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1.
Dissipation and decontamination of chlorantraniliprole (Coragen 18.5 SC) in brinjal and okra fruits were studied following field application at single and double doses of 30 and 60 g ai ha?1, and the residues of the insecticide was estimated using LC-MS/MS. Initial residues of chlorantraniliprole at single and double doses on the fruits of brinjal were 0.72 and 1.48 mg kg?1, while on okra fruits, the residues were 0.48 and 0.91 mg kg?1, respectively. The residues reached below detectable level of 0.01 mg kg?1 on the 10th day. Half-life of chlorantraniliprole at 30 and 60 g ai ha?1 on brinjal was 1.58 and 1.80 days with the calculated waiting period of 0.69 and 2.38 days, whereas on okra, the values were 1.60 and 1.70 and 0 and 1.20 days, respectively. The extent of removal of chlorantraniliprole using simple decontaminating techniques at 2 h and 3 days after spraying was 40.99–91.37 % and 29.85–89.12 %, respectively, from brinjal fruits and 47.78–86.10 % and 41.77–86.48 %, respectively, from okra fruits.  相似文献   
2.
通过小试滤柱模拟河岸过滤,结合荧光定量PCR和高通量测序等手段研究了河岸过滤对氨氮的削减效能和进水氨氮浓度对细菌与氨氧化微生物的影响.结果表明,低浓度(0.2 mg·L-1)氨氮未被削减,较高浓度(1.0 mg·L-1和2.0 mg·L-1)氨氮的削减率可达70%.进水处细菌丰度随氨氮浓度升高而增加,细菌群落组成随氨氮浓度升高发生规律性变化.出水处氨氧化古菌(Ammonia oxidizing archaea,AOA)丰度与氨氮浓度呈负相关,氨氧化细菌(Ammonia oxidizing bacteria,AOB)丰度与氨氮浓度无显著相关关系;进水处AOA-α多样性与氨氮浓度呈正相关,但AOB-α多样性与氨氮浓度呈负相关;进水处AOA群落组成受氨氮浓度影响,而进、出水处AOB群落组成均受氨氮浓度影响.可见,进水氨氮浓度会影响河岸过滤对氨氮的削减效能,还会影响细菌、氨氧化微生物的丰度及群落结构,AOB对氨氮浓度的变化比AOA更敏感.  相似文献   
3.
Wastewater reclamation and reuse has been proved to be an effective way to relieve the fresh water crisis. However, toxic contaminants remaining in reclaimed water could lead to potential risk for reuse, and the conventional water quality standards have difficulty guaranteeing the safety of reclaimed water. Bioassays can vividly reflect the integrated biological effects of multiple toxic substances in water as a whole, and could be a powerful tool for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water. Therefore, in this study, the advantages and disadvantages of using bioassays for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water were compared with those of conventional water quality standards. Although bioassays have been widely used to describe the toxic effects of reclaimed water and treatment efficiency of reclamation techniques, a single bioassay cannot reflect the complex toxicity of reclaimed water, and a battery of bioassays involving multiple biological effects or in vitro tests with specific toxicity mechanisms would be recommended. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the safety of reclaimed water based on bioassay results, various methods including potential toxicology, the toxicity unit classification system, and a potential eco-toxic effects probe are summarized as well. Especially, some integrated ranking methods based on a bioassay battery involving multiple toxicity effects are recommended as useful tools for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water, which will benefit the promotion and guarantee the rapid development of the reclamation and reuse of wastewater.  相似文献   
4.
Cake layer formation is inevitable over time for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane-based drinking water treatment. Although the cake layer is always considered to cause membrane fouling, it can also act as a “dynamic protection layer”, as it further adsorbs pollutants and dramatically reduces their chance of getting to the membrane surface. Here, the UF membrane fouling performance was investigated with pre-deposited loose flocs in the presence of humic acid (HA). The results showed that the floc dynamic protection layer played an important role in removing HA. The higher the solution pH, the more negative the floc charge, resulting in lower HA removal efficiency due to the electrostatic repulsion and large pore size of the floc layer. With decreasing solution pH, a positively charged floc dynamic protection layer was formed, and more HA molecules were adsorbed. The potential reasons were ascribed to the smaller floc size, greater positive charge, and higher roughness of the floc layer. However, similar membrane fouling performance was also observed for the negative and positive floc dynamic protection layers due to their strong looseness characteristics. In addition, the molecular weight (MW) distribution of HA also played an important role in UF membrane fouling behavior. For the small MW HA molecules, the chance of forming a loose cake layer was high with a negatively charged floc dynamic protection layer, while for the large MW HA molecules it was high with a positively charged floc dynamic protection layer. As a result, slight UF membrane fouling was induced.  相似文献   
5.
The degradation of pharmaceutical micropollutants is an intensifying environmental problem and synthesis of efficient photocatalysts for this purpose is one of the foremost challenges worldwide. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop novel plasmonic Ag/Ag2O/BiVO4 nanocomposite photocatalysts by simple precipitation and thermal decomposition methods, which could exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for mineralized pharmaceutical micropollutants. Among the different treatments, the best performance was observed for the Ag/Ag2O/BiVO4 nanocomposites (5 wt.%; 10 min's visible light irradiation) which exhibited 6.57 times higher photodegradation rate than the pure BiVO4. Further, the effects of different influencing factors on the photodegradation system of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) were investigated and the feasibility for its practical application was explored through the specific light sources, water source and cycle experiments. The mechanistic study demonstrated that the photogenerated holes (h+), superoxide radicals (?O2?) and hydroxyl radicals (?OH) participated in TC-HCl removal process, which is different from the pure BiVO4 reaction system. Hence, the present work can provide a new approach for the formation of novel plasmonic photocatalysts with high photoactivity and can act as effective practical application for environmental remediation.  相似文献   
6.
In order to understand the compositions characteristics of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) fraction in road dust (RD2.5) of oasis cities on the edge of Tarim Basin, 30 road dust (RD) samples were collected in Kashi, Cele, and Yutian in the spring, 2018, and RD2.5 was collected using the resuspension approach. Eight water-soluble ions, 39 trace elements and 8 fractions of carbon-containing species in PM2.5 were analyzed. Ca2+ and Ca were the most abundant ions and elements in RD2.5 (7.1% and 9.5%). Cl- in RD2.5 was affected not only by attributed to saline-alkali soils in oasis cities of the Tarim Basin and dust from Taklimakan Desert but also by human activities. Moreover, the organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) ratio indicated that carbon components in RD2.5 in Cele town mainly come from fossil fuel combustion, while those in Yutian and Kashi mainly come from biomass combustion. It is noteworthy that high Ca in RD2.5 was seriously affected by anthropogenic emissions, and high Na and K contents in RD2.5 could be derived from soil and desert dust. It was estimated that Cd, Tl, Sn and Cr were emitted from anthropogenic emissions using the enrichment factor. The coefficients of divergence (COD) result indicated that the influence of local emission on road dust emission is greater than that of long-distance transmission. This study is the first time to comprehensively analyze the chemical characteristics of road dust in oasis cities, and the results provides the sources of road dust at the margin of Tarim Basin.  相似文献   
7.
Reclamation of domestic wastewater for agricultural irrigation is viewed as a sustainable option to create an alternative water source and address water scarcity. Free-living amoebae(FLA), which are amphizoic protozoa, are widely distributed in various environmental sources. The FLA could cause considerable environmental and health risks. However, little information is available on the risk of these protozoa. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility using rural domestic wastewater for agricultural irrigation, and analyzed dynamic changes of the microbial community structure and FLA populations in raw and treated wastewater, as well as the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of lettuce production sites that were irrigated with different water sources. The bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism(T-RFLP). The bacterial community structures in the influent were similar to that in the effluent, while in some cases relative abundances varied significantly. The populations of Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmannella vermiformis in the anaerobically treated wastewater were significantly higher than in the raw wastewater. The vegetables could harbor diverse amoebae, and the abundances of Acanthamoeba spp. and H. vermiformis in the rhizosphere were significantly higher than in the phyllosphere. Accordingly, our studies show insight into the distribution and dissemination of amoebae in wastewater treatment and irrigation practices.  相似文献   
8.
为了解呼兰河哈尔滨段水环境质量现状及污染物来源,在平水期和枯水期,对呼兰河哈尔滨段沿线进行现场勘查及断面水质监测。结果表明,呼兰河哈尔滨段沿岸集中式排污点源、工业点源、农村生活污染、畜禽粪便、农田径流等各类污染源化学需氧量总入河量为7 671.02吨/年,氨氮总入河量为1 195.16吨/年。松北区的主要污染贡献源为肇兰新河支流污染;呼兰区的主要污染贡献源为集中式排污点源和农业面源污染。  相似文献   
9.
针对户外体育活动的空气环境进行详细分析,对造成城市空气质量变差的因素进行剖析,给出影响空气质量的因素:汽车尾气、工业废气、煤尘、建筑尘土、区域环境、大众环保意识十分薄弱等。同时,从影响因素中发现汽车尾气排除的PM10和PM2.5逐渐增加;煤炭燃烧过程生成的煤烟与煤灰,也是产生PM2.5的主来源头之一。例举了某一线城市2012年至2017年SO2、NOx、TSP、PM2.5年均浓度历史变化趋势。措施,能够有效改善空气环境质量,为城市居民的户外体育活动提供一个良好的条件。  相似文献   
10.
本文研究了气相色谱/石墨炉(Ⅲ型)原子吸收光谱联用的工作条件对测定(C2H4)4Pb的影响,选择了分析条件并建立了其分析方法。该方法的最小检测量为8.6×10-11g,回收率为100.8~111.4%。已用于汽油中铅化学形态的分析,取得了满意的结果。  相似文献   
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