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Environmental Science and Pollution Research - At present, the contradiction between survival and ecology necessitates the integration of crop planting, chemical fertilizer application, and...  相似文献   
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放射性核素在近海底泥中的分布规律研究是探讨沿海核设施及核电站低放废液排入附近海域后对环境影响的一个重要方面。由于实际海域条件的复杂性,如何估算放射性核素在底泥中的含量是一个至今没有搞清的课题,应用一种保守简单有效的估算方法,以一个简化实例探讨了该方法的应用。  相似文献   
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基于隧道火灾不同横向火源位置的非对称卷吸影响,通过模拟计算分析了中心火源和偏置火源产生的烟气沿纵向最大温升变化规律,研究了顶棚下方近壁面区域内的不同温度分布,提出偏置火源纵向空间最大顶棚温升公式。结果表明:在壁面黏性作用下,沿纵向蔓延的烟气最高温度在顶棚下方呈现“温度边界层”分布;随着火源位置的偏移,下游出现偏置距离起主导作用影响温度衰减的区域,衰减速度相较于中心火源逐渐降低;火源下游近壁面最高温度位置逐渐远离顶棚后趋于稳定。研究结果对于排烟方式的设计以及空间通风效果的提升有着重要意义。  相似文献   
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Emission trading is one of the most effective alternatives to controlling water pollution. Water environmental functional zone (WEFZ) is used to determine the water quality standard and identify the zone boundary for each river or reach. In this study, a new emission trading scheme was addressed based on WEFZ, accounting for both the temporal dimension and water quality control. A temporal factor of emission trading was proposed based on variations in the environmental capacity within a year by dividing the year into three periods, including high, normal, and low periods of environmental capacity. During each period, emission trading was implemented exclusively. A water quality-control scheme was suggested based on the water quality requirement in the water functional zone, in which the water quality at the downstream boundary of the zone was required to meet the water standard following auto-purification in the stream. Two methods of calculating water quality control are addressed for point-source pollution and non-point-source pollution. The calculated temporal dimension and water quality control were located in Dongxi River of the Daning Watershed in the Three Gorges Watershed. The high period was during June, July, and August, the normal period was during April, May, September, and October, and the low period was during January, February, March, November, and December. The results from the water quality calculation demonstrated that the discharge of point-source and non-point-source pollutions led to an excess of common contaminants at the downstream boundary of WEFZ. The temporal and spatial factors above should be incorporated into the emission trading scheme based on WEFZ.  相似文献   
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Metal speciation can provide sufficient information for environmental and geochemical researches. In this study, based on the speciation determination of Cu and Zn in the Yangtze Estuary sediments, roles of eight geochemical controls (i.e., total organic carbon (TOC), clay, Fe/Mn in five chemical fractions and salinity) are fully investigated and sequenced with correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA). Results show that TOC, clay and Fe/Mn oxides are key geochemical factors affecting the chemical speciation distributions of Cu and Zn in sediments, while the role of salinity appears to be more indirect effect. The influencing sequence generally follows the order: TOC>clay>Mn oxides>Fe oxides>salinity. Among the different fractions of Fe/Mn oxides, residual and total Fe content, and exchangeable and carbonate Mn exert the greatest influences, while exchangeable Fe and residual Mn show the poorest influences.  相似文献   
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Successive sediment suspensions often happen in estuary, yet little research has probed into the difference in the release behaviors of organic compounds among different suspensions. This study took polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as typical organic contaminants and investigated the release behaviors between two successive suspensions with a particle entrainment simulator (PES). Results showed that successive sediment suspensions lowered the concentration of dissolved PAHs in the overlying water via facilitating the re-adsorption of dissolved PAHs onto the suspended particles. Fast-release and slow-release periods of PAHs were successively observed in the both suspensions. The concentration changes of dissolved PAHs in the second suspension were generally similar with but hysteretic to those in the first suspension. More vigorous desorption and re-absorption of PAHs were induced in the second suspension. Successive sediment suspensions obviously decreased the concentrations of mineral composition and organic matters in the overlying water, which significantly affects multiphase distribution of PAHs.  相似文献   
9.
三峡水库主要支流沉积物的磷吸附/释放特性   总被引:20,自引:4,他引:16  
以三峡水库主要支流寸滩、小江、大宁和香溪表层沉积物为对象,通过连续提取法分析4种沉积物磷的赋存形态,模拟研究了pH和温度对不同沉积物磷吸附/释放的影响.结果表明,寸滩、小江、大宁和香溪表层沉积物磷赋存形态均以无机磷为主(占总磷含量的59.29%~78.82%),其中钙结合态磷(Ca-P)含量大于铁/铝结合态磷(Fe/Al-P).上覆水pH值对沉积物磷释放有明显的影响,中性条件下磷释放量最低,酸性条件下由于占优势的Ca-P大量溶解导致磷释放量大于碱性条件,因此,水体酸化易增加三峡主要支流(寸滩、小江、大宁和香溪)的磷释放风险.pH值变化亦明显影响沉积物对于磷的吸附,pH在6~8范围内,4种沉积物对于磷的吸附量保持在较高的水平,吸附量从大到小的顺序为:小江大宁寸滩香溪.偏酸性条件(pH6)下过多的H 与固体表面竞争溶解态活性磷(SRP);偏碱性条件(pH>8)下大量的OH->与SRP竞争沉积物表面的吸附位,故这-pH值范围内(pH<6或pH>8)磷的吸附量明显减少.磷在4种沉积物上的吸附为吸热过程,不同温度下(278K、293K、303K)沉积物对P的吸附均符合修正后的Langmuir模型,标准吸附热为18.92~46.63 kJ·mol-1其中,磷从水体分配到大宁河沉积物中的标准吸附热最大.  相似文献   
10.
香溪河流域土地利用格局演变对非点源污染的影响研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
以分布式模型SWAT为研究工具,在气候、土壤等因素不变的情况下,模拟了三峡库区香溪河流域土地利用格局演变对于非点源污染的影响.研究结果表明,自20世纪80年代至2007年,研究区由土地利用所造成的非点源污染TN总体呈减少趋势,4种土地利用情景下模拟得到的年均非点源污染TN分别为1 841.60、824.86、1 790...  相似文献   
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