2,他引:93  
在简要分析西藏的自然、社会经济概况及其在中国的战略地位基础上,运用能值理论与方法,对其主要资源的贮存价值、总能值用量、能值的流入流出情况、人口承载力、能值投入率、能值使用强度、环境负荷等指标进行了系统研究,并与其他国家的有关指标进行了比较研究,提出了进一步开发西藏资源、实现可持续发展目标的政策建议。  相似文献   
4.
谢芳 《上海环境科学》2002,21(3):189-195
生态导向型消费需要政府采取一些措施来鼓励或强迫消费者在产品消费中符合环保要求。购买审计便是对消费者市场施加影响的手段之一,是内部审计的重要组成部分,它包括评估所有与购买商品和服务相关的组织政策和行为对环境的影响。探讨了地方政府购买行为对环境的影响和如何减少这些影响的方法,以及购买审计对生态导向型消费的影响。包括:购买审计的方法、生态型购买政策的成功实施、购买审计对生态型消费的影响。  相似文献   
5.
微量营养物质对有机废水厌氧消化过程的调控作用   总被引:1,自引:4,他引:1  
通过向处理酸性葡萄酒蒸馏废水的厌氧移动床生物膜反应器中投加微量营养物质的试验,得出利用微量营养物质调控厌氧消化过程在技术上是可行的。Fe、Ni、Co组合不仅能加快挥发性有机酸(VFA),特别是丙酸的降解速率,进而提高厌氧反应器的溶解COD去除率,同时,还有利于厌氧反应器有机负荷的快速提升和较强pH缓冲能力的形成。B族维生素对厌氧移动床生物膜反应器运行效果影响不大。Fe对厌氧移动床生物膜反应器运行有一定影响,但效果也不十分明显。  相似文献   
6.
论述了生态工业园区政策法规建设中存在的问题,并提出了建立健全生态工业园区政策法规的建议。  相似文献   
7.
本文构建了包括监管的立法、组织体系、监管权力配置、监管工具与程序、问责机制、监管能力等要素在内的环境监管体制分析框架,从污染物排放趋势、国家制度建设等角度分析了"十三五"时期中国环境监管体制改革面临的挑战、目标和思路。"十三五"时期是中国生态文明建设的重要时期,完善环境监管制度是推进生态文明制度体系建设的重要内容。面对严重环境污染所带来的挑战,在此期间加快环境监管体制改革、提高环境监管有效性是切实实现治污减排的根本保证。完善环境监管体系、改进监管方式、创新监管手段是建立治污减排长效机制的基础和前提,也是完善环境治理体系的重要内容。按照市场经济条件下政府依法行政的要求,中国环境监管体制改革的目标,就是要按照合法性、独立性、透明性、可问责性、专业性和执法能力、可信性等原则建立和完善现代环境监管体制,为此必须从专门立法、组织结构、权力分配、问责机制、监管程序与工具、监管能力建设等各方面推进改革。本文提出了"十三五"时期环境监管体制改革的思路及若干建议,主要包括:加快修订环保法律法规,提高法律的可操作性,推进环境司法常态化、规范化和专门化,进一步提升环境监管法治化水平;从纵向、横向上优化环境监管组织结构,强化区域层级的监管与督查功能,强化中央层级环境监管机构对环境信息的获取能力;优化环境保护主管部门机构设置以及相关职能,建立并完善内部机构的协调机制;完善环境监管的内外部问责机制,把做实对监管者的监管机制作为优化环境监管体制的抓手;强化对监管工具的顶层设计,做实监管程序中关键环节,建立环境监管影响评估制度;加强环境监管能力建设,推进环境监管制度队伍职业化发展,保障各级环境监管机构具有充分履职的能力。环境监管体制的改革和完善,是国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的重要内容。  相似文献   
8.
Local rural and indigenous communities have assumed increasing responsibility for conservation within and between areas buffering the impacts of agricultural or resource‐extraction zones and protected areas. Empowering local communities as central partners in conservation and climate‐change mitigation has allowed many people to gain access to land and citizenship rights but has provided limited improvements in access to social services and economic opportunities even as expectation about their role as environmental stewards grows. These expectations, however, are inconsistent with reality. We conducted multiple field studies in Brazil since the mid‐1980s to illustrate the discrepancies between conservation programs and local conditions and expectations. We suggest that public policies and conservation programs should not delegate responsibility for managing protected areas to local and indigenous communities without considering local needs and expectations and locals’ attitudes toward conservation. In other words, behavior that maintains or improves the environment should not be treated as traditional based on the expectations of outsiders. Framing local populations as traditional environmentalists creates contradictions and frustrations for local populations and for conservation professionals and policy makers.  相似文献   
9.
随着中国经济的高速发展和城市化进程的加快,环境资源的消耗进一步加大,环境资源面临枯竭问题已经严重影响到社会经济的可持续发展。建立排污权有偿使用与交易制度对于解决过高的环境治理成本问题具有重要作用。本文从排污权的基本法律理论入手,总结和分析我省排污权有偿使用和交易政策法规存在的问题,进而提出适合我省的政策建议,以期完善我省排污权有偿使用和交易的政策法规体系。  相似文献   
10.
Determinants of adaptive and mitigative capacities (e.g., availability of technological options, and access to economic resources, social capital and human capital) largely overlap. Several factors underlying or related to these determinants are themselves indicators of sustainable development (e.g., per capita income; and various public health, education and research indices). Moreover, climate change could exacerbate existing climate-sensitive hurdles to sustainable development (e.g., hunger, malaria, water shortage, coastal flooding and threats to biodiversity) faced specifically by many developing countries. Based on these commonalities, the paper identifies integrated approaches to formulating strategies and measures to concurrently advance adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development. These approaches range from broadly moving sustainable development forward (by developing and/or nurturing institutions, policies and infrastructure to stimulate economic development, technological change, human and social capital, and reducing specific barriers to sustainable development) to reducing vulnerabilities to urgent climate-sensitive risks that hinder sustainable development and would worsen with climate change. The resulting sustainable economic development would also help reduce birth rates, which could mitigate climate change and reduce the population exposed to climate change and climate-sensitive risks, thereby reducing impacts, and the demand for adaptation. The paper also offers a portfolio of pro-active strategies and measures consistent with the above approaches, including example measures that would simultaneously reduce pressures on biodiversity, hunger, and carbon sinks. Finally it addresses some common misconceptions that could hamper fuller integration of adaptation and mitigation, including the notions that adaptation may be unsuitable for natural systems, and mitigation should necessarily have primacy over adaptation.
Indur M. GoklanyEmail:
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