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1.
掌握水生生物的空间分布特征及其关键影响因子是科学制定生物多样性保护策略的基础.于2016年秋季对滦河53个样点开展了大型底栖动物和环境因子的现场调查,分析了大型底栖动物群落结构与空间分布特征,并识别出影响大型底栖动物物种空间分布的关键环境因子.结果表明:①滦河(河北省)共采集并鉴定出大型底栖动物206种,隶属于8纲22目70科144属,以纹石蚕(Hydropsyche sp.)和东方蜉蝣(Ephemera orientalis)为优势种.②根据滦河大型底栖动物群落结构相似性,53个样点在空间上被分为3组.第1组分布在滦河干流的中下游及支流下游,无指示物种;第2组分布在支流上游,指示种为纹石蚕、朝大蚊(Antocha sp.)和中华小长臂虾(Palaemonetes sinensis);第3组分布在滦河干流中上游,指示种为东方蜉蝣和中华齿米虾(Neocaridina denticulate sinensis).③第3组的分类单元数显著高于第1组和第2组;第1组的多样性指数显著高于第2组;第1组的均匀度指数显著高于其他2组.单因素方差分析(one-way ANOVA)发现,pH、TN、底质、河道变化、水质状况和河岸土地利用类型等环境因子在第2组与第3组之间差异显著,第2组明显高于第3组.典范对应分析(CCA)表明,栖境复杂性、河水水量状况和河岸土地利用类型是影响滦河大型底栖动物空间分布的关键环境因子.研究显示,降低河岸带干扰强度、恢复河道生境多样性是未来滦河大型底栖动物多样性保护恢复的重要管理措施.   相似文献   
2.
The Chesapeake Bay benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) was developed to assess benthic community health and environmental quality in Chesapeake Bay. The B-IBI provides Chesapeake Bay monitoring programs with a uniform tool with which to characterize bay-wide benthic community condition and assess the health of the Bay. A probability-based design permits unbiased annual estimates of areal degradation within the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries with quantifiable precision. However, of greatest interest to managers is the identification of problem areas most in need of restoration. Here we apply the B-IBI to benthic data collected in the Bay since 1994 to assess benthic community degradation by Chesapeake Bay Program segment and water depth. We used a new B-IBI classification system that improves the reliability of the estimates of degradation. Estimates were produced for 67 Chesapeake Bay Program segments. Greatest degradation was found in areas that are known to experience hypoxia or show toxic contamination, such as the mesohaline portion of the Potomac River, the Patapsco River, and the Maryland mainstem. Logistic regression models revealed increased probability of degraded benthos with depth for the lower Potomac River, Patapsco River, Nanticoke River, lower York River, and the Maryland mainstem. Our assessment of degradation by segment and water depth provided greater resolution of relative condition than previously available, and helped define the extent of degradation in Chesapeake Bay.  相似文献   
3.
Portions of the Boulder River watershed contain elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in water, sediment, and biota. We measured concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in biofilm and macroinvertebrates, and assessed macroinvertebrate assemblage and aquatic habitat with the objective of monitoring planned remediation efforts. Concentrations of metals were generally higher in downstream sites compared with upstream or reference sites, and two sites contained metal concentrations in macroinvertebrates greater than values reported to reduce health and survival of resident trout. Macroinvertebrate assemblage was correlated with metal concentrations in biofilm and macroinvertebrates. However, macroinvertebrate metrics were significantly correlated with a greater number of biofilm metals (8) than metals in invertebrates (4). Lead concentrations in biofilm appeared to have the most significant impact on macroinvertebrate assemblage. Metal concentrations in macroinvertebrates were directly proportional to concentrations in biofilm, indicating biofilm as a potential surrogate for monitoring metal impacts in aquatic systems.  相似文献   
4.
In this article a concept is described in order to predict and map the occurrence of benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. The approach consists of two work steps: (1) geostatistical analysis of abiotic measurement data and (2) calculation of benthic provinces by means of Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and GIS-techniques. From bottom water measurements on salinity, temperature, silicate and nutrients as well as from punctual data on grain size ranges (0–20, 20–63, 63–2,000 μ) raster maps were calculated by use of geostatistical methods. At first the autocorrelation structure was examined and modelled with help of variogram analysis. The resulting variogram models were then used to calculate raster maps by applying ordinary kriging procedures. After intersecting these raster maps with punctual data on eight benthic communities a decision tree was derived to predict the occurrence of these communities within the study area. Since such a CART tree corresponds to a hierarchically ordered set of decision rules it was applied to the geostatistically estimated raster data to predict benthic habitats within and near the EEZ.  相似文献   
5.
一种淡水大型底栖无脊椎动物采样器研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
研制出一种长方体的十字筐采样器,在采样器内分别填装石、砂、底泥和水草4种基质,利用大型底栖无脊椎动物对生境的选择性进行样本被动采集。基质越多,采样器采集的生物种类越多,生物量也更丰富。用新研制的十字筐采样器和传统的篮式采样器对松花江流域7个采样点进行大型底栖无脊椎动物对比采样,结果显示:十字筐采样器是一种优良的采样器,适合在松花江流域乃至全国推广应用。  相似文献   
6.
指示生物监测及水生态预警是利用水环境中指示物种的数量、群落结构指标和个体生理指标等描述水生态系统的健康状态,其相比于常规理化监测和预警更直接地反映水体的生态质量。本研究在松花江干流2012—2015年大型底栖无脊椎动物监测结果的基础上,结合各监测点生态质量管理目标,通过分析物种的种类、出现的频次、物种污染敏感性(耐污值),尝试提出了松花江干流监控断面以底栖动物为指示生物的水生态预警模式,研究思路和结果对流域水环境风险管理指标的拓展有积极作用。  相似文献   
7.
Chung PP  Hyne RV  Mann RM  Ballard JW 《Chemosphere》2011,82(7):1050-1055
Anthropogenic effects such as contamination affect the genetic structure of populations. This study examined the temporal and geographical patterns of genetic diversity among populations of the benthic crustacean amphipod Melita plumulosa in the Parramatta River (Sydney, Australia), following an industrial chemical spill. The spill of an acrylate/methacrylate co-polymer in naphtha solvent occurred in July 2006. M. plumulosa were sampled temporally between December 2006 and November 2009 and spatially in November 2009. Genetic variation was examined at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I locus. Notably, nucleotide diversity was low and Tajima’s D was significantly negative amongst amphipods collected immediately downstream from the spill for 10 months. We hypothesize that the spill had a significant localized effect on the genetic diversity of M. plumulosa. Alternate explanations include an alternate and unknown toxicant or a localized sampling bias. Future proposed studies will dissect these alternatives.  相似文献   
8.
Overwintering benthic algae not only directly impact drinking water safety, but also affect the algae recruitment in warm spring seasons. Thus, understanding the characteristics of overwintering benthic algae can provide scientific references for formulating preventative strategies of reasonable water resource. However, they have received less attention. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of benthic algae and their harmful secondary metabolites were studied from autumn to summer in Qing...  相似文献   
9.
10.
Agricultural runoff affects many streams in North Carolina. However, there is is little information about either its effect on stream biota or any potential mitigation by erosion control practices. In this study, benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in three different geographic areas of North Carolina, comparing control watersheds with well-managed and poorly managed watersheds. Agricultural streams were characterized by lower taxa richness (especially for intolerant groups) and low stability. These effects were most evident at the poorly managed sites. Sedimentation was the apparent major problem, but some changes at agricultural sites implied water quality problems. The groups most intolerant of agricultural runoff were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Tolerant species were usually filter-feeders or algal grazers, suggesting a modification of the food web by addition of particulate organic matter and nutrients. This study clearly indicates that agricultural runoff can severely impact stream biota. However, this impact can be greatly mitigated by currently recommended erosion control practices.  相似文献   
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