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The rapidly changing climate is posing growing threats for all species, but particularly for those already considered threatened. We reviewed 100 recovery plans for Australian terrestrial threatened species (50 fauna and 50 flora plans) written from 1997 to 2017. We recorded the number of plans that acknowledged climate change as a threat and of these how many proposed specific actions to ameliorate the threat. We classified these actions along a continuum from passive or incremental to active or interventionist. Overall, just under 60% of the sampled recovery plans listed climate change as a current or potential threat to the threatened taxa, and the likelihood of this acknowledgment increased over time. A far smaller proportion of the plans, however, identified specific actions associated with ameliorating climate risk (22%) and even fewer (9%) recommended any interventionist action in response to a climate-change-associated threat. Our results point to a disconnect between the knowledge generated on climate-change-related risk and potential adaptation strategies and the extent to which this knowledge has been incorporated into an important instrument of conservation action.  相似文献   
We report a case of in utero paracentesis of ascites in a fetus with meconium peritonitis due to volvulus at 34 weeks which resulted in the correction of an abnormal fetal heart rate pattern and enabled vaginal delivery by preventing abdominal dystocia. The intrauterine intervention also helped to establish the diagnosis and potentially reduced the respiratory compromise after birth. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
人工智能技术对长江流域水污染治理的思考   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
随着经济的快速发展和城市化进程的不断加速,促使水污染严重的长江流域需从污染物去除过程的建模与优化、污水处理过程的优化控制、水污染监测系统的构建开展水污染治理研究.传统的水污染处理技术存在污染物去除效率预测精度较低、污水优化控制成本较高、水污染监测滞后效应严重的问题.人工智能技术能够有效克服上述问题,因此通过梳理国内外学者利用人工智能技术在污水污染物去除过程的建模与优化、污水处理过程的优化控制及水污染监测系统的构建等方面的研究成果,为全面加强长江流域水污染治理能力提供科学可靠的技术指导.结果表明:①利用人工神经网络技术(径向基神经网络、多层前馈网络-人工神经网络、多层感知器神经网络)对污水污染物去除过程进行建模与优化,为精确预测长江流域重金属(Cr、Cu)、营养盐(TN、TP)、持久性有机污染物〔PBDEs(多溴二苯醚)、HCH(六氯环己烷)〕的去除率提供重要参考价值.②采用污水处理的自动控制技术与人工智能技术(递归神经网络、支持向量机、模糊神经网络等)构建污水智能控制系统,为长江流域实现高效节能的污水优化控制提供重要的技术指导.③利用在线监测仪器和人工智能技术(小波神经网络、多元线性回归-人工神经网络、叠层去噪自动编码器等)建立水污染智能监测系统,为解决长江流域水污染监测响应滞后问题提供有力的技术支持.因此,人工智能技术对长江流域提高污水污染物去除率,降低污水优化控制成本,提升水污染监测时效性具有重要的推广价值.   相似文献   
针对海洋平台全浸区的腐蚀情况,着重介绍了阴极保护及其原理、种类及特点,监测系统的组成及设计,探讨阴极保护及监测系统对海洋平台水下防腐的应用意义。  相似文献   
以海洋环境中一个非常重要的局部腐蚀形式——低水位加速腐蚀(ALWC)为对象,自其检测、发生原因、防护三个方面就国内外的文献报告进行综述分析。在检测方面,首先介绍了常用的宏观观察这一被动形式,并突出其特征,然后介绍了利用海水中可溶性无机氮含量作为ALWC发生概率预测这一主动形式,分析其优势与不足。在发生原因方面,在对将ALWC认定为一种典型的微生物腐蚀(MIC)形式的认知过程进行介绍之后,重点分析了微生物对ALWC作用机制不清晰的原因,并建议在后续研究中突出动态演变过程,结合高通量测序等分子生物学技术,确定在不同的阶段影响ALWC的关键微生物,且进一步在大气-海水体系下研究典型菌株及其协同作用的影响,提出微生物对ALWC的作用机制。在防护方面,根据新建和已建钢结构设施分别对传统和针对ALWC所具有的MIC与局部腐蚀特性的新型高效防护方法进行了介绍,并分析了防护方法的优缺点。  相似文献   
A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.  相似文献   
对环境监测中的数据、统计、有效数字、修约,以及计量单位、结果表达、原始数据的记录等既平常又十分重要易被忽略的重要问题作了概述,这些问题的解决才能保证监测结果的准确性和可靠性.  相似文献   
More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a pilot project was initiated to develop a user-driven, end-to-end (measurements to applications) observing system. A key strategy of the project is to coordinate existing state, federal and academic programs at an unprecedented level of collaboration and partnership. Resource managers charged with protection of public health and aquatic resources require immediate notice of algal events and a forecast of when, where and what adverse effects will likely occur. Further, managers require integrated analyses and interpretations, rather than raw data, to make effective decisions. Consequently, a functional observing system must collect and transform diverse measurements into usable forecasts. Data needed to support development of forecasts will include such properties as sea surface temperature, winds, currents and waves; precipitation and freshwater flows with related discharges of sediment and nutrients; salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll concentrations (in vivo fluorescence); and remotely-sensed spatial images of sea surface chlorophyll concentrations. These data will be provided via a mixture of discrete and autonomous in situ sensing with near real-time data telemetry, and remote sensing from space (SeaWiFS), aircraft (hyperspectral imagery) or land (high-frequency radar). With calibration across these platforms, the project will ultimately provide a 4-dimensional visualization of harmful algae events in a time frame suitable to resource managers.  相似文献   
Roadside PM10 has been monitored by Partisol® at three sitesin Sunderland between August 1997 and February 1998. The sites chosen were an inner city kerbside site; a roadside site adjacentto a dual carriageway on the outskirts of Sunderland with an openaspect; and a rural site.The results indicate that there is a seasonal variation in the relationship between the sites in terms of monitored PM10.In the winter there is a poor correlation between the sites whereas in the summer significant correlations are obtained. Of the sites monitored PM10 is consistently highest at the inner city roadside site. During the summer, exceedances of theU.K. 50 g m-3 standard (DETR, 2000) are associated with conditions suitable for the build-up of photochemical pollutionhowever during the winter period exceedances are recorded duringa variety of weather conditions.At the dual carriageway site PM2.5 has also been recorded and contributions to measured PM10 are 77% in summer and68% in winter. The results illustrate a number of inconsistencies between this study utilising the Partisol® andothers reporting results where PM10 has been monitored by TEOM®.  相似文献   
The REEF Fish Survey Project is a volunteer fish monitoring program developed by the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF). REEF volunteers collect fish distribution and abundance data using a standardized visual method during regular diving and snorkeling activities. Survey data are recorded on preprinted data sheets that are returned to REEF and optically digitized. Data are housed in a publicly accessible database on REEF's Web site (http: //www.reef.org). Since the project's inception in 1993, over 40,000 surveys have been conducted in the coastal waters of North America, tropical western Atlantic, Gulf of California and Hawaii. The Fish Survey Project has been incorporated into existing monitoring programs through partnerships with government agencies, scientists, conservation organizations, and private institutions. REEF's partners benefit from the educational value and increased stewardship resulting from volunteer data collection. Applications of the data include an evaluation of fish/habitat interactions in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, the development of a multi-species trend analysis method to identify sites of management concern, assessment of the current distribution of species, status reports on fish assemblages of marine parks, and the evaluation of no-take zones in the Florida Keys. REEF's collaboration with a variety of partners, combined with the Fish Survey Project's standardized census method and database management system, has resulted in a successful citizen science monitoring program.  相似文献   
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