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1.
Achieving coexistence between large carnivores and humans in human-dominated landscapes (HDLs) is a key challenge for societies globally. This challenge cannot be adequately met with the current sectoral approaches to HDL governance and an academic community largely dominated by disciplinary sectors. Academia (universities and other research institutions and organizations) should take a more active role in embracing societal challenges around conservation of large carnivores in HDLs by facilitating cross-sectoral cooperation to mainstream coexistence of humans and large carnivores. Drawing on lessons from populated regions of Europe, Asia, and South America with substantial densities of large carnivores, we suggest academia should better embrace the principles and methods of sustainability sciences and create institutional spaces for the implementation of transdisciplinary curricula and projects; reflect on research approaches (i.e., disciplinary, interdisciplinary, or transdisciplinary) they apply and how their outcomes could aid leveraging institutional transformations for mainstreaming; and engage with various institutions and stakeholder groups to create novel institutional structures that can respond to multiple challenges of HDL management and human–large carnivore coexistence. Success in mainstreaming this coexistence in HDL will rest on the ability to think and act cooperatively. Such a conservation achievement, if realized, stands to have far-reaching benefits for people and biodiversity.  相似文献   
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We describe molecular prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1A) in two families. In one family, we carried out DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of OCA1A. In the other family, mutation analysis and carrier detection obviated the need for prenatal diagnosis. Molecular analysis is safer and probably more accurate than fetoscopy and fetal scalp biopsy, and should become the method of first choice for prenatal diagnosis of OCA1.  相似文献   
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to open a dialogue on integrating service‐learning into community based watershed management programs and to discuss opportunities and challenges that a service‐learning program presents to universities and communities. The article presents the concept and definition of service‐learning, and arguments concerning why institutions of higher education and university faculty and students should be involved with community based watershed management programs. The article describes a case study for developing a service‐learning program for watershed management at Virginia Tech and discusses lessons learned from the case study. The paper concluded that to make a service‐learning program sustainable, there should be a long term plan, regular and effective communication with the stakeholders, and some incentives for faculty and students for long term commitment to the community based watershed management programs.  相似文献   
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Abstract: There is a significant need for a science‐based approach to interpret water‐monitoring data and to facilitate the rapid transfer of information to water resource managers and the general public. The water quality Index (WQI) is defined as a single numeric score that describes the surface water quality condition at a particular time and location. The objective of this paper is to describe the WQI concept and the approach for developing an ecoregion‐specific standardized WQI that meets the needs described above. The premise of the proposed WQI is based on categorizing scientifically documented aquatic life responses to changes in instream water chemistry. The method uses an aggregated procedure that matches the entire range of standardized probable biological responses to standardized narrative water quality evaluation categories and standardized rank score categories. The calculation of WQI and decision‐making process are performed within an Excel spreadsheet software program. The article includes examples of the proposed WQI applications that could enhance effective water resource management and facilitate timely communication of water quality conditions to water resource managers and the general public.  相似文献   
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Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at a significantly higher frequency than the typical population. The differentiation of ASD symptoms from those of severe intellectual disability presents diagnostic challenges, which have led to more refined methods in the clinical evaluation of ASD in DS. These improved phenotypic characterization methods not only provide better diagnosis of ASD in DS, but may also be useful in elucidating the etiology of the increased prevalence of ASD in DS. Because all individuals with the classic presentation of DS have trisomy 21, it is possible that those with co-occurring DS and ASD may have additional genetic variants which can act as modifiers of the phenotype, leading to the development of ASD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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The effect of dietary non-phytin phosphorus (NPP) and phytase (PHY) concentration on total phosphorus (TP) and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) excretion was determined. Diets tested in broiler experiments were: National Research Council nutrient requirements for non-phytin phosphorus (NRC), NRC + PHY, reduced non-phytin phosphorus (RED), and RED + PHY. Turkey and swine experiment diets included NRC, RED, and RED + PHY. For all experiments, except broiler Experiment 1, excreta were: (i) boiled, antibiotic added, then frozen; (ii) boiled, antibiotic added, incubated (37 degrees C for 72 h), then frozen; and (iii) incubated, boiled, antibiotic added, then frozen. In Experiment 1, excreta were collected and frozen or incubated for 24 or 48 h. In broiler Experiment 1, WSP was not affected by phytase but increased with post-excretion incubation. In a broiler Experiment 2, reducing NPP resulted in reduced excreta TP and WSP (11.3 to 8.3 and 5.3 to 2.7 g kg(-1)). Feeding RED + PHY diets resulted in less TP and WSP (7.6 and 0.6 g kg(-1)) as compared with NRC + PHY (11.2 and 3.9 g kg(-1), Experiment 3). Incubation resulted in increased WSP, irrespective of phytase addition such that WSP as a percent of TP was similar among treatments. Addition of antibiotics before incubation prevented the increase in WSP. Similar results were observed with turkey and swine. Therefore, when phytase is used properly (i.e., with a simultaneous reduction of NPP), WSP or WSP as a percent of TP are not affected. The increase in WSP as a percent of TP post-excretion is a function of excreta microbial activity and not dietary phytase addition.  相似文献   
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Mercury is ranked 3rd as a global pollutant because of its long persistence in the environment. Approximately 65% of its anthropogenic emission (Hg0) to the atmosphere is from coal-thermal power plants. Thus, the Hg0 emission control from coal-thermal power plants is inevitable. Therefore, multiple sorbent materials were synthesized using a one-step pyrolysis method to capture the Hg0 from simulated coal syngas. Results showed, the Hg0 removal performance of the sorbents increased by the citric acid/ultrasonic application. T5CUF0.3 demonstrated the highest Hg0 capturing performance with an adsorption capacity of 106.81 µg/g within 60 min at 200 °C under complex simulated syngas mixture (20% CO, 20% H2, 10 ppmV HCl, 6% H2O, and 400 ppmV H2S). The Hg0 removal mechanism was proposed, revealing that the chemisorption governs the Hg0 removal process. Besides, the active Hg0 removal performance is attributed to the high dispersion of valence Fe3O4 and lattice oxygen (α) contents over the T5CUF0.3 surface. In addition, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and XPS analysis confirmed that H2S/HCl gases generate active sites over the sorbent surface, facilitating high Hg0 adsorption from syngas. This work represented a facile and practical pathway for utilizing cheap and eco-friendly tea waste to control the Hg0 emission.  相似文献   
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In human-populated landscapes worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. Although dogs have been used for the protection of livestock from wild carnivores, they have also been implicated as predators of livestock. We used a combination of methods (field surveys, interview surveys, and data from secondary sources) to examine the patterns and factors driving livestock depredation by free-ranging dogs, as well as economic losses to local communities in a Trans-Himalayan agro-pastoralist landscape in India. Our results show that livestock abundance was a better predictor of depredation in the villages than local dog abundance. Dogs mainly killed small-bodied livestock and sheep were the most selected prey. Dogs were responsible for the majority of livestock losses, with losses being comparable to that by snow leopards. This high level of conflict may disrupt community benefits from conservation programs and potentially undermine the conservation efforts in the region through a range of cascading effects.  相似文献   
10.
Studies that focus on single predator-prey interactions can be inadequate for understanding antipredator responses in multi-predator systems. Yet there is still a general lack of information about the strategies of prey to minimize predation risk from multiple predators at the landscape level. Here we examined the distribution of seven African ungulate species in the fenced Karongwe Game Reserve (KGR), South Africa, as a function of predation risk from all large carnivore species (lion, leopard, cheetah, African wild dog, and spotted hyena). Using observed kill data, we generated ungulate-specific predictions of relative predation risk and of riskiness of habitats. To determine how ungulates minimize predation risk at the landscape level, we explicitly tested five hypotheses consisting of strategies that reduce the probability of encountering predators, and the probability of being killed. All ungulate species avoided risky habitats, and most selected safer habitats, thus reducing their probability of being killed. To reduce the probability of encountering predators, most of the smaller prey species (impala, warthog, waterbuck, kudu) avoided the space use of all predators, while the larger species (wildebeest, zebra, giraffe) only avoided areas where lion and leopard space use were high. The strength of avoidance for the space use of predators generally did not correspond to the relative predation threat from those predators. Instead, ungulates used a simpler behavioral rule of avoiding the activity areas of sit-and-pursue predators (lion and leopard), but not those of cursorial predators (cheetah and African wild dog). In general, selection and avoidance of habitats was stronger than avoidance of the predator activity areas. We expect similar decision rules to drive the distribution pattern of ungulates in other African savannas and in other multi-predator systems, especially where predators differ in their hunting modes.  相似文献   
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