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1.
The rapidly changing climate is posing growing threats for all species, but particularly for those already considered threatened. We reviewed 100 recovery plans for Australian terrestrial threatened species (50 fauna and 50 flora plans) written from 1997 to 2017. We recorded the number of plans that acknowledged climate change as a threat and of these how many proposed specific actions to ameliorate the threat. We classified these actions along a continuum from passive or incremental to active or interventionist. Overall, just under 60% of the sampled recovery plans listed climate change as a current or potential threat to the threatened taxa, and the likelihood of this acknowledgment increased over time. A far smaller proportion of the plans, however, identified specific actions associated with ameliorating climate risk (22%) and even fewer (9%) recommended any interventionist action in response to a climate-change-associated threat. Our results point to a disconnect between the knowledge generated on climate-change-related risk and potential adaptation strategies and the extent to which this knowledge has been incorporated into an important instrument of conservation action.  相似文献   
2.
Examination of car fleet records in Accra demonstrates an increasing proportion of catalytic converter-equipped cars in the relatively old car fleet (average age 13 years) due to their import from developed countries. However, only leaded petrol is sold in Ghana. Lead anti-knocking additives, which are known to affect catalyst activity and promote thermal sintering and mechanical abrasion, may increase Pt emissions. This possible synergism prompted the concomitant determination of Pb and Pt levels in road dust and roadside soils in Ghana. Both metals followed traffic density with higher concentrations in urban areas compared to remote sites. In urban areas, the range for Pb (365 +/- 93 microg g(-1) for dust and 291 +/- 76 microg g(-1) for soil) reflects precatalyst levels in Europe and the US, while the range for Pt (39 +/- 24 ng g(-1) for dust and 15 +/- 5.3 ng g(-1) for soil) is typical for the same countries. The elevated Pt concentrations were unexpected due to recent introduction of catalysts to Ghana compared to the prolonged use of catalysts in Europe and the US.  相似文献   
3.
Dense blooms of diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria are formed every summer in the Baltic Sea. We estimated their contribution to nitrogen fixation by combining two decades of cyanobacterial biovolume monitoring data with recently measured genera-specific nitrogen fixation rates. In the Bothnian Sea, estimated nitrogen fixation rates were 80 kt N year−1, which has doubled during recent decades and now exceeds external loading from rivers and atmospheric deposition of 69 kt year−1. The estimated contribution to the Baltic Proper was 399 kt N year−1, which agrees well with previous estimates using other approaches and is greater than the external input of 374 kt N year−1. Our approach can potentially be applied to continuously estimate nitrogen loads via nitrogen fixation. Those estimates are crucial for ecosystem adaptive management since internal nitrogen loading may counteract the positive effects of decreased external nutrient loading.  相似文献   
4.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research - Chlorine (Cl) in the terrestrial environment is of interest from multiple perspectives, including the use of chloride as a tracer for water flow and...  相似文献   
5.
我国的海洋污染日益严重,政府加大海洋环境保护力度势在必行。科学、有效的海洋环境管理对保护环境、提高资源利用效率起着非常重要的作用。但海洋环境并不是一维线性的系统,涉及系统的多维耦合,而海岸带又是与人类活动息息相关的重要部分。本文尝试以青岛市胶州湾海岸带环境管理模式为例,构建包含有"经济-人口-资源-环境-安全-行政(EPRESA)"六个子系统的多维耦合系统模型,并绘制出总流图,然后以此为管理模式的优化提供前提性分析,提出海岸带综合管理模式优化的对策建议。本研究认为,要改善现有的海岸带环境管理体系,应该制定综合性管理政策,建立可持续的融资机制,推进海岸带灾害与风险管理以及引导利益相关者参与管理。  相似文献   
6.
The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) set an ambitious target to achieve a conservation assessment for all known plant species by 2020. We consolidated digitally available plant conservation assessments and reconciled their scientific names and assessment status to predefined standards to provide a quantitative measure of progress toward this target. The 241,919 plant conservation assessments generated represent 111,824 accepted land plant species (vascular plants and bryophytes, not algae). At least 73,081 and up to 90,321 species have been assessed at the global scale, representing 21–26% of known plant species. Of these plant species, at least 27,148 and up to 32,542 are threatened. Eighty plant families, including some of the largest, such as Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, and Rubiaceae, are underassessed and should be the focus of assessment effort if the GSPC target is to be met by 2020. Our data set is accessible online (ThreatSearch) and is a baseline that can be used to directly support other GSPC targets and plant conservation action. Although around one‐quarter of a million plant assessments have been compiled, the majority of plants are still unassessed. The challenge now is to build on this progress and redouble efforts to document conservation status of unassessed plants to better inform conservation decisions and conserve the most threatened species.  相似文献   
7.
Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE) has spurred an unprecedented boom in onshore production in the US. Despite a surge in related research, a void exists regarding inquiries into policy outcomes and perceptions. To address this, support for federal regulatory exemptions for UOGE is examined using survey data collected in 2015 from two Northern Colorado communities. Current regulatory exemptions for UOGE can be understood as components of broader societal processes of neoliberalization. Free market ideology increases public support for federal regulatory exemptions for UOGE. Perceived negative impacts do not necessarily drive people to support increased federal regulation. Utilizing neo-Polanyian theory, interaction between free market ideology and perceived negative impacts is explored. Free market ideology appears to moderate people’s views of regulation: increasing the effect of perceived negative impacts while simultaneously increasing support for deregulation. To conclude, the ways in which free market ideology might normalize the impacts of UOGE activity are discussed.  相似文献   
8.
Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg(-1)), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg(-1), 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg(-1)). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils.  相似文献   
9.
Securing sustainable livelihood conditions and reducing the risk of outmigration in savanna ecosystems hosted in the tropical semiarid regions is of fundamental importance for the future of humanity in general. Although precipitation in tropical drylands, or savannas, is generally more significant than one might expect, these regions are subject to considerable rainfall variability which causes frequent periods of water deficiency. This paper addresses the twin problems of “drought and desertification” from a water perspective, focusing on the soil moisture (green water) and plant water uptake deficiencies. It makes a clear distinction between long‐term climate change, meteorological drought, and agricultural droughts and dry spells caused by rainfall variability and land degradation. It then formulates recommendations to better cope with and to build resilience to droughts and dry spells. Coping with desertification requires a new conceptual framework based on green‐blue water resources to identify hydrological opportunities in a sea of constraints. This paper proposes an integrated land/water approach to desertification where ecosystem management supports agricultural development to build social‐ecological resilience to droughts and dry spells. This approach is based on the premise that to combat desertification, focus should shift from reducing trends of land degradation in agricultural systems to water resource management in savannas and to landscape‐wide ecosystem management.  相似文献   
10.
Summary. This study reports on the impact of insecticidal resistance on the diel periodicity of the calling behaviour and pheromone production of different-aged virgin females of the obliquebanded leafroller (OBL), Choristoneura rosaceana. While both resistant (R) and susceptible (S) females initiated calling on the first night following emergence, the periodicity of the calling behaviour, as determined by the mean onset time of calling (MOTC) and the mean time spent calling (MTSC) over the first six nights of calling, differed between the two strains. R females started calling significantly later in the night. However, as the MOTC of R females advanced with age but did not do so in S individuals, the difference between strains was more pronounced in younger than older females. Furthermore, R females spent less time calling than S individuals. However, the MTSC increased as a function of age in both R and S females, so the difference between strains remained fairly constant for each night of calling. The major component of OBL sex pheromone, the Z11-14: Ac, determined at peak calling activity, significantly declined with female age. Overall, pheromone production was lower in R females than in S females, with the difference being more pronounced in younger than in older individuals. Thus, resistant females may have a lower mating success. The mating success of both R and S strain males did not vary with the number of previous matings acquired. With regard to males, although there was a significant decline in spermatophore size with successive matings, there was no significant difference between strains. However, R males are smaller and may be disadvantaged through female choice and/or may respond differently to pheromone source compared with S individuals. If the reproductive success of both sexes is affected, this may have a profound influence on the dynamics of insecticidal resistance in the presence or absence of selection in OBL populations. Received 4 July 2001; accepted 19 October 2001.  相似文献   
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