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1.
"5.12"汶川8级大地震波及范围很大,给陕西省部分地方造成了不小的损失.灾后,汉中、宝鸡的地震救灾过渡安置点由于缺乏防雷电保护,打雷时有遭受雷电灾害的可能,亟需要对其采取防雷电保护措施.对救灾过渡安置点采用独立避雷针进行防护,该措施安全可靠、简便易行,就成为首选,其布设选点要科学、规范,可使其效益最大化,避雷针的制作和安装应符合技术标准要求,做到牢固可靠,在施工中要因地制宜.综合考虑,始终把安全和牢靠放在首位.  相似文献   
2.
为了更好地发挥产氢产酸/同型产乙酸耦合系统在废水厌氧发酵生产乙酸方面的优势,有必要寻找一种简单有效的方法以获得该系统产酸的优化条件.利用经过加热处理并活化的厌氧污泥作种泥,以模拟废水中的葡萄糖为底物,针对发酵时间、底物浓度、种泥浓度、初始pH进行4因素10水平均匀设计实验,得到了乙酸生产指标与产酸条件之间关系的回归方程;也得到了以高乙酸产量为主要目标导向同时兼顾高乙酸产率和高乙酸生产强度目标的优化条件;优化条件实验乙酸浓度比均匀设计中最高乙酸浓度提高20%左右.研究表明,将均匀设计应用于废水产氢产酸/同型产乙酸耦合产酸条件优化,可以避免盲目性,迅速获得满意结果.  相似文献   
3.
Wastewater reclamation and reuse has been proved to be an effective way to relieve the fresh water crisis. However, toxic contaminants remaining in reclaimed water could lead to potential risk for reuse, and the conventional water quality standards have difficulty guaranteeing the safety of reclaimed water. Bioassays can vividly reflect the integrated biological effects of multiple toxic substances in water as a whole, and could be a powerful tool for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water. Therefore, in this study, the advantages and disadvantages of using bioassays for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water were compared with those of conventional water quality standards. Although bioassays have been widely used to describe the toxic effects of reclaimed water and treatment efficiency of reclamation techniques, a single bioassay cannot reflect the complex toxicity of reclaimed water, and a battery of bioassays involving multiple biological effects or in vitro tests with specific toxicity mechanisms would be recommended. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the safety of reclaimed water based on bioassay results, various methods including potential toxicology, the toxicity unit classification system, and a potential eco-toxic effects probe are summarized as well. Especially, some integrated ranking methods based on a bioassay battery involving multiple toxicity effects are recommended as useful tools for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water, which will benefit the promotion and guarantee the rapid development of the reclamation and reuse of wastewater.  相似文献   
4.
Water-uptakes of pure sodium carbonate(Na_2CO_3),pure β-alanine and internally mixedβ-alanine/Na_2CO_3 aerosol particles with different mole ratios are first monitored using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(ATR-FTIR) technique.For pure Na_2CO_3 aerosol particles,combining the absorptions at 877 and 1422 cm-1 with abrupt water loss shows the efflorescence relative humidity(ERH) of 62.9%–51.9%.Upon humidifying,solid Na_2CO_3 firstly absorbs water to from Na_2CO_3·H2 O crystal at 72.0% RH and then deliquesces at 84.5% RH(DRH).As for pure β-alanine particles,the crystallization takes place in the range of 42.4%–33.2% RH and becomes droplets at ~ 88.2% RH.When β-alanine is mixed with Na_2CO_3 at various mole ratios,it shows no efflorescence of Na_2CO_3 whenβ-alanine to Na_2CO_3 mole ratio(OIR) is 2:1.For 1:1 and 1:2 β-alanine/Na_2CO_3 aerosols,the ERHs of Na_2CO_3 are 51.8%–42.3% and 57.1%–42.3%,respectively.While β-alanine crystal appears from 62.7% RH for 2:1 and 59.4% RH for both 1:1 and 1:2 particles and lasts to driest state.On hydration,the DRH is 44.7%–75.2% for Na_2CO_3 with the OIR of 1:1 and 44.7%–69.0%for 1:2 mixture,and those of β-alanine are 74.8% for 2:1 mixture and 68.9% for two others.After the first dehumidification–humidification,all the water contents decrease despite of constituent fraction.And at ~ 92% RH,the remaining water contents are 92%,89% and 82%at ~ 92% RH,corresponding to OIR of 2:1,1:1 and 1:2 mixed system,respectively.  相似文献   
5.
PM_(2.5) separator directly affects the accuracy of PM_(2.5) sampling.The specification testing and evaluation for PM_(2.5) separator is particularly important,especially under China's wide variation of terrain and climate.In this study,first a static test apparatus based on polydisperse aerosol was established and calibrated to evaluate the performance of the PM_(2.5) separators.A uniform mixing chamber was developed to make particles mix completely.The aerosol concentration relative standard deviations of three test points at the same horizontal chamber position were less than 0.57%,and the particle size distribution obeyed logarithmic normal distribution with an R~2 of 0.996.The flow rate deviation between the measurement and the set point flow rate agreed to within ± 1.0% in the range of -40 to 50℃.Secondly,the separation,flow and loading characteristics of three cyclone separators(VSCC-A,SCC-A and SCC112) were evaluated using this system.The results showed that the 50% cutoff sizes(D_(50)) of the three cyclones were 2.48,2.47 and 2.44 μm when worked at the manufacturer's recommended flow rates,respectively.The geometric standard deviation(GSD) of the capture efficiency of VSCCA was 1.23,showed a slightly sharper than SCC-A(GSD = 1.27),while the SCC112 did not meet the relevant indicator(GSD = 1.2 ± 0.1) with a GSD = 1.44.The flow rate and loading test had a great effect on D_(50),while the GSD remained almost the same as before.In addition,the maintenance frequency under different air pollution conditions of the cyclones was summarized according to the loading test.  相似文献   
6.
Methylglyoxal(CH_3COCHO,MG),which is one of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compounds in the atmosphere,has been reported as a major source of secondary organic aerosol(SOA).In this work,the reaction of MG with hydroxyl radicals was studied in a 500 L smog chamber at(293±3) K,atmospheric pressure,(18±2)% relative humidity,and under different NOx and SO_2.Particle size distribution was measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer(SMPS) and the results showed that the addition of SO_2 can promote SOA formation,while different NOx concentrations have different influences on SOA production.High NOx suppressed the SOA formation,whereas the particle mass concentration,particle number concentration and particle geometric mean diameter increased with the increasing NOx concentration at low NOx concentration in the presence of SO_2.In addition,the products of the OH-initiated oxidation of MG and the functional groups of the particle phase in the MG/OH/SO_2 and MG/OH/NOx/SO_2 reaction systems were detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS) and attenuated total reflection fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy(ATR-FTIR) analysis.Two products,glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid,were detected by GC-MS.The mechanism of the reaction of MG and OH radicals that follows two main pathways,H atom abstraction and hydration,is proposed.Evidence is provided for the formation of organic nitrates and organic sulfate in particle phase from IR spectra.Incorporation of NOx and SO_2 influence suggested that SOA formation from anthropogenic hydrocarbons may be more efficient in polluted environment.  相似文献   
7.
重大的资源开发利用工程建设设想或实施往往容易引起社会各界的广泛关注。如何正确认识和科学评价各种资源环境热点问题是大家讨论的重点。文章认为任何重大资源开发工程必须遵循自然规律、生态规律、资源规律和经济规律,必须结合国家战略需求和地缘政治关系,开展前期深入的系统性综合调查,进行生态安全与资源工程安全评价和交叉学科论证,并对其科学价值、社会价值和经济价值等做出正确的判断。建议:未来的资源环境工程建设要谨防“大跃进”,要科学认识自然资源系统规律,守护好美丽的地球家园;要切实履行资源科学家的社会责任,提倡基于科学研究和科学态度的学术争鸣,科学问题最好还是由科学家去讨论;一些争议大的科研课题慎用公益性研发经费来支持。  相似文献   
8.
Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds(VOCs). However,little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4–5 hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10 days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol(SOA) production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China.  相似文献   
9.
分析了毛细饱水带的水动力学特性,指出在地下水污染研究中,污染物在毛细饱和水带和潜水怪具有相同的水平运动规律,并以实例分析说明该带对污染物运移的重要性。建议在研究和一非饱和条件地下水及污染物运动问题时把毛细饱水带与潜水含水层统一为饱马毛细饱水带顶面作为饱水面。  相似文献   
10.
化学需氧量(CODcr)和石油类都是中国实施水污染物排放总量控制指标,也是环境监测的常测项目.CODcr是反映水体中受还原性物质主要是有机物污染程度的综合性指标.矿物油和动、植物油统称为油类,是废水中常见的有机污染物,对CODcr的贡献较大.探索水体中CODcr值与油类物质含量之间的相关性,对CODcr值准确性的判断有一定指导意义.改进含油废水的取样方法,有利于提高CODcr测定值的准确性和代表性.  相似文献   
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