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Few studies have been carried out to connect nutrient recovery as struvite from wastewater and sustainable utilization of the recovered struvite for copper and zinc immobilization in contaminated soil. This study revealed the effect of struvite on Cu and Zn immobilization in contaminated bio-retention soil in the presence of commonly exuded plant organic acids. The research hypothesis was that the presence of both struvite and organic acids may influence the immobilization of Cu and Zn in soil. The outcome of this research confirmed that more than 99% of Cu and Zn was immobilized in bio-retention filter media by struvite application. Water-soluble Cu and Zn concentrations of struvite treated soil were less than 1.83 and 0.86 mg/kg respectively, and these concentrations were significantly lower compared to the total Cu and Zn content of 747.05 mg/kg in the contaminated soil. Application of struvite to Cu- and Zn-contaminated soil resulted in formation of compounds similar to zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (Zn3(PO4)2?4H2O) and amorphous Cu and Zn phases. Struvite was effective in heavy metal remediation in acidic soil regardless of the presence of Ca impurities in struvite and the presence of plant organic acids in soil. Overall, this study revealed that struvite recovered from wastewater treatment plants has potential for use as an amendment for heavy metal remediation in contaminated bio-retention soil.  相似文献   
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This study revealed the relationship between the presence of calcium impurities and ammoniacal nitrogen concentration upon crystallization of struvite. The research hypothesis was that the presence of both calcium and high concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen(328–1000 mg/L) in waste activated sludge may influence the struvite quality and acid stability. Hence, we studied the impact of Ca:Mg ratio upon morphology, particle size, purity and dissolution of struvite, in the presence of varying levels of excess ammoniacal nitrogen. X-ray diffraction revealed that up to 31.4%amorphous material was made which was assigned to hydroxyapatite. Increasing the ammoniacal nitrogen concentration and elevation of the Mg:Ca ratio maximized the presence of struvite. Struvite particle size was also increased by ammoniacal nitrogen as was twinning of the crystals. Tests with dilute solutions of organic acid revealed the sensitivity of struvite dissolution to the physical characteristics of the struvite. Smaller particles(21.2 μm) dissolved at higher rates than larger particles(35.86 μm). However,struvite dissolved rapidly as the p H was further reduced irrespective of the physical characteristics. Therefore, addition of struvite to low p H soils was not viewed as beneficial in terms of controlled nutrient release. Overall, this study revealed that waste activated sludge effluent with high ammoniacal nitrogen was prospective for synthesis of high quality struvite material.  相似文献   
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