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1.
1 INTRODUCTIONIn the past, natural resources management initiatives havefocused on large but specific sector projects such as dams,reservoirs for water supply schemes, irrigation systems,crop production, at forestation, etc. Often these projectswere treated as technical and administrative issues ratherthan as a socio-economic and political one. However, thehigh social and environmental cost of such schemes haveled to a change of paradigm since the 1980s towards small-scale community projec…  相似文献   
2.
选择位于红壤丘陵区的鄱阳湖流域作为研究对象,利用1 km×1 km分辨率的时序SPOT4 VEGETATION数据,对流域内典型土地覆被--常绿覆被的绿度值、峰值、谷值、年均NDVI(NDVI-I)和NDVI年内极差(NDVI MM)等特征值进行了提取。在此基础上,探讨了不同常绿覆被类型的NDVI指数年内季节变化规律。结果表明:时序NDVI指数基本上能够较好地刻画不同常绿覆被类型之间的差异性,植被指数NDVI特征值随覆被的类型及其生长状态有规律地变化,即NDVI年均值和最小值基本上按“常绿阔叶林>常绿针阔叶混交林>常绿针叶林>常绿针叶-落叶混交林”的顺序变化;典型常绿阔叶林的NDVI指数年内变化曲线基本上没有大的起伏波动;常绿针叶林以及常绿针阔叶混交林占主导地位的常绿混交林NDVI指数年内变化比较和缓,但常在8月和11月有所波动;以常绿针叶林为主、但有较多落〖JP2〗叶林混杂其中的常绿混交林,其NDVI指数年内变化曲线基本上呈和缓的单峰型波动。  相似文献   
3.
人口流动规律及其政策含义   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
人口流动是人力资源配轩优化的根本创新路径,人口流动的一般规律是:如果流动人口为理性行为选择者,在社会制度安排许可的发展环境下,当不同区域和不同产业间形成比较收益差异,存在着流动收益大于流动成本的潜在和现实的各种获利机会时,就必定驱使人们由低收益领域向高必益领域流动,而且比较收益差异量与流动人口的流速、流量正相关,并必然导致产生收益率及人口分布走向平均化的趋势,社会发展也将获得最优化的人力资源配置结果.其相关政策含义:一是人口流动是流动人口的理性选择;二是切实保障公民的自由流动权利;三是利用比较利益差别促进人口流动;四是降低各种不必要的流动成本和流动风险;五是建构人口流动的有效率社会发展框架.  相似文献   
4.
生态缓冲带能够有效减缓流域内的人类活动或自然过程对水环境和水生态系统的影响.在长江经济带构建流域生态缓冲体系,对长江生态保护修复具有十分重要的意义.讨论了构建流域生态缓冲体系涉及的生态缓冲带位置选择、缓冲体系所占最低面积比率、宽度划定等一些基本的原则要求;利用卫星遥感影像数据,提取各汇水单元的地形特征、土地利用类型特征、土壤类型、土壤侵蚀强度、水文水系等数据,对长江经济带流域生态缓冲体系进行布局.结果表明:①长江经济带内林草地是主要土地利用类型,占区域总面积的62.46%,但是分布很不均匀,主要集中在西部高地和中下游的丘陵地带,在人口密集、农田密集的区域分布偏少;城镇用地主要集中在长江中下游地区.②土壤类型空间差异显著,浙江省、江苏省、湖南省、江西省及安徽省大部分区域的土壤多是黏性比较大,污染物迁移能力较低;而污染物迁移能力较强的砂质土或者土层较薄的山地草甸土主要分布在四川省北部、西北部.水力侵蚀、风力侵蚀和冻融侵蚀均有分布,且以水力侵蚀为主,建议在中度及以上侵蚀强度区域尽量减少污染源,重点布置缓冲带,增加该区域的缓冲力度.③长江经济带范围内可以利用的中小型湿地、小型河流支浜的面积至少有1.4×104 km2,再结合林草缓冲带,就可以形成一个生态缓冲体系.④在土地利用类型分布结果基础上,叠加土壤侵蚀强度和水系分布,将污染源区、中度及以上侵蚀强度区、水体区作为缓冲对象,建立缓冲体系的重点区域,总面积约14.26×104 km2,占长江经济带总面积的6.95%.对照欧美地区的研究,6.95%的缓冲体系面积占比是偏低的,需要在长江经济带开展深入研究来确定适宜的缓冲体系面积比,推进长江经济带流域生态缓冲体系的构建.   相似文献   
5.
基于太原市2015年1月~2019年2月的空气质量监测数据,分析了太原市近地面臭氧浓度变化特征。结果表明:2015~2018年太原市臭氧年平均浓度为78.42、82.33、95.87、103.77μg/m 3,臭氧浓度存在加速上升趋势;臭氧浓度逐日变化范围为5~270μg/m 3,共有181 d超过GB 3095—2012《环境空气质量标准》二级标准限值(160μg/m 3),超标时段主要集中于5~8月份;臭氧浓度日变化呈单峰型分布,峰值与谷值时段分别为14∶00~16∶00和6∶00~7∶00;臭氧浓度有明显的月变化规律,峰值与谷值时段分别为6~7月和1月、12月;臭氧浓度还表现出显著的季节变化规律,按浓度高低依次排序为夏季、春季、秋季和冬季;臭氧浓度与NO 2、CO、PM 2.5浓度呈负相关性。  相似文献   
6.
This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflictbetween economic development (generally taken to mean 'materialeconomic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineraldeposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystemsor rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases,acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds.These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economyrelationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. Fromthis perspective, the production of economic goods andservices invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economynecessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenizethe ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplificationof natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibilitybetween a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly inthe face of contemporary development trends and cultural values.  相似文献   
7.
Selecting Socio-Economic Metrics for Watershed Management   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The selection of social and economic metrics to document baseline conditions and analyze the dynamic relationships between ecosystems and human communities are important decisions for scientists, managers, and watershed citizens. A large variety of social and economic data is available but these have limited use without theoretical frameworks. In this paper, several frameworks for reviewing social-ecosystem relations are offered, namely social sanctions, sense of place, civic structure, and cultural differences. Underlying all of these frameworks are attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that affect which questions are asked and which indicators are chosen. Much work and significant challenges remain in developing a standard set of spatially based socio-economic metrics for watershed management.  相似文献   
8.
The goal of this study was to identify the relative toxicity ofambient areas in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by using a suiteof concurrent water column and sediment toxicity tests at seventy-five ambient stations in 20 Chesapeake Bay rivers from1990 through 1999. Spatial and temporal variability was examinedat selected locations throughout the 10 yr study. Inorganicand organic contaminants were evaluated in ambient water andsediment concurrently with water column and sediment tests toassess possible causes of toxicity although absolute causalitycan not be established. Multivariate statistical analysis wasused to develop a multiple endpoint toxicity index (TOX-INDEX) at each station for both water column and sediment toxicity data. Water column tests from the 10 yr testing period showed that49% of the time, some degree of toxicity was reported. The mosttoxic sites based on water column results were located inurbanized areas such as the Anacostia River, Elizabeth River andthe Middle River. Water quality criteria for copper, lead,mercury, nickel and zinc were exceeded at one or more of thesesites. Water column toxicity was also reported in localizedareas of the South and Chester Rivers. Both spatial and temporalvariability was reported from the suite of water column toxicitytests. Some degree of sediment toxicity was reported from 62% of the tests conducted during the ten year period. The ElizabethRiver and Baltimore Harbor stations were reported as the most toxic areas based on sediment results.Sediment toxicity guidelines were exceeded for one or more of thefollowing metals at these two locations: arsenic, cadmium,chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. At the Elizabeth Riverstations nine of sixteen semi-volatile organics and two of sevenpesticides measured exceeded the ER-M values in 1990. Ambientsediment toxicity tests in the Elizabeth River in 1996 showedreduced toxicity. Various semi-volatile organics exceeded the ER-M values at a number of Baltimore Harbor sites; pyrene anddibenzo(a,h)anthracene were particularly high at one of thestations (Northwest Harbor). Localized sediment toxicity was alsoreported in the Chester, James, Magothy, Rappahannock, andPotomac Rivers but the link with contaminants was not determined.Both spatial and temporal variability was less for sedimenttoxicity data when compared with water column toxicity data. Acomparison of water column and sediment toxicity data for thevarious stations over the 10 yr study showed that approximatelyhalf the time agreement occurred (either both suite of testsshowed toxicity or neither suite of tests showed toxicity).  相似文献   
9.
In Maryland, U.S., an interim framework has recentlybeen developed for using biologically based thresholds, or `biocriteria', to assess the health of nontidal streams statewide at watershed scales. The evaluation of impairment is based on indices of biological integrity from the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS). We applied logistic regression to quantify how the biotic integrity of streams at a local scale is affected by cumulative effects resulting from catchment land uses, point sources, and nearby transmission line rights-of-way. Indicators for land use were developed from the remote sensing National Land Cover Data and applied at different scales. We determined that the risk of local impairment in nontidal streams rapidly increases with increased urban land use in the catchment area. The average likelihood of failing biocriteria doubled with every 10% points increment in urban land, thus an increase in urban land use from 0 to 20% quadruples the risk of impairment. For the basins evaluated in this study, catchments with more than 40–50% urban land use had greater than 80% probability of failing biocriteria, on average. Inclusion of rights-of-way and point sources in the model did not significantly improve the fit for this data set, most likely because of their low numbers. The overall results indicate that our predictive modeling approach can help pinpoint stream ecosystems experiencing or vulnerable to degradation.  相似文献   
10.
为提高水中臭氧(O_3)浓度检测方法的普适性、准确性和便捷性,提出了一种新的非接触式的水中O_3浓度检测方法。基于亨利定律(Henry’s Law),采用电化学方法,建立空气中O_3浓度与水中O_3浓度的回归方程,从而推导出水中O_3浓度。实验结果显示,水体O_3传感器的检出限为0.02 mg/L,检测上限为0.40 mg/L,可决系数R~2为0.998 9,相对误差最大值为7.05%,相对标准偏差最大值为2.82%。实际样品检测显示,水体O_3检测传感器的检测结果与O_3快速测定试剂盒(DPD法)的检测结果完全吻合。该方法不但综合了智能传感器的小型化、网络化、实时测量等特性,而且结构简单、成本低、响应快,适用于水体中O_3浓度的快速检测。  相似文献   
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