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1.
The rapidly changing climate is posing growing threats for all species, but particularly for those already considered threatened. We reviewed 100 recovery plans for Australian terrestrial threatened species (50 fauna and 50 flora plans) written from 1997 to 2017. We recorded the number of plans that acknowledged climate change as a threat and of these how many proposed specific actions to ameliorate the threat. We classified these actions along a continuum from passive or incremental to active or interventionist. Overall, just under 60% of the sampled recovery plans listed climate change as a current or potential threat to the threatened taxa, and the likelihood of this acknowledgment increased over time. A far smaller proportion of the plans, however, identified specific actions associated with ameliorating climate risk (22%) and even fewer (9%) recommended any interventionist action in response to a climate-change-associated threat. Our results point to a disconnect between the knowledge generated on climate-change-related risk and potential adaptation strategies and the extent to which this knowledge has been incorporated into an important instrument of conservation action.  相似文献   
2.
Data are presented demonstrating how clearfelling has changed soil and stream water aluminium chemistry. For soil waters, a strong empirical relationship was observed between inorganic aluminium (Al(inorg)) and total inorganic anion (TIA) concentrations. Before felling, chloride and sulphate accounted for the largest proportion of the TIA concentration. After felling, in soils where nitrification was active, nitrate became increasingly important. Where this led to an increase in TIA, Al(inorg) concentrations increased. Over five years, nitrate concentrations have fallen, along with TIA, resulting in a sympathetic decline in Al(inorg). Streams draining clearfelled areas initially became more acid, although chloride and sulphate concentrations decreased. Stream water nitrate concentrations increased soon after felling and remained higher than controls for up to four years. While nitrate concentrations were high, Al(inorg) remained unchanged. Subsequently, as nitrate and TIA decreased, Al(inorg) also declined to concentrations below those in the control stream. Clearfelling upland forests will not necessarily result in immediate improvements in water quality, although long-term benefits may be seen before canopy-closure of the next crop.  相似文献   
3.
A method using flow-injection, gas-diffusion, derivatisation and then fluorescent detection has been established for ammonium ion determination in seawater. The fluorescent derivative formed by reacting ortho-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and sulfite with ammonia gives high sensitivity while removing potential interferences. This is required to measure the low concentrations of ammonium often seen in the open ocean. The experimental conditions (flow-rate, reagent concentrations, membrane configurations, etc.) were manipulated to improve performance. For a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1), the limit of detection was 7 nM, the coefficient of variation was 5.7% at 800 nM, and the calibration curve was linear to at least 4 micromol L(-1). Interferences were minimised by a gaseous diffusion step. Volatile small molecular-weight amines as interferents were discriminated against by this method. They neither passed through the membrane as efficiently as ammonia, nor reacted as readily with OPA when sulfite was the reductant. Contamination by ammonia from laboratory and shipboard sources complicates application of the method to natural waters, especially measurement of low concentrations (<100 nM) in open-ocean waters. Steps to overcome contamination are described in detail. Some results are presented for ammonium determination in Southern Ocean and Huon Estuary (Tasmania) waters.  相似文献   
4.
To assess contaminant concentrations in the Firth of Clyde in relation to the former sewage sludge dump site at Garroch Head, and investigate any temporal changes, fish have been sampled annually since 1992 and sediment since 1999. In addition, a further four locations in the Clyde (Holy Loch, Hunterston, Skelmorlie and Irvine Bay) have been sampled for fish and sediment since 1999. Chlorobiphenyls (CBs) were measured in fish samples and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and CBs in sediment. Since sampling was initiated the concentration for the summation operatorICES7 CBs in fish liver has been consistently >500 microg kg(-1) lipid weight at Garroch Head and the other Clyde sites and lower at the reference sites (Pladda, Colonsay, Broad Bay). Although the lowest CB concentrations of the eleven year period in plaice liver from Garroch Head were found in 2002, CB concentrations were found not to have decreased significantly since sewage sludge dumping ceased in 1998. However, a change in CB profile was observed with fish liver collected between 1992 and 1998 from Garroch Head showing a lower proportion of the less chlorinated CBs compared to the 1999-2002 liver samples. Highest CB and PAH concentrations in sediment were found at Garroch Head and Holy Loch with concentrations at these sites being significantly higher than at all other sites.  相似文献   
5.
Wings from woodcock (Philohela minor) were first monitored for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the eastern U.S. in 1971. Regional differences in these compounds were clearly demonstrated and baseline residue levels were obtained for later comparisons. An expanded sampling of wings in 1972 revealed that residues in wings of adult woodcock may differ significantly from those in immatures, and that residues of several important agricultural insecticides and PCBs had declined significantly. More extensive sampling was undertaken in 1975 to determine if changes in residue levels had taken place in the intervening years. PCBs, mirex, and heptachlor epoxide increased significantly between 1972 and 1975 in adult woodcock wings. In immature woodcock wings mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs increased significantly between 1972 and 1975, but DDT residues decreased significantly.  相似文献   
6.
A method is described whereby dielectrophoresis of algal cells is used to perform rapid water quality analysis, specifically detecting the presence of CuSO4. The dielectric collection spectrum of the fresh water alga Selenastrum capricornutum was determined for a range of concentrations of CuSO4 from 25 mg L(-1) to 0.25 mg L(-1) for exposure times of 15 min and 18 h. In all cases increasing the concentration of CuSO4 reduced cell collection, but a step reduction was observed in collection between 2 mg L(-1) and 5 mg L(-1). This method has potential for forming a rapid, low-cost test for water quality with broad specificity and significantly reduced analysis time compared to current methods.  相似文献   
7.
Variability in the level of expression of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) is documented in cultured chorionic villus (CV) cells derived from two fetuses, one at risk for an unusual peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation defect, and the other at risk for the X-linked form of adrenoleucodystrophy (ALD). Cells from early subcultures of chorionic cells from both cases gave normal values for VLCFA ratios. The results for the fetus at risk for the β-oxidation defect were interpreted to indicate that the fetus was not affected; however, at birth, the infant was clinically and biochemically affected. In the case of the fetus at risk for X-linked ALD, although VLCFAs were normal in subculture 1, the levels of these fatty acids increased dramatically in subculture 3, suggesting an abnormal fetus. Termination of the pregnancy and subsequent biochemical and morphological follow-up confirmed that the fetus was indeed affected by ALD.  相似文献   
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9.
The accumulation of parasites in a fish host is modelled as a function of the total amount of prey consumed. The accumulated parasite load is then expressed as a function of fish length so that the asymptotic growth, L , of any population of commonly infected fish can be estimated. Estimates of L are obtained for orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) and the New Zealand southern arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii).  相似文献   
10.
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