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1.
为进一步提高无机高分子絮凝剂的处理效果并降低处理成本,研究"一步法"絮凝剂制备工艺,同时引入稀土镧对絮凝剂进行改性处理,制备固体稀土镧聚合硫酸铁絮凝剂(La-PFS).实验通过响应面优化絮凝性能,研究结果表明.聚合温度为123℃、镧铁摩尔比为1∶105.56、OH~-/Fe摩尔比为0.19时,制备产品对高浊度废水除浊效率效果达到99.41%.引入稀土镧在一定程度上增长絮凝剂链状结构,增强吸附能力.在对造纸废水处理中,稀土镧聚合硫酸铁对造纸废水处理效果明显优于传统市售絮凝剂,絮凝沉淀速度有较大提升,浊度去除率达到68%,COD_(Cr)去除率达到35%.  相似文献   
2.
通过对我国辐射环境监测相关法规的调研,在深入分析当前辐射环境监测法规框架结构和突出问题的基础上,构建我国辐射环境监测法规体系,重点关注辐射环境质量监测、核与辐射监督性监测及应急监测等方面的工作需求,提出完善部门规章、健全核安全导则及规范性文件的建议。  相似文献   
3.
试论生态文明制度体系的构建   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
建立健全生态文明制度体系是推进我国生态文明建设的重点。党的十八届三中全会通过的《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》指出,生态文明制度体系应当包括决策制度、评价制度、管理制度与考核制度等内容。立足社会主义制度建设的中国特色,针对我国生态文明建设的具体需求,本文将生态文明制度体系解构为四大板块:绿色高效决策制度、生态有价评估制度、生态环境监管制度与生态优先考核制度,并进一步明确了各项制度构建工作的具体内容。生态文明制度体系的构建和不断完善,将为全面建成人与自然和谐的美丽中国提供系统保障。  相似文献   
4.
This study evaluated the hydrolysis and photolysis kinetics of pyraclostrobin in an aqueous solution using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection and identified the resulting metabolites of pyraclostrobin by hydrolysis and photolysis in paddy water using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography. The effect of solution pH, metal ions and surfactants on the hydrolysis of pyraclostrobin was explored. The hydrolysis half-lives of pyraclostrobin were 23.1–115.5?days and were stable in buffer solution at pH 5.0. The degradation rate of pyraclostrobin in an aqueous solution under sunlight was slower than that under UV photolysis reaction. The half-lives of pyraclostrobin in a buffer solution at pH 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 and in paddy water were less than 12?h under the two light irradiation types. The metabolites of the two processes were identified and compared to further understand the mechanisms underlying hydrolysis and photolysis of pyraclostrobin in natural water. The extracted ions obtained from paddy water were automatically annotated by Compound Discoverer software with manual confirmation of their fragments. Two metabolites were detected and identified in the pyraclostrobin hydrolysis, whereas three metabolites were detected and identified in the photolysis in paddy water.  相似文献   
5.
A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed for the determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in citrus (including the whole citrus, peel and pulp) and soil samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and purified with octadecylsilane. The detection limits of both compounds were 0.0001–0.0002?mg kg–1, while the limit of quantification of thiamethoxam was 0.002?mg kg–1 and the limit of quantitation of metabolites was 0.001?mg kg–1. The recovery was 70.37%–109.76%, with inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) (n?=?15) values ≤9.46% for the two compounds in the four matrices. The degradation curve of thiamethoxam in whole citrus and soil was plotted using the first-order kinetic model. The half-life of the whole citrus was 1.9–6.2?days, and the half-life of the soil was 3.9–4.2?days. The terminal residue of thiamethoxam (the sum of thiamethoxam and clothianidin, expressed as thiamethoxam) was found to be concentrated on the peel. The final residual amount of thiamethoxam in the edible portion (pulp) was less than 0.061?mg kg–1. The risk quotient values were all below 1, indicating that thiamethoxam as a citrus insecticide does not pose a health risk to humans at the recommended dosage.  相似文献   
6.
建立了土壤和沉积物中8种多溴联苯醚(PBDEs,BDE-28、BDE-47、BDE-99、BDE-100、BDE-153、BDE-154、BDE-183和BDE-209)加速溶剂同时萃取和净化-气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱(ASE-GC-MS-MS)的分析方法。通过优化加速溶剂萃取与弗罗里硅土在线净化和串联质谱多反应监测模式的条件,较好地去除基质干扰,并提高了三重四极杆串联质谱定性的准确性及定量的灵敏性。该方法采用改进的色谱柱能同时分析包括高溴代联苯醚BDE-209在内的8种PBDEs,其浓度范围为1~100 ng/mL(BDE-209为10~1 000 ng/mL),线性良好,线性回归系数均大于0.997。方法检出限为0.004~0.1 ng/g,方法回收率为75%~110%,方法精密度为2.4%~15.6%。适于批量处理土壤和沉积物中含有多组分痕量PBDEs的样品。  相似文献   
7.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research - Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen...  相似文献   
8.
Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.  相似文献   
9.
Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al.  相似文献   
10.
长江河口近岸水体自然净化作用及其初步评价   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
按照水体的净化机理,结合长江口和上海滨岸带近岸水体的物理、化学和生物等因素的实际特征,对近岸水体的自然净化作用进行了阐述和分析。并在历史资料和实测资料基础上,就近岸水体的自然净化作用进行了评价。评价结果表明,因长江河口近岸水体存在较强的自然净化作用机制,近岸水体体的自然净化能力较强,环境容量较大,但由于污染物输入量的不断增加,部分岸段近岸水体的环境质量有逐渐下降的趋势;近岸水体的自然净化作用具有明显的季节性变化,长江口南岸水域洪水季节水体的自然净化作用比估水季节强,而杭州湾北岸水域的自然净化作用表现为相反的变化趋势,因此建议在近岸污水排放过程中应考虑近岸水体的净化能力,遵循水体的自然净化作用规律。  相似文献   
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