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1.
Huang  Ying  Jiang  Qiongji  Yu  Xubiao  Gan  Huihui  Zhu  Xia  Fan  Siyi  Su  Yan  Xu  Zhirui  He  Cunrui 《Environmental science and pollution research international》2021,28(37):51251-51264
Environmental Science and Pollution Research - Trace copper ion (Cu(II)) in water and wastewater can trigger peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation to oxidize organic compounds, but it only works under...  相似文献   
2.
废旧锌锰电池生物淋滤-水热法制备纳米锰锌铁氧体   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
牛志睿  李彤  苏沉  韩爽 《环境科学学报》2017,37(9):3356-3363
以氧化硫硫杆菌(A.thiooxidans)和氧化亚铁钩端螺旋菌(L.ferrooxidans)为混合淋滤菌株对废旧锌锰电池进行了生物浸提,并以获取的淋滤液为前驱体,采用水热法制备出系列锰锌铁氧体软磁材料(Mn_(1-x)Zn_xFe_2O_4,x=0.2~0.8);结合X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜-能谱(SEMEDX)、振动样品磁强计(VSM)、透射电镜(TEM)、红外光谱(FT-IR)、热重-差热分析(TG-DTA)等表征手段对制备材料的结构、形貌、磁学性能和稳定性进行分析.结果表明,在5%固液比(质量体积比,5 g/100 mL,以下均表述为"5%固液比")下,经过5 d的外源酸调控生物浸提,分别获得了84.5%、63.2%的Zn、Mn浸出效率;当Zn∶Mn∶Fe=0.4∶0.6∶2.0(物质的量比,即x=0.4)时,制备的纳米级Mn_(0.6)Zn_(0.4)Fe_2O_4性能最优,属纯相的立方尖晶石结构,颗粒分布均匀,饱和磁化强度(M_s)、剩余磁化强度(M_r)和矫顽力(H_c)分别为68.9 emu·g~(-1)、4.7 emu·g~(-1)和53.6 Oe,具有热稳定性和耐酸碱性,有望成为一种新型的水处理磁性材料.  相似文献   
3.
废旧锌锰电池锌锰元素的分析表征   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
为了解废旧锌锰电池的锌锰元素特征,以废旧碱性(A-A)和酸性(Zn-C)电池为研究对象,采用化学分析、BCR连续萃取技术、SEM-EDS和XRD等手段对拆分的电池正、负电极材料中的锌锰元素进行了分析表征.实验表明:废旧碱性(A-A)电池中Mn、Zn分别占到正极材料质量的49.2%、10.3%,以Zn Mn2O4四方体锌锰矿结构晶体存在;Zn占负极材料的52.5%,以Zn O晶体存在;废旧酸性(Zn-C)电池混合电解质中,Mn、Zn各占41.8%和25.2%,分别以Zn Mn2O4、Mn O2、Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O和Zn(NH3)2Cl2等晶体存在.BCR处理结果显示,A-A电池正极和Zn-C电池混合电解质中,Mn主要为残渣态较难酸释,而A-A电池负极中的Zn易于回收.  相似文献   
4.
以废旧锌锰电池生物浸提液为前驱体、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)为结构导向剂,采用水热法制备了一种新型球形介孔锰锌铁氧体(P-MZF).同时,利用扫描电镜(SEM)、比表面积(S_(BET))、X-射线衍射(XRD)、高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)、选区电子衍射(SAED)、红外光谱分析(FT-IR)、X射线光电子能谱分析(XPS)和磁滞回线(VSM)等表征分析了制备的材料,并研究了其对亚甲基蓝(MB)的吸附特性.结果表明,相比于无PVP制备的样品,P-MZF的比表面积S_(BET)(126.7 m~2·g~(-1))、活性点位的增加大幅提升了对MB的化学吸附能力;吸附动力学和热力学分析表明,Pseudo second-order和Langmuir模型适合描述其对MB的吸附行为.此外,经过5次循环吸附-醇洗再生,P-MZF对MB的吸附效率仍可维持在93%以上.制备的P-MZF具有高吸附和磁回收简便的优点.  相似文献   
5.
超声辅助生物淋滤废旧Zn-C电池锌锰溶出的研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
以氧化硫硫杆菌(A.thiooxidans)为淋滤菌株对废旧Zn-C电池电极材料中的Zn、Mn进行了生物浸提,比较研究了化学浸提、生物淋滤和不同超声辅助方法生物淋滤体系下的Zn、Mn的溶出效率及溶出动力学.结果表明:不同超声辅助方法中,超声+生物淋滤体系Zn、Mn溶出最优,Zn、Mn的最大溶出率分别为94.2%和65.5%,并提高了溶释速率.此外,对于Mn的溶出,化学淋滤体系符合边界层扩散控制模型,生物淋滤和超声+生物淋滤体系符合收缩核Stoke's regime模型,而Zn的溶出均符合化学反应控制模型.  相似文献   
6.
A great number of pedestrians are killed or injured in traffic crashes every year in the US. Vehicle crashes involving pedestrians are often more severe than other crashes because pedestrians are unprotected and are hence more likely to suffer injuries or death if struck by a motor vehicle. To improve pedestrian safety, a variety of treatments such as overhead flashing beacons, in-street crossing signs, in-roadway warning lights, and traffic calming measures have been used. One treatment, in-street yield-to-pedestrian channelizing devices (YTPCD), has been used in many states, including Pennsylvania, where approximately 10% of traffic crash fatalities are pedestrians each year.In an effort to improve pedestrian safety, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) has widely deployed YTPCD. This study examines the spillover (indirect) effects of such devices on motorist and pedestrian behavior. With data collected from eight sites that did not have but were in the vicinity of YTPCD implementations, analysis results show that such devices have significantly positive spillover effects on pedestrian safety at intersections, but they tend to have negative spillover effects at mid-block locations. Overall, the YTPCD appear to have a positive impact on changing motorist and pedestrian behavior, and merit consideration for future usage of this type of device.  相似文献   
7.
为解决干旱扬水灌区土地资源承载状态受多因素耦合影响而难以定量化描述的难题.本文以景电一期灌区为例,基于多级模糊评价理论构建评价指标体系,引入解决复杂系统模糊性及不确定性具有特有优势的云模型,结合黄金分割率法与云发生器原理集成了评语集标准云模型与状态层隶属度云模型,以组合赋权算法求解了指标权重,最终以云数字特征的形式对灌区1994年、2002年、2010年及2018年的土地资源承载状态进行了定量表述.结果表明:灌区各时期土地资源承载状态综合评价云分别为C1(0.3175,0.0728,0.0131)、C2(0.5846,0.0418,0.0117)、C3(0.5315,0.0379,0.0098)、C4(0.7045,0.0614,0.0144).结合云相似度分布特征可知,各时期土地资源承载状态分别为"轻微承载"、"临界承载"、"临界承载"及"承载安全".可知灌区土地资源承载状态自1994年—2018年主要经历了3个演变阶段,即1994—2002年为"快速改善期"、2002—2010年为"环境损伤期"、2010—2018年为"健康恢复期".该方法可为指导研究区及相似研究区寻求生产需求与生态保护之间的平衡机制提供有益参考.  相似文献   
8.

Problem

To simplify the computation of the variance in before-after studies, it is generally assumed that the observed crash data for each entity (or observation) are Poisson distributed. Given the characteristics of this distribution, the observed value (xi) for each entity is implicitly made equal to its variance. However, the variance should be estimated using the conditional properties of this observed value (defined as a random variable), that is, f(xi|μi), since the mean of the observed value is in fact unknown.

Method

Parametric and non-parametric bootstrap methods were investigated to evaluate the conditional assumption using simulated and observed data.

Results

The results of this study show that observed data should not be used as a substitute for the variance, even if the entities are assumed to be Poisson distributed. Consequently, the estimated variance for the parameters under study in traditional before-after studies is likely to be underestimated.

Conclusions

The proposed methods offer more accurate approaches for estimating the variance in before-after studies.  相似文献   
9.
Objective: This article investigated and compared frequency domain and time domain characteristics of drivers' behaviors before and after the start of distracted driving.

Method: Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied for the frequency domain analysis to explore drivers' behavior pattern changes between nondistracted (prestarting of visual–manual task) and distracted (poststarting of visual–manual task) driving periods. Average relative spectral power in a low frequency range (0–0.5 Hz) and the standard deviation in a 10-s time window of vehicle control variables (i.e., lane offset, yaw rate, and acceleration) were calculated and further compared. Sensitivity analyses were also applied to examine the reliability of the time and frequency domain analyses.

Results: Results of the mixed model analyses from the time and frequency domain analyses all showed significant degradation in lateral control performance after engaging in visual–manual tasks while driving. Results of the sensitivity analyses suggested that the frequency domain analysis was less sensitive to the frequency bandwidth, whereas the time domain analysis was more sensitive to the time intervals selected for variation calculations. Different time interval selections can result in significantly different standard deviation values, whereas average spectral power analysis on yaw rate in both low and high frequency bandwidths showed consistent results, that higher variation values were observed during distracted driving when compared to nondistracted driving.

Conclusions: This study suggests that driver state detection needs to consider the behavior changes during the prestarting periods, instead of only focusing on periods with physical presence of distraction, such as cell phone use. Lateral control measures can be a better indicator of distraction detection than longitudinal controls. In addition, frequency domain analyses proved to be a more robust and consistent method in assessing driving performance compared to time domain analyses.  相似文献   

10.
Objective: Safety performance at bus stops is generally evaluated by using historical traffic crash data or traffic conflict data. However, in China, it is quite difficult to obtain such data mainly due to the lack of traffic data management and organizational issues. In light of this, the primary objective of this study is to develop a quantitative approach to evaluate bus stop safety performance.

Methods: The concept of level-of-safety for bus stops is introduced and corresponding models are proposed to quantify safety levels, which consider conflict points, traffic factors, geometric characteristics, traffic signs and markings, pavement conditions, and lighting conditions. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering methods were used to model and quantify safety levels for bus stops.

Results: A case study was conducted to show the applicability of the proposed model with data collected from 46 samples for the 7 most common types of bus stops in China, using 32 of the samples for modeling and 14 samples for illustration. Based on the case study, 6 levels of safety for bus stops were defined. Finally, a linear regression analysis between safety levels and the number of traffic conflicts showed that they had a strong relationship (R2 value of 0.908).

Conclusions: The results indicated that the method was well validated and could be practically used for the analysis and evaluation of bus stop safety in China. The proposed model was relatively easy to implement without the requirement of traffic crash data and/or traffic conflict data. In addition, with the proposed method, it was feasible to evaluate countermeasures to improve bus stop safety (e.g., exclusive bus lanes).  相似文献   

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