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1.
基团贡献法对取代苯类化合物生物降解性的预测   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
测定了 47种取代苯类化合物在松花江水中的 5日生化需氧量 (BOD5) .分别采用线性基团贡献法和非线性基团贡献法(人工神经网络法 )对化合物的生物降解性BOD5 ThOD(ThOD :理论需氧量 )进行QSBR研究 .得到不同基团对生物降解性的贡献为 :C6H5>COOH >OH >CH3 O CH3 >NH2 >Cl >NO2 .线性基团贡献法对于训练组和测试组的定性预测正确率分别为72 %和 86 % ;而人工神经网络法的预测正确率分别为 92 %和 86 % .预测结果表明线性和非线性基团贡献法的预测效果都很好 ,相比而言 ,非线性方法对生物降解性的预测更准确  相似文献   
2.
取代芳烃对发光菌的毒性及定量结构与活性相关   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
通过测定取代芳烃对发光菌毒性,用Free-Wilson法和分子连接性法研究了取代芳烃结构与活性的相关性,取代基的毒性顺序为:-Br>-COOH>-NO2≈-Cl>-CH3>NH2。建立了EC50与LC50的相关性,并预测一些化合物的LC50值,结果和实测值符合较好。  相似文献   
3.

A process combining catalyzed Fe(0)-carbon microelectrolysis (IC-ME) with activated carbon (AC) adsorption was developed for advanced reclaimed water treatment. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were achieved, and the effects of composite catalyst (CC) addition, AC addition, and initial pH were investigated. The reaction kinetics and reaction mechanisms were calculated and analyzed. The results showed that CC addition could enhance the reduction rate of nitrate and effectively inhibit the production of ammonia. Moreover, AC addition increased the adsorption capacity of biorefractory organic compounds (BROs) and enhanced the degradation of BRO. The reduction of NO3?–N at different pH values was consistently greater than 96.9%, and NH4+–N was suppressed by high pH. The presence of CC ensured the reaction rate of IC-ME at high pH. The reaction kinetics orders and constants were calculated. Catalyzed iron scrap (IS)-AC showed much better nitrate reduction and BRO degradation performances than IS-AC and AC. The IC-ME showed great potential for application to nitrate and BRO reduction in reclaimed water.

  相似文献   
4.
部分取代苯类在江水中的生物降解与结构相关性研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
测定了27种取代苯类化合物在松花江江水中的生物降解性.采用量子化学MOPAC6.0-AM1法计算了化合物的分子量(MW)、生成热(Hf)、分子总表面积(TSA)及最高占有轨道能(EHOMO),结合辛醇/水分配系数lgp及酸解离常数pKa对其中22种化合物的BOD值进行多元线性回归分析,得到如下模型:BOD=105.73-0.439MW-0.076Hf-6.660lgPn=22,R2=0.821,SE=8.250,F=27.56,P=0.000应用所得模型对其余5个化合物的生物降解性进行了预测.只有一个化合物的相对预测误差大于20%,为20.8%.平均预测误差为12.4%.  相似文献   
5.
王朔  王羽  赵元慧  # 《生态毒理学报》2017,12(3):681-686
不同暴露途径下有机物在生物体内的吸收分布不同,导致毒性效应亦不同,研究化学品在不同暴露途径下对生物体的毒性,对化学品的安全性评价有实际意义。本文通过研究静脉注射、腹腔注射、肌肉注射与经口灌胃4种暴露途径下527个有机物对大鼠的急性毒性数据相关性,比较了不同暴露途径下大鼠对有机污染物的敏感度顺序,结果为:静脉注射>腹腔注射>肌肉注射>经口灌胃途径,静脉注射途径下log1/LD50与其他几种注射途径下的log1/LD50有较显著的相关性,但是与灌胃途径下毒性值之间的相关性较差,相关系数r的范围为0.82~0.97。通过逐项分析研究不同暴露途径下化合物对大鼠的急性毒性与生物利用度、吸收速率、消除速率以及代谢过程的关系,结果表明,导致这种差异的原因主要是有机污染物在大鼠体内的吸附动力学过程不同所致。  相似文献   
6.

Purpose

The environmental issues caused by the municipal solid waste disposal are becoming a worldwide concern.

Methods

We studied the situations both domestically and abroad by the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) approach and also conducted comprehensive evaluations of garbage disposal in Changchun City.

Results

On the basis of this study, we found that SEA is of great importance in the municipal solid waste disposal. Moreover, with the rapid socioeconomic development of Changchun City, municipal solid waste production increases on an annual basis, and thus, good waste management planning is of great significance.

Conclusions

Considering the situation of the economic development of Changchun City, garbage disposal was handled mainly in the major sanitary landfills with appropriate use of incineration technology. This plan is environmentally friendly at a relatively high degree and has met the requirements of minimum investment. It also takes into account the requirements of the development of incineration technology. Regarding environmental pollution in terms of groundwater pollution and atmospheric pollution, this plan is a feasible one by meeting various requirements with low environmental impact among the three plans discussed in this study.  相似文献   
7.
8.
Evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment has previously been conducted to prevent pollution of the environment. The current study aimed to provide a set of practical methods for efficient airport sanitary supervision. Aircraft liquid waste was collected at Longjia International Airport, Changchun from multiple flights. The efficiency of liquid waste treatment as well as the water quality of the wastewater processed via a second-stage wastewater facility were examined by measuring a number of physical, chemical, and biological indices. Our results indicated that treatment solely via resolvable sanitizing liquid was not sufficient. Although the contents of first-class pollutants all met the requirements of the standard criteria, the contents of a number of second-class pollutants did not satisfy these criteria. However, after further treatment via a second-stage wastewater facility installed at the airport, all indices reached second-grade requirements of the discharge standard. We suggest that daily inspection and quarantine indices at airports should include the suspension content, biological oxygen demands after 5 days, chemical oxygen demand total organic carbon content, amino nitrogen content, total phosphorous content, and the level of fecal coliforms.  相似文献   
9.
Comprehensive field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter <10 microm in diameter, and total suspended particulate from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper focuses on the quasicontinuous gas concentration measurement at multiple locations among paired barns in seven states. Documented principles, used in air pollution monitoring at industrial sources, were applied in developing quality assurance (QA) project plans for these studies. Air was sampled from multiple locations with each gas analyzed with one high quality commercial gas analyzer that was located in an environmentally controlled on-farm instrument shelter. A nominal 4 L/min gas sampling system was designed and constructed with Teflon wetted surfaces, bypass pumping, and sample line flow and pressure sensors. Three-way solenoids were used to automatically switch between multiple gas sampling lines with > or =10 min sampling intervals. Inside and outside gas sampling probes were between 10 and 115 m away from the analyzers. Analyzers used chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photoacoustic infrared, and photoionization detectors for NH3, H2S, CO2, CH4, and NMHC, respectively. Data were collected using personal computer-based data acquisition hardware and software. This paper discusses the methodology of gas concentration measurements and the unique challenges that livestock barns pose for achieving desired accuracy and precision, data representativeness, comparability and completeness, and instrument calibration and maintenance.  相似文献   
10.
This paper reviews the effects and control methods for particulate matter (PM) in animal indoor environments. PM in animal indoor environments represents a particular threat to the health of countless animals and millions of workers around the world. Because air in animal facilities has a higher portion of biological content than does air in other environments, the adverse health impact is much greater than it is for the same amount of PM in other environments. Source control, ventilation, and internal air cleaning can reduce PM concentration in animal indoor environments. Source control is typically the most economical method for PM control. Ventilation is the most widely applied technology, although uncertainties remain as to its effectiveness for PM control. Most internal air cleaners require frequent maintenance because of the high concentration and stickiness of PM in animal environments. Filtration is the most well-studied and widely used technology for internal air cleaning because of its low capital cost and high efficiency. Several trials using electrostatic precipitators have shown efficiencies of approximately 50% in removing PM concentration, but improvements are needed before they can be used widely. No report using wet collectors or centrifugals as internal air cleaners has been found.  相似文献   
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