首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   1224篇
  免费   85篇
  国内免费   359篇
安全科学   132篇
废物处理   42篇
环保管理   113篇
综合类   820篇
基础理论   213篇
环境理论   1篇
污染及防治   164篇
评价与监测   132篇
社会与环境   42篇
灾害及防治   9篇
  2024年   5篇
  2023年   31篇
  2022年   56篇
  2021年   69篇
  2020年   76篇
  2019年   52篇
  2018年   56篇
  2017年   51篇
  2016年   54篇
  2015年   71篇
  2014年   71篇
  2013年   98篇
  2012年   74篇
  2011年   76篇
  2010年   49篇
  2009年   82篇
  2008年   88篇
  2007年   77篇
  2006年   73篇
  2005年   59篇
  2004年   48篇
  2003年   53篇
  2002年   38篇
  2001年   32篇
  2000年   48篇
  1999年   31篇
  1998年   32篇
  1997年   27篇
  1996年   29篇
  1995年   16篇
  1994年   12篇
  1993年   12篇
  1992年   6篇
  1991年   3篇
  1990年   4篇
  1989年   1篇
  1987年   1篇
  1986年   1篇
  1985年   1篇
  1983年   1篇
  1982年   1篇
  1980年   1篇
  1977年   1篇
  1968年   1篇
排序方式: 共有1668条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
Aspects of the trophic attributes of the mudskipper,Periophthalmus barbarus occurring in the mangrove swamps of ImoRiver estuary, Nigeria, were investigated during a 12-month period(April, 1992-March, 1993). Feeding intensity increased with size;it was higher in the dry season (November-April) than in the wetseason (May-October); monthly changes in the indices of feedingintensity were significantly correlated. Major food objectscomprised detritus and benthic algae; crustaceans, insects,macrophyte matter and sand grains were minor food objects whilefish, molluscs, Chilopoda, nematodes and fungi were unconsciouslydevoured objects. Diet varied seasonally; algae and sesarmid crabswere generally more in the dry season than during the rains whereasFPOM and fish increased in the wet over dry season. The mudskipperdisplay a high degree of euryphagy and can be considered as ageneralist and an omnivore. The lower trophic status of P. barbarusqualifies it as a good aquaculture candidate. Food richness washigher in big-sized class (BSC) than small-sized class (SSC).Size-based and seasonal variations were not apparent in foodrichness. Diet breadth was higher in the BSC than the SSC; therewas dry season increase in diet breadth.  相似文献   
2.
The typical parameters of acid precipitation are evaluated in the forest of Vallombrosa (Tuscan Appennines) during the dry period 1988-89. Individual rain events (dry and wet deposition) were sampled in a clearing of the forest and below the canopy of an evergreen tree as well as a deciduous broadleaf tree.

In atmospheric precipitation the pH values usually vary around 4.4, with neutralization in the hot season due to calcareous material from distant sources. Relatively large concentrations of Pb and Cd are found in rain, but only in a small amount in canopy leachate. Aluminium, manganese and iron are more significantly washed off than Pb and Cd.  相似文献   
3.
利用吸湿增长光散射测量系统、黑碳仪和气相色谱质谱联用仪等仪器,于2019年7月15日~8月4日在北京地区开展了为期21d的大气气溶胶观测实验.观测期间北京市区于7月27日出现短暂的轻度污染,并在7月29日出现强降水天气.结果显示:北京市区夏季大气污染变化剧烈且短暂,大气气溶胶散射吸湿增长因子f(RH)呈现平滑连续的特点,并且降水会对f(RH)造成显著影响.7月27日PM2.5的平均质量浓度为(92.54±47.05)μg/m3;,表现出较为剧烈的污染变化.7月28~30日平均散射吸湿增长因子f(80%±1%)分别为(1.50±0.35),(1.43±0.36)和(1.48±0.25),反映了降水对于大气气溶胶的湿清除作用.最后利用实验数据估算粒径吸湿增长因子gf(RH),并建模研究f(RH)和gf(RH)的关系,模型精度R2最高可达0.698.  相似文献   
4.
Chemical oxidation was applied to an artificially contaminated soil with naphthalene (NAP). Evaluation of NAP distribution and mass reduction in soil, water and air phases was carried out through mass balance. Evaluation of NAP distribution and mass reduction in soil, water and air phases was carried out through mass balance. The importance of the air phase analysis was emphasized by demonstrating how NAP behaves in a sealed system over a 4 hr reaction period. Design of Experiments method was applied to the following variables: sodium persulfate concentration [SP], ferrous sulfate concentration [FeSO4], and pH. The system operated with a prefixed solid to liquid ratio of 1:2. The following conditions resulted in optimum NAP removal [SP] = 18.37 g/L, [FeSO4] = 4.25 g/L and pH = 3.00. At the end of the 4 hr reaction, 62% of NAP was degraded. In the soil phase, the chemical oxidation reduced the NAP concentration thus achieving levels which comply with Brazilian and USA environmental legislations. Besides the NAP partitioning view, the monitoring of each phase allowed the variabilities assessment over the process, refining the knowledge of mass reduction. Based on NAP distribution in the system, this study demonstrates the importance of evaluating the presence of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds in the air phase during remediation, so that there is greater control of the system as to the distribution and presence of the contaminant in the environment. The results highlight the importance of treating the contaminant in all its phases at the contaminated site.  相似文献   
5.
In order to understand the compositions characteristics of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) fraction in road dust (RD2.5) of oasis cities on the edge of Tarim Basin, 30 road dust (RD) samples were collected in Kashi, Cele, and Yutian in the spring, 2018, and RD2.5 was collected using the resuspension approach. Eight water-soluble ions, 39 trace elements and 8 fractions of carbon-containing species in PM2.5 were analyzed. Ca2+ and Ca were the most abundant ions and elements in RD2.5 (7.1% and 9.5%). Cl- in RD2.5 was affected not only by attributed to saline-alkali soils in oasis cities of the Tarim Basin and dust from Taklimakan Desert but also by human activities. Moreover, the organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) ratio indicated that carbon components in RD2.5 in Cele town mainly come from fossil fuel combustion, while those in Yutian and Kashi mainly come from biomass combustion. It is noteworthy that high Ca in RD2.5 was seriously affected by anthropogenic emissions, and high Na and K contents in RD2.5 could be derived from soil and desert dust. It was estimated that Cd, Tl, Sn and Cr were emitted from anthropogenic emissions using the enrichment factor. The coefficients of divergence (COD) result indicated that the influence of local emission on road dust emission is greater than that of long-distance transmission. This study is the first time to comprehensively analyze the chemical characteristics of road dust in oasis cities, and the results provides the sources of road dust at the margin of Tarim Basin.  相似文献   
6.
In order to study the concentrations of major components,characteristics and comparison in hazy and non-hazy days of PM_(10) in Beijing,aerosol samples were collected at urban site in Beijing from December 29,2014 to January 22,2015.Heavy metals like Zn,Pb,Mn,Cu,As,V,Cr and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effects on human being;nine water-soluble inorganic ions(SO_4~(2-),NO_3~-,NH_4~+,Na~+,K~+,Cl~-,Ca~(2+) and Mg~(2+)) and carbon fractions(OC and EC) were also analyzed.The concentrations of heavy metals were 1.03–1.98 times higher in hazy days than those in non-hazy days,mainly due to biomass burning and coal burning.The trends in total heavy metals concentrations were basically consistent with the trends in PM concentrations except for two obvious periods(12.29–12.30;1.14–1.15);but when air masses accumulated locally or around Beijing,trends in PM concentrations and heavy metals were opposite.The proportion for NO_3~-/SO_4~(2-) indicated that mobile sources such as automobiles were important reasons for haze in Beijing.Correlation between OC and EC during non-hazy days was strong(R~2= 0.95) but it was low(R~2= 0.67) during hazy days,and large variations for OC/EC values occurred in hazy days.The calculated mass concentration of SOC is 2.58 μg/m~3,which only accounted for 10.1% of the OC concentration.When air masses from the far north-west,they decreased PM concentration in Beijing and they were relatively clean;however,those from the near east,south-east and south of the mainland increased PM concentration and they were dirty.  相似文献   
7.
长江生物多样性在人为影响下面临严重威胁,物种监测是生物多样性保护的基础,为完善长江水生态监测体系,实现高效无损伤的物种监测,在长江中下游干流3个江段(新滩、安庆和芜湖)采集水样,建立长江水样环境DNA宏条形码物种检测体系并评估其有效性.结果表明:①长江中下游环境DNA宏条形码检测到32个物种,包括20种鱼类、1种水生哺乳动物(长江江豚)和11种陆生动物,其中鱼类物种包括鲤形目、鲇形目、鲈形目和鲱形目,其种数占鱼类总种数的比例分别为60%、25%、10%和5%.②长江中下游渔获物中资源量居首位的鲤形目在环境DNA调查中序列数最多,占鱼类总序列的96.2%,其次为鲱形目(占比为3.5%),鲇形目和鲈形目占比较低,分别为0.2%和0.1%,4个类目序列相对丰度与渔获物种资源量组成差异较大.③环境DNA调查次数约占传统渔获物调查次数的几十至几百分之一,采样时间不足努力量最少的渔获物调查的1%,检测到的鱼类种数为传统调查总数的31%~49%.④安庆采样点位于长江中下游长江江豚密度最高的江段,其环境DNA检出率和序列相对丰度在3个采样点中均最高.研究显示:长江水样环境DNA包含水陆复合生态系统的生物多样性信息,利用水样环境DNA宏条形码可检测不同类群的水生和陆生物种;对于鱼类物种检测,环境DNA宏条形码比传统调查方法效率更高,可对传统调查结果进行补充;环境DNA宏条形码生物多样性检测主要受分子标记体系和核酸序列数据库限制,获取全面的物种多样性和资源量信息需要对检测分析方法进行进一步完善.   相似文献   
8.
Composting can be a source of N2O andCH4 production. In this investigation, differentcompost heaps of organic household waste weremonitored with the focus on potential formation ofCH4 and N2O in the heaps and emission ofthese gases from the heaps. The studied compost heapshad different compost ages, turning intervals andcompost sizes. The analysed compost gases containedbetween 1–3421 L of N2O-N L-1 and 0–470 mL of CH4 L-1. The emission rates ofN2O and CH4 from the compost heaps werebetween 1–1464 mg N2O m-2 day-1 and0–119 000 mg CH4 m-2 day-1. These verylarge differences in compost gas composition andemission indicate the importance of compostmanagement. The results also give an understanding ofwhere in the composting process an increasing emissionof N2O and CH4 can occur.  相似文献   
9.
The article describes the use of Scots pine bark to identifynitrogen sources in eastern Germany, as well as background areas in Russia and Bulgaria, by using natural isotope ratios of total nitrogen (Nt) and individual N compoundssuch as ammonium (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -)and amid nitrogen (amide-N). The samples collected were analysed using an elemental analyser in connection with a gas isotope mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). Natural 15N abundances in pine bark from impact areas suggest that the ammonium accumulated on the surface of the bark is releasedfrom livestock management. Bark of Scots pines growing near agricultural land had highly depleted 15Nt values (between –8 and –12), while bark from background areas (unpolluted areas) displayed slightly negative 15Nt values (mean 15Nt = –3.8). It is assumed that part of the N adsorbed on the bark surface is mainly derived from ammonia(mean 15Nt = –40.3) escaping from livestock housing and during the application of manure. This assumption is confirmed by experiments under controlled conditions in which manure samples were spread on soil. In addition, temporal and spatial variations of 15Nt abundances in pine bark from various locations in eastern Germany as wellas pine stands in Nature Park Dübener Heath are discussed.  相似文献   
10.
为了开展对我国沙暴传输规律的研究,了解我国北方干旱地区沙尘矿物特征有重要意义。本文对我国新疆塔克拉玛干沙漠区,内蒙腾格里沙漠区,贺兰山及银川等处的沙尘样品用X射线粉末衍射法进行矿物分析鉴定,并用原子吸收法作了特征元素的分析对比,根据矿物的X射线粉末衍射结果,结合元素分析,对沙漠源区及其以东地区沙尘矿物特征作了比较,判析了两个源区的矿物组成,讨论了它们的传输过程。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号