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1.
Achieving coexistence between large carnivores and humans in human-dominated landscapes (HDLs) is a key challenge for societies globally. This challenge cannot be adequately met with the current sectoral approaches to HDL governance and an academic community largely dominated by disciplinary sectors. Academia (universities and other research institutions and organizations) should take a more active role in embracing societal challenges around conservation of large carnivores in HDLs by facilitating cross-sectoral cooperation to mainstream coexistence of humans and large carnivores. Drawing on lessons from populated regions of Europe, Asia, and South America with substantial densities of large carnivores, we suggest academia should better embrace the principles and methods of sustainability sciences and create institutional spaces for the implementation of transdisciplinary curricula and projects; reflect on research approaches (i.e., disciplinary, interdisciplinary, or transdisciplinary) they apply and how their outcomes could aid leveraging institutional transformations for mainstreaming; and engage with various institutions and stakeholder groups to create novel institutional structures that can respond to multiple challenges of HDL management and human–large carnivore coexistence. Success in mainstreaming this coexistence in HDL will rest on the ability to think and act cooperatively. Such a conservation achievement, if realized, stands to have far-reaching benefits for people and biodiversity.  相似文献   
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This work established background concentrations for the pseudo total (HNO3 + H2O2-soluble), mobilisable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) and mobile (1?M NH4NO3-soluble) element fractions of Hungarian surface soils that can be used as reference values for the soil quality standards. The 193 soils investigated were taken from the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System. The background values for Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were given as a range covering 95% of the variance of the representative samples. The differences between observed element concentrations and the calculated background values indicated anthropogenic or pedogenic impact in each fraction. The comparison of the calculated background values with the Hungarian quality standards and the contamination limit values of other countries showed that the limit values of a certain region or country are not suitable for other areas. Generally, Mn and Al had the highest, while Cd had the lowest concentration in each fraction. Cr and Al were the least and Sr was the most mobile element. The principal component analysis indicated different geochemical and physico-chemical behaviour of the elements in the fractions; the pseudo total fraction was influenced more by the geological behaviour, while mobilisable and mobile fraction explained a much higher proportion of the total variance of soil physico-chemical properties than soil geochemical properties. The Cd–Ni and Co–Mn element pairs were always in the same principal component in each fractions indicating similar geogenic origin and showing that their solubility changes are similar in function of soil properties.  相似文献   
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Conservative models were used to estimate the airborne concentrations of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) vapor and particulates originating from soil containing 100 ppb TCDD. The upper-bound estimates were 3.25 pg/m3 of airborne TCDD vapor on-site and 0.51 pg/m3 for TCDD vapor 100 meters downwind. The TCDD air concentration on-site due to suspended particulate is estimated to be 1.4 pg/m3, based on a TSP level of 0.07 mg/m3. Assuming 70 years of continuous exposure to these concentrations, the upper-bound cancer risks determined from the Jury model were estimated to be 9.4 × 10−6 to 1.1 × 10−4 and 1.5 × 10−6 to 1.7 × 10−5 for inhalation of on- and off-site vapor, respectively, and 4.1 × 10−6 to 4.6 × 10−5 for dust inhalation. Since few sites have average soil concentrations as high as 100 ppb TCDD, this worst-case analysis indicates that inhalation will rarely, if ever, be a significant route of exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil. Experimental results support this claim and point to much lower risk estimates (8.4 × 10−9 to 9.9 × 10−8), suggesting that the parameters used in the Jury model are likely to overestimate the actual airborne levels of TCDD at contaminated sites.  相似文献   
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Elie Gaget  Diego Pavón-Jordán  Alison Johnston  Aleksi Lehikoinen  Wesley M. Hochachka  Brett K. Sandercock  Alaaeldin Soultan  Hichem Azafzaf  Nadjiba Bendjedda  Taulant Bino  Luka Božič  Preben Clausen  Mohamed Dakki  Koen Devos  Cristi Domsa  Vitor Encarnação  Kiraz Erciyas-Yavuz  Sándor Faragó  Teresa Frost  Clemence Gaudard  Lívia Gosztonyi  Fredrik Haas  Menno Hornman  Tom Langendoen  Christina Ieronymidou  Vasiliy A. Kostyushin  Lesley J. Lewis  Svein-Håkon Lorentsen  Leho Luigujõe  Włodzimierz Meissner  Tibor Mikuska  Blas Molina  Zuzana Musilová  Viktor Natykanets  Jean-Yves Paquet  Nicky Petkov  Danae Portolou  Jozef Ridzoň  Samir Sayoud  Marko Šćiban  Laimonas Sniauksta  Antra Stīpniece  Nicolas Strebel  Norbert Teufelbauer  Goran Topić  Danka Uzunova  Andrej Vizi  Johannes Wahl  Marco Zenatello  Jon E. Brommer 《Conservation biology》2021,35(3):834-845
Climate warming is driving changes in species distributions and community composition. Many species have a so-called climatic debt, that is, shifts in range lag behind shifts in temperature isoclines. Inside protected areas (PAs), community changes in response to climate warming can be facilitated by greater colonization rates by warm-dwelling species, but also mitigated by lowering extirpation rates of cold-dwelling species. An evaluation of the relative importance of colonization-extirpation processes is important to inform conservation strategies that aim for both climate debt reduction and species conservation. We assessed the colonization-extirpation dynamics involved in community changes in response to climate inside and outside PAs. To do so, we used 25 years of occurrence data of nonbreeding waterbirds in the western Palearctic (97 species, 7071 sites, 39 countries, 1993–2017). We used a community temperature index (CTI) framework based on species thermal affinities to investigate species turnover induced by temperature increase. We determined whether thermal community adjustment was associated with colonization by warm-dwelling species or extirpation of cold-dwelling species by modeling change in standard deviation of the CTI (CTISD). Using linear mixed-effects models, we investigated whether communities in PAs had lower climatic debt and different patterns of community change than communities outside PAs. For CTI and CTISD combined, communities inside PAs had more species, higher colonization, lower extirpation, and lower climatic debt (16%) than communities outside PAs. Thus, our results suggest that PAs facilitate 2 independent processes that shape community dynamics and maintain biodiversity. The community adjustment was, however, not sufficiently fast to keep pace with the large temperature increases in the central and northeastern western Palearctic. Our results underline the potential of combining CTI and CTISD metrics to improve understanding of the colonization-extirpation patterns driven by climate warming.  相似文献   
6.
Sorption of copper, zinc and lead on soil mineral phases   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Sipos P  Németh T  Kis VK  Mohai I 《Chemosphere》2008,73(4):461-469
Soil mineral phases play a significant role in controlling heavy metal mobility in soils. The effective study of their relation needs the integrated use of several analytical methods. In this study, analytical electron microscopy analyses were combined with sequential chemical extractions on soils spiked with Cu, Zn and Pb. Our aims were to study the metal sorption capacity of soil mineral phases and the effect of presence of iron oxide and carbonate on this property of soil minerals. Copper and Pb were found to be characterized by higher and stronger sorption on the studied samples than Zn. Only the former two metals showed significant differences in their immobilized metal amounts on the studied samples and soil mineral particles. Highest metal amounts were sorbed on the swelling clay mineral particles (smectites and vermiculites), but iron-oxide phases may also have similar lead sorption capacity. Alkaline conditions due to the carbonate content of soils resulted both in increased sorption on the mineral particles for Cu and in enhanced role of precipitation for all the studied metals. On the other hand, the intimate association of phyllosilicates and iron resulted in significant increase in metal sorption capacity of the given particle. The results of sequential extractions could be successfully completed by the analytical electron microscopy analyses for studying the sorption capacity of discrete mineral particles. Their integrated use helps us in better understanding the heavy metal-mineral interactions in soils.  相似文献   
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On three occasions between 1998 and 2000, freshwater mussels were collected by divers in Lake Memphremagog during the spring and transplanted to various locations in the St-Fran?ois River (Quebec, Canada). Mussel growth was monitored by comparing total weight and length at the beginning and end of the exposure period. In 1998, mussels were caged for 60 days at 10 stations, including locations receiving treated effluents from three pulp and paper mills. Overall, there was an apparent trend of increased mussel growth from upstream to downstream along the river. However, mussels caged downstream from the effluent discharge of a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill grew more slowly than those caged immediately upstream in the river. In 1999 and 2000, we further investigated the situation in the vicinity of this bleached kraft mill. The measurements again indicated that growth of mussels in the effluent plume from this mill was reduced in comparison to sites upstream. Overall, in terms of growth, the caged mussels responded both positively and negatively to different environmental conditions. Compared with other monitoring approaches used at these sites during the same period, the caged mussel experiment results were consistent with the trends observed with the benthic invertebrate survey but not with the trends observed for fish.  相似文献   
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