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Although most research has focussed on inorganic nutrient forms of nitrate (NO-3) and phosphorus (PO34) in runoff and receiving waters, nitrogen loss from agricultural land can also occur in organic and ammonium-nitrogen form; phosphorus losses, although often dominated by particulate transport, may occur in soluble organic and inorganic form. Furthermore, fluxes between different species may take place during transport from the land to the stream and as a result of in-stream, in-river or in-lake transformations. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variation in all nitrogen species and phosphorus fractions in a drainage basin is therefore essential if the wider environmental significance of elevated nutrient concentrations in natural waters are to be assessed. This paper reviews recent work on N and P losses from agricultural land and presents some results from two intensive agricultural catchments: Slapton, Devon and the river Windrush catchment in the Cotswolds.  相似文献   
地表直接径流和基流均是流域非点源氮/磷养分输出的重要水文途径.科学认识和定量模拟基流氮/磷养分输出对于准确解析水源地水体非点源污染来源至关重要.基于Load Estimator模型和数字滤波算法,建立了定量水源地基流氮素输出的方法体系.以浙江省珊溪水源地的玉泉溪流域为例,利用玉泉溪2010-01—2013-12期间逐月总氮(TN)水质监测数据和逐日流量数据,展示了该方法的计算过程.结果表明,本文建立的水源地基流氮素输出定量方法结果合理,模拟精度高,决定系数和纳什系数分别为0.83和0.80;玉泉溪流域2010—2013年TN负荷量为141.21~274.68 t·a~(-1),平均208.63 t·a~(-1),年基流TN负荷量为84.39~168.68 t·a~(-1),平均127.69 t·a~(-1);基流对玉泉溪年均TN负荷量贡献率高达60%以上,流域基流养分输出对地表水体的污染应引起足够重视.  相似文献   
以南京江北新区分流制雨水管道沉积物为研究对象,考察不同粒径沉积物中铵态氮(NH3-N)和硝态氮(NO3--N)干期分布特征,分析其随干期长度的变化关系,并探讨沉积物理化性质及微生物菌群结构对NH3-N和NO3--N干期分布的影响.结果表明:粒径≤0.075mm的沉积物中NH3-N占比最高(交通区30.8%,商业区36.7%);交通区粒径≤0.075mm的沉积物中NO3--N占比最高(33.0%),而商业区粒径0.075~0.15mm沉积物中NO3--N占比最高(34.4%);干期长度与交通区0.075~0.15mm粒径段的沉积物中NO3--N含量及商业区粒径≥0.3mm的沉积物中NH3-N含量之间的相关性均最显著;雨水管道沉积物中NH3-N和NO3--N的干期分布与O-H和N-H等官能团、表面极性和亲水性、微观形貌等有一定关联;交通区雨水管道沉积物中Gemmobacter等反硝化优势菌种(相对丰度总和为20.15%)对NO3--N干期分布影响更显著.  相似文献   
张超  刘玲花 《中国环境科学》2020,40(6):2435-2444
以铁基质生物载体为核心,将物理、生物和化学方法结合,对化粪池进行功能强化,实现黑水的原位深度处理.探究了溶解氧(DO)和碳氮比(C/N)等因素对黑水中污染物降解的影响,并在最佳运行参数下考察了氮素在系统中的转化机制.结果表明,当C/N为7.3~8.4时,好氧生物铁基质载体池DO为2.3~2.7mg/L时,系统氨氮(NH4+-N)、总氮(TN) 、COD和总磷(TP)的平均去除率分别可达90.74%、85.81%、92.65%和95.78%;当进水C/N降至3.3~4.2时,系统NH4+-N、TN、COD和TP的平均去除率仍可维持在81.16%、76.62%、93.87%和94.75%.铁基质生物载体内电解作用显著强化了化粪池内TN的脱除、COD的氧化和TP的固定.氮素转化机制分析表明,内电解与反硝化菌的耦合强化了反硝化作用,降低了反硝化过程对有机碳源的需求,强化了低C/N条件下TN、TP的脱除.  相似文献   
水体及沉积物氮磷水平对附植藻类的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为了探讨湖泊富营养化过程中沉积物及水体氮、磷浓度对附植藻类的影响,通过室内模拟实验,研究了水体及沉积物氮、磷升高对苦草(Vallisnerianatans(Lour.) Hara)上附植藻类生长、群落组成及其体内氮、磷含量的影响.结果表明,在实验条件下,随着水中氮、磷含量升高,附植藻类生物量及附植藻类氮、磷含量均呈极显著增加(p0.01).随着水体可获得的氮、磷浓度升高,附植藻类的相对丰度有所变化,舟形藻(Navicula)、小球藻(Chlorella)及微囊藻(Microcystis)相对丰度随着氮、磷水平的升高而下降,直链藻(Melosira)则相反,但舟形藻、直链藻、微囊藻、小环藻(Cyclotella)和小球藻均为群落的优势属种.沉积物氮、磷含量升高对附植藻类生物量、优势种丰度及群落氮、磷含量影响较小,均未达到显著水平(p0.05).在实验条件下,沉积物氮、磷含量对附植藻类影响不大,而水体氮、磷浓度升高显著地促进了附植藻类生长.研究结果也为解释富营养化湖泊沉水植物衰退及消亡提供了一定的科学依据.  相似文献   
牛粪-化肥配施对水稻田氮磷迁移转化的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在控制外源N输入量相同的前提下,通过田间小区实验,探讨有机肥与化肥不同施用量(牛粪施用量:5,10,20t/hm2)对稻田田间土-水界面氮磷迁移转化特征的影响.结果表明:控制稻田水中NH4+-N、NO3--N、TN和TP输出的最佳时期分别为施肥后的第5,30,7,20d,且TN和TP浓度随时间变化符合单指数衰减方程(0.7444≤R2≤0.9724;1.1×10-6F≤0.0055).采用牛粪部分代替化肥的施肥方式,在一定范围内能降低稻田退水中TN、TP输出负荷(41.8%、36.0%、64.3%;20.3%、39.1%、48.9%),还可以降低稻田水中N/P,降低水体富营养化风险.同时,牛粪的施用可提高土壤中脲酶和磷酸酶的含量,促进氮磷向植物可吸收形态转化.综合经济成本和生态效益核算,采用10t有机肥代替无机肥的处理是相对经济环保的施肥方法,该施肥方式下,氮磷年输出负荷分别为17.70,1.26kg/hm2.  相似文献   
As the health impact of air pollutants existing in ambient addresses much attention in recent years, forecasting of airpollutant parameters becomes an important and popular topic inenvironmental science. Airborne pollution is a serious, and willbe a major problem in Hong Kong within the next few years. InHong Kong, Respirable Suspended Particulate (RSP) and NitrogenOxides NOx and NO2 are major air pollutants due to thedominant diesel fuel usage by public transportation and heavyvehicles. Hence, the investigation and prediction of the influence and the tendency of these pollutants are ofsignificance to public and the city image. The multi-layerperceptron (MLP) neural network is regarded as a reliable andcost-effective method to achieve such tasks. The works presentedhere involve developing an improved neural network model, whichcombines the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and theradial basis function (RBF) network, and forecasting thepollutant levels and tendencies based in the recorded data. Inthe study, the PCA is firstly used to reduce and orthogonalizethe original input variables (data), these treated variables arethen used as new input vectors in RBF neural network modelestablished for forecasting the pollutant tendencies. Comparingwith the general neural network models, the proposed modelpossesses simpler network architecture, faster training speed,and more satisfactory predicting performance. This improvedmodel is evaluated by using hourly time series of RSP, NOx and NO2 concentrations collected at Mong Kok Roadside Gaseous Monitory Station in Hong Kong during the year 2000. By comparing the predicted RSP, NOx and NO2 concentrationswith the actual data of these pollutants recorded at the monitorystation, the effectiveness of the proposed model has been proven.Therefore, in authors' opinion, the model presented in the paper is a potential tool in forecasting air quality parameters and hasadvantages over the traditional neural network methods.  相似文献   
The article describes the use of Scots pine bark to identifynitrogen sources in eastern Germany, as well as background areas in Russia and Bulgaria, by using natural isotope ratios of total nitrogen (Nt) and individual N compoundssuch as ammonium (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -)and amid nitrogen (amide-N). The samples collected were analysed using an elemental analyser in connection with a gas isotope mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). Natural 15N abundances in pine bark from impact areas suggest that the ammonium accumulated on the surface of the bark is releasedfrom livestock management. Bark of Scots pines growing near agricultural land had highly depleted 15Nt values (between –8 and –12), while bark from background areas (unpolluted areas) displayed slightly negative 15Nt values (mean 15Nt = –3.8). It is assumed that part of the N adsorbed on the bark surface is mainly derived from ammonia(mean 15Nt = –40.3) escaping from livestock housing and during the application of manure. This assumption is confirmed by experiments under controlled conditions in which manure samples were spread on soil. In addition, temporal and spatial variations of 15Nt abundances in pine bark from various locations in eastern Germany as wellas pine stands in Nature Park Dübener Heath are discussed.  相似文献   
对色泽较深,含杂质量较高的废水加硅油I以抑制测定中蒸馏产生的泡沫.结果表明,在250ml水样中加硅油IO.10~1.25ml,即可收到理想效果.硅油I性质稳定,不随水蒸汽蒸出,对测定无干扰.  相似文献   
Nitrogen leaching is a world-wide concern for the quality of ground- and surfacewater. Measures to abate this is still limited by a lack of understanding mechanisms behind all factors describing the leaching process, time lags between countermeasures and improvement in waterquality and spatial distribution of nitrogen leaching. The purpose of this study was to do an initial test of the SOILNDB model system which is built on the existing mechanistic SOIL and SOILN models and an automatic parameterization procedure for use of simplified input data. The test was done by simulating nitrogen leaching from each of the 150 fields in a small catchment during a three-year study period. The simulated mean root-zone nitrogen leaching rate from all the fields in the catchment was compared to measurements of nitrogen flow in the stream draining the catchment and showed good agreement in between-year dynamics.  相似文献   
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