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1.
As a secondary pollutant of photochemical pollution, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has attracted a close attention. A four-month campaign was conducted at a rural site in North China Plain (NCP) including the measurement of PAN, O3, NOx, PM2.5, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), photolysis rate constants of NO2 and O3 and meteorological parameters to investigate the wintertime characterization of photochemistry from November 2018 to February 2019. The results showed that the maximum and mean values of PAN were 4.38 and 0.93 ± 0.67 ppbv during the campaign, respectively. The PAN under different PM2.5 concentrations from below 75 μg/m3 up to 250 μg/m3, showed different diurnal variation and formation rate. In the PM2.5 concentration range of above 250 μg/m3, PAN had the largest daily mean value of 0.64 ppbv and the fastest production rate of 0.33 ppbv/hr. From the perspective of PAN's production mechanism, the light intensity and precursors concentrations under different PM2.5 pollution levels indicated that there were sufficient light intensity and high volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx precursors concentration even under severe pollution level to generate a large amount of PAN. Moreover, the bimodal staggering phenomenon of PAN and PM2.5 provided a basis that PAN might aggravate haze through secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation.  相似文献   
2.
Atmospheric carbonyls were measured at a semi-urban site in Orléans, France, from October 2010to July2011. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were found to be the most abundant carbonyls, with average concentrations of 3.1, 1.0, 2.0 ppb, respectively in summer, 2.3, 0.7, 2.2 ppb, respectively in autumn, 2.2, 1.0, 2.1 ppb, respectively in spring,and 1.5, 0.7, 1.1 ppb, respectively in winter. Photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) was found to make a remarkable contribution to atmospheric carbonyls in the semi-urban site based on the distinct seasonal and diurnal variations of the carbonyls, as well as the significantly positive correlations between the carbonyls and ozone. The significantly negative correlations between NO x and O_3 as well as the carbonyls and the positive correlations between wind speed and O_3 as well as the carbonyls implied that the carbonyls and O_3 at the semi-urban site were probably formed during air mass transport from neighboring cities.  相似文献   
3.
正Clean air is essential to people's health and that of the environment.Since the industrial revolution,however,the quality of the air that people breathe has deteriorated considerably—mainly as a result of human activities.Rising industrial and energy production,the burning of fossil fuels and the dramatic rise in traffic all contribute to air pollution in our cities which,in turn,can lead to serious health problems for instance  相似文献   
4.
Understanding the formation mechanisms of secondary air pollution is very important for the formulation of air pollution control countermeasures in China. Thus, a large-scale outdoor atmospheric simulation smog chamber was constructed at Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (the CRAES Chamber), which was designed for simulating the atmospheric photochemical processes under the conditions close to the real atmospheric environment. The chamber consisted of a 56-m3 fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film reactor, an electrically-driven stainless steel alloy shield, an auxiliary system, and multiple detection instrumentations. By performing a series of characterization experiments, we obtained basic parameters of the CRAES chamber, such as the mixing ability, the background reactivity, and the wall loss rates of gaseous compounds (propene, NO, NO2, ozone) and aerosols (ammonium sulfate). Oxidation experiments were also performed to study the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), including α-pinene ozonolysis, propene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation. Temperature and seed effects on the vapor wall loss and SOA yields were obtained in this work: higher temperature and the presence of seed could reduce the vapor wall loss; SOA yield was found to depend inversely on temperature, and the presence of seed could increase SOA yield. The seed was suggested to be used in the chamber to reduce the interaction between the gas phase and chamber walls. The results above showed that the CRAES chamber was reliable and could meet the demands for investigating tropospheric chemistry.  相似文献   
5.
Preface     
正Air pollution as well as climate change and their possible effects on the environment,ecosystems and human health,are pressing challenges.Nowadays,it is clear that sustainable societal development cannot remain solely wealth-oriented,but must take into account the present and future environmental issues.However,this approach is possible only if scientifically sound knowledge in all environmental areas becomes available to our societies and decision makers,which requires a firm  相似文献   
6.
Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m?3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature.The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.  相似文献   
7.
正Anthropogenic emissions impact significantly the atmospheric environment which human being relies on,e.g.,global warming,stratospheric ozone depletion,photochemical smog,acid rain,haze and so on.Although clean air actions have been legislated by many nations to mitigate pollutants’emission with the aim of protecting the atmospheric environment,  相似文献   
8.
The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010. The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 37.7, 31.3, 39.7, 50.5 μg/m3, respectively, and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime. In contrast to carbonyls, the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2, 31.9, 23.2, 19.1 μg/m3, respectively, and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon. The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010, for BTEX, increased about 15%. Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.  相似文献   
9.
A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) for formaldehyde atmospheric measurements has been set up and validated through comparison experiments with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) in a simulation chamber. Formaldehyde was generated in situ in the chamber from reaction of ethene with ozone. Three HCHO ro-vibrational line intensities (at 2909.71, 2912.09 and 2914.46 cm-1) possibly used by TDLAS were calibrated by FT-IR spectra simultaneously recorded in the 1600-3200 cm-1 domain during ethene ozonolysis, enabling the on-line deduction of the varying concentration for HCHO in formation. The experimental line intensities values inferred confirmed the calculated ones from the updated HITRAN database. In addition, the feasibility of stratospheric in situ HCHO measurements using the 2912.09 cm-1 line was demonstrated. The TDLAS performances were also assessed, leading to a 2σ detection limit of 88 ppt in volume mixing ratio with a response time of 60 sec at 30 Torr and 294 K for 112 m optical path. As part of this work, the room-temperature rate constant of this reaction and the HCHO formation yield were found to be in excellent agreement with the compiled literature data.  相似文献   
10.
A sound scientific understanding of the factors affecting the environment is essential to guarantee the sustainable development of the world's economic and societal activities.Many environmental issues,such as air quality and climate change are intimately linked to atmospheric chemistry and physics,therefore research in these areas is of tremendous importance.Both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions contribute greatly to the chemical composition of the atmosphere.Even though the atmosphere is a self-cleaning system through its photochemically-driven reactions,the hazardous direct impacts of primary and secondary pollutants on human health and ecosystems are observable and have been evidenced on different scales from local to global (e.g.ozone hole,climate change,air quality…).The chemical processing of the species present in the atmosphere is one of the most important players in driving the evolution of the atmosphere.  相似文献   
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