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1.
Research suggests that encouraging motivated residents to reach out to others in their social network is an effective strategy for increasing the scale and speed of conservation action adoption. However, little is known about how to effectively encourage large numbers of residents to reach out to others about conservation causes. We examined the influence of normative and efficacy-based messaging at motivating residents to engage in and to encourage others to participate in native plant gardening in their community. To do so, we conducted a field experiment with messages on mailings and tracked native plant vouchers used. Efficacy messages tended to be more effective than normative messages at increasing residents’ willingness to reach out to others to encourage conservation action, as indicated by a several percentage point increase in native plant voucher use by residents’ friends and neighbors. Messages sometimes had different impacts on residents based on past behaviors and perceptions related to native plant gardening. Among these subgroups, efficacy and combined efficacy and norm messages most effectively encouraged individual and collective actions, as indicated by increased voucher usage. Our findings suggest that interventions that build residents’ efficacy for engaging in a conservation behavior and for reaching out to others may be a promising path forward for outreach. However, given our results were significant at a false discovery rate cutoff of 0.25 but not 0.05, more experimental trials are needed to determine the robustness of these trends.  相似文献   
2.
Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has been proposed to promote sustainable trade, but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behavior remain neglected but essential steps in the design and evaluation of such operations. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands, where turtles have been farm raised for human consumption for almost 50 years, as a case study to explore consumer preferences toward wild‐sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications. Combining methods innovatively (including indirect questioning and choice experiments), we conducted a nationwide trade assessment through in‐person interviews from September to December 2014. Households were randomly selected using disproportionate stratified sampling, and responses were weighted based on district population size. We approached 597 individuals, of which 37 (6.2%) refused to participate. Although 30% of households had consumed turtle in the previous 12 months, the purchase and consumption of wild products was rare (e.g., 64–742 resident households consumed wild turtle meat [i.e., 0.3–3.5% of households] but represented a large threat to wild turtles in the area due to their reduced populations). Differences among groups of consumers were marked, as identified through choice experiments, and price and source of product played important roles in their decisions. Despite the long‐term practice of farming turtles, 13.5% of consumers showed a strong preference for wild products, which demonstrates the limitations of wildlife farming as a single tool for sustainable wildlife trade. By using a combination of indirect questioning, choice experiments, and sales data to investigate demand for wildlife products, we obtained insights about consumer behavior that can be used to develop conservation‐demand‐focused initiatives. Lack of data from long‐term social–ecological assessments hinders the evaluation of and learning from wildlife farming. This information is key to understanding under which conditions different interventions (e.g., bans, wildlife farming, social marketing) are likely to succeed.  相似文献   
3.
Considerable empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing‐gear restrictions on nonselective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, few researchers have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. We tested for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass at the community and family level. We conducted 1,396 underwater surveys at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions that represented 5 realms. We compared total biomass across local fish assemblages and among 20 families of reef fishes inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no‐take, hook‐and‐line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, and sites open to all fishing gears. We included a further category representing remote sites, where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, (i.e., no‐take zones) most benefited community‐ and family‐level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. Although biomass responses to fishery closures were highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae and Lutjanidae) responded positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line were not permitted). Remoteness also positively affected the response of community‐level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass and indicate important interactions among fishing‐gear types that affect biomass of a diverse set of reef fish families.  相似文献   
4.
湘南地区杂柑天草高接换冠关键技术   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
天草杂柑的高接换冠的关键技术主要是:注意选择母树并适当修剪;合理采穗和保湿;科学嫁接;嫁接后精心管理.  相似文献   
5.
本文介绍了科技论文的写作步骤和基本格式,指出科技论文写作中应注意的事项。  相似文献   
6.
博斯腾湖富营养化状态水平调查   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
通过水质特征和生物学特征的一个水文年规范化实地调查,采用Scirgesew参数分类标准和相关加权综合营养状态指数,对博斯腾湖水体富营养化状态水平进行了调查和评价。  相似文献   
7.
本文研究了混凝沉淀工艺处理矿井水中天然总α放射性核素铀、镭的技术和条件,通过选择适当的混凝剂、加药量、pH值等条件可将铀的去除率提高到80%左右,使用铀专用混凝剂MHU则可使铀的去除率达到87%。对于镭的去除不能单纯依靠铀混凝剂MHU,尚需添加镭的吸附助剂MHR,则可使镭的去除率提高到80%以上。该工艺的最大优点在于充分利用了煤矿现存的大量矿井水悬浮物处理设施,大大节省了新建工程的投资费用,而且新增加的药剂费用不足0.1元/t水,可在煤矿推广应用。  相似文献   
8.
Tributyltin(TBT), an organometal used as an antifouling biocide, has been reported to induce masculinization of fish. Benzo [a]pyrene (BaP), a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been reported that its microsomal metabolites can produce an estrogenic response when tested in vitro. This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo influence of TBT, BaP and their mixture on sex hormone levels in serum of Sebastiscus marmoratus, which were given 2 separate intraperitoneally (ip) injections(a single injection every 7 d) of TBT(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg), BaP(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg), or both in combination(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg); control fish received olive oil vehicle only. Six days after the 2nd injection, serum samples were collected and analyzed for sex hormone levels and alkali labile protein phosphorus (ALPP), which is related to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin. The pollutants at all doses significantly reduced serum testosterone, estradiol and ALPP content after 2 injections compared with the corresponding controls. The reduction of the estradiol levels should be response for the decrease of the vitellogenin levels. The results in the present study suggested that aromatase seems not the major target acted by TBT and BaP in fish. This study demonstrated that TBT or BaP exposure both inhibit the reproductive potential in female Sebastiscus marmoratus. Combined effect of TBT and BaP on the serum testosterone, estradiol and ALPP was not antagonism from the anticipation.  相似文献   
9.
针对新建铁路专用线沿线的环境特征,提出了铁路专用线声环境影响评价的程序、内容和方法。在目前缺乏新建铁路噪声预测模式的情况下,提出了应对铁路边界噪声、不同距离处的铁路噪声、敏感点噪声、鸣笛噪声进行预测,并以某铁路专用线声环境影响评价为例,对上述四种噪声进行了预测,通过预测得到铁路两侧的声环境状况,并以此为依据提出了铁路噪声的防治对策,以保证铁路专用线沿线声环境质量。  相似文献   
10.
城市化与国民经济发展之关系的理论分析   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
城市化水平与人均国民生产总值的统计关系在80年代被建立,从理论上分析这个统计关系能加深对城市与经济发展之关系的理解。从经济学的要素替代和需求收入弹性原理概括了城市化的发展机制,认为任何一个国家或地区的城市化都遵从它。并构造了全国人均国民生产总值与城市人均国民生产总值、乡村人均国民生产总值、城市化水平的关系,它是普适的。如果假设城市、乡村人均国民生产总值的增长分别引起的全国人均国民生产总值的增长总是占据了一个不变的份额,同时,城市人均国民生产总值与乡村人均国民生产总值之差与全国人均国民生产总值成正比,那么,就可以据此演绎出这个统计关系。第二个前提暗示了一个城乡发展差距的倒“U”字型过程  相似文献   
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